ALTERNATIVE NAMES for 1,4-diamino-2,3-dihydroanthraquinone (DDA) (after 1972) include 1,4-diamino-2,3-dihydro-9,10-anthracenedione (before 1972) and leuco-1,4-diaminoanthraquinone. DDA is a component of the old violet-dye mixture.
No data are available on the toxicokinetics of DDA.
Effects in Humans
No data are available on the effects of DDA in humans.
Effects in Animals
No data are available on the systemic toxicity of DDA in animals.
In a report by Lundy and Eaton (1994), DDA was found to produce positive results in the Ames assay. In a study by Brown and Brown (1976), as cited by Dacre (1979), DDA was reported to produce ''marginally adequate'' evidence of mutagenicity in the Ames assay.
SUBCOMMITTEE EVALUATION OF DYE TOXICITY
Experimental data are insufficient to assess the toxic effects of DDA.
Brown, J.P., and R.J. Brown. 1976. Mutagenesis by 9,10-anthraquinones derivatives and related compounds in Salmonella typhimurium. Mutat. Res. 40(3):203-224.
Dacre, J.C., W.D. Burrows, C.W.R. Wade, A.F. Hegyeli, T.A. Miller, and D.R. Cogley. 1979. Problem Definition Studies on Potential Environmental Pollutants. V. Physical, Chemical, Toxicological, and Biological Properties of Seven Chemicals Used in Pyrotechnic Compositions. Technical Report No 7704. AD A090631. U.S. Army Medical Bioengineering Research and Development Laboratory, Fort Detrick, Frederick, MD.
Lundy, D., and J. Eaton. 1994. Occupational Health Hazards Posed by Inventory U.S. Army Smoke/Obscurant Munitions (Review Update). WRAIR/RT-94-0001. AD-A276-774. U.S. Army Medical Research Detachment, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH.