National Academies Press: OpenBook

Toxicity of Military Smokes and Obscurants: Volume 3 (1999)

Chapter: Appendix H: 1, 4-Diamino-2, 3-Dihydroanthraquinone

« Previous: Appendix G: Disperse Red 11
Suggested Citation:"Appendix H: 1, 4-Diamino-2, 3-Dihydroanthraquinone." National Research Council. 1999. Toxicity of Military Smokes and Obscurants: Volume 3. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9645.
×

Appendix H
1,4-Diamino-2,3-Dihydroanthraquinone

BACKGROUND

ALTERNATIVE NAMES for 1,4-diamino-2,3-dihydroanthraquinone (DDA) (after 1972) include 1,4-diamino-2,3-dihydro-9,10-anthracenedione (before 1972) and leuco-1,4-diaminoanthraquinone. DDA is a component of the old violet-dye mixture.

TOXICOKINETICS

No data are available on the toxicokinetics of DDA.

TOXICITY SUMMARY

Effects in Humans

No data are available on the effects of DDA in humans.

Effects in Animals

No data are available on the systemic toxicity of DDA in animals.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix H: 1, 4-Diamino-2, 3-Dihydroanthraquinone." National Research Council. 1999. Toxicity of Military Smokes and Obscurants: Volume 3. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9645.
×

Mutagenicity Studies

In a report by Lundy and Eaton (1994), DDA was found to produce positive results in the Ames assay. In a study by Brown and Brown (1976), as cited by Dacre (1979), DDA was reported to produce ''marginally adequate'' evidence of mutagenicity in the Ames assay.

SUBCOMMITTEE EVALUATION OF DYE TOXICITY

Experimental data are insufficient to assess the toxic effects of DDA.

REFERENCES

Brown, J.P., and R.J. Brown. 1976. Mutagenesis by 9,10-anthraquinones derivatives and related compounds in Salmonella typhimurium. Mutat. Res. 40(3):203-224.


Dacre, J.C., W.D. Burrows, C.W.R. Wade, A.F. Hegyeli, T.A. Miller, and D.R. Cogley. 1979. Problem Definition Studies on Potential Environmental Pollutants. V. Physical, Chemical, Toxicological, and Biological Properties of Seven Chemicals Used in Pyrotechnic Compositions. Technical Report No 7704. AD A090631. U.S. Army Medical Bioengineering Research and Development Laboratory, Fort Detrick, Frederick, MD.


Lundy, D., and J. Eaton. 1994. Occupational Health Hazards Posed by Inventory U.S. Army Smoke/Obscurant Munitions (Review Update). WRAIR/RT-94-0001. AD-A276-774. U.S. Army Medical Research Detachment, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix H: 1, 4-Diamino-2, 3-Dihydroanthraquinone." National Research Council. 1999. Toxicity of Military Smokes and Obscurants: Volume 3. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9645.
×
Page 88
Suggested Citation:"Appendix H: 1, 4-Diamino-2, 3-Dihydroanthraquinone." National Research Council. 1999. Toxicity of Military Smokes and Obscurants: Volume 3. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9645.
×
Page 89
Next: Appendix I: 1,4-Diaminoanthraquinone »
Toxicity of Military Smokes and Obscurants: Volume 3 Get This Book
×
Buy Paperback | $40.00 Buy Ebook | $31.99
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

A variety of smokes and obscurants have been developed and used to screen armed forces from view, signal friendly forces, and mark positions. Smokes are produced by burning or vaporizing particular products. Obscurants are anthropogenic or naturally occurring particles suspended in the air. They block or weaken transmission of particular parts of the electromagnetic spectrum, such as visible and infrared radiation or microwaves. Fog, mist, and dust are examples of natural obscurants. White phosphorus and hexachloroethane smokes are examples of anthropogenic obscurants.

The U.S. Army seeks to reduce the likelihood that exposure to smokes and obscurants during training would have adverse health effects on military personnel or civilians. To protect the health of exposed individuals, the Office of the Army Surgeon General requested that the National Research Council (NRC) independently review data on the toxicity of smokes and obscurants and recommend exposure guidance levels for military personnel in training and for the general public residing or working near military-training facilities.

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    Switch between the Original Pages, where you can read the report as it appeared in print, and Text Pages for the web version, where you can highlight and search the text.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  9. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!