National Academies Press: OpenBook

Toxicity of Military Smokes and Obscurants: Volume 3 (1999)

Chapter: Appendix D: Solvent Green 3

« Previous: Appendix C: Solvent Yellow 33
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Solvent Green 3." National Research Council. 1999. Toxicity of Military Smokes and Obscurants: Volume 3. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9645.
×

Appendix D
Solvent Green 3

BACKGROUND

ALTERNATIVE NAMES for solvent green 3 include 1,4-di-p-toluidino-9,10-anthraquinone (PTA), 1,4-bis((4-methylphenyl)amino)-9,10-anthracenedione, 1,4-dip-tolylamino-anthraquinone, quinizarine green G base, and D&C green no. 6. Solvent green 3 is a component of the new and old green-dye mixtures.

TOXICOKINETICS

When inhaled, solvent green 3 clears very slowly from the lung (half live, 280 days) (Sun et al. 1987). In a study on the retention of solvent green 3 in the lungs, rats were given a suspension containing the dye (Henderson et al. 1988). The authors observed that 87% of the initial dose remained in the lungs 24 hr after exposure.

TOXICITY SUMMARY

Effects in Humans

There have been no reports of humans exposed either accidentally or in controlled laboratory environments to solvent green 3.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Solvent Green 3." National Research Council. 1999. Toxicity of Military Smokes and Obscurants: Volume 3. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9645.
×

Effects in Animals

ONE-TIME EXPOSURE

The oral lethal dose for 50% of the test animals (LD50) for rats has been reported at 3 grams per kilogram (g/kg) of body weight, >10 g/kg of body weight, and >15 g/kg of body weight (reviewed in Dacre et al. 1979). The oral LD50 in rabbits is >10 g/kg of body weight.

Solvent green 3 produced no skin irritation when applied to intact or abraded skin of rabbits and produced ''minimal'' erythema in the eyes of rabbits (Dacre et al. 1979).

REPEATED EXPOSURES

No repeated-exposure studies have been conducted on solvent green 3 alone. Sun et al. (1987) conducted 4-week and 13-week inhalation toxicity studies in rats using a mixture of 70:30 solvent green 3 and solvent yellow 33, the major dye components of the new green smoke. That study is reviewed in detail in Chapter 3.

A repeated inhalation study of a combusted smoke containing a mixture of solvent green 3, solvent yellow 33, and disperse red 9 was conducted by Marrs et al (1984). That study is reviewed in Chapter 2.

CARCINOGENICITY AND MUTAGENICITY

Solvent green 3 is not mutagenic in the Salmonella typhimurium strains with or without activation, according to one report (Brown and Brown 1976), but Epler (1979) reported positive results in both the S. typhimurium assay and the thymidine kinase locus mouse lymphoma assay.

SUBCOMMITTEE EVALUATION OF DYE TOXICITY

The major health concern with the use of solvent green 3 as a component of a colored smoke is that the compound is poorly soluble in the lung and will accumulate with repeated exposures to high concentrations of the material.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Solvent Green 3." National Research Council. 1999. Toxicity of Military Smokes and Obscurants: Volume 3. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9645.
×

REFERENCES

Brown, J.P. and R.J. Brown. 1976. Mutagenesis by 9,10-anthraquinone derivatives and related compounds in Salmonella typhimurium. Mutat. Res. 40(3):203-224.

Epler, J.L. 1979. U.S. Army Project Order No. 9600. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN.


Dacre, J.C., W.D. Burrows, C.W.R. Wade, A.F. Hegyeli, T.A. Miller, D.R. Cogley. 1979. Problem Definition Studies on Potential Environmental Pollutants. V. Physical, Chemical, Toxicological, and Biological Properties of Seven Chemicals Used in Pyrotechnic Compositions. Tech. Rep. No. 7704. AD A090631. U.S. Army Medical Bioengineering Research and Development Laboratory, Fort Detrick, Frederick, MD.


Henderson, R.F., W.E. Bechtold, M.A. Medinsky, J.P. Fischer, and T.T. Lee, 1988. The effect of molecular weight/lipophilicity on clearance of organic compounds from lungs. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 95(3):515-521.


Marrs, T.C., H.F. Colgrave, M. Gazzard, and R.F.R. Brown. 1984. Inhalation toxicity of a smoke containing solvent yellow 33, disperse red 9 and solvent green 3 in laboratory animals. Human Toxicol. 3(4):289-308.


Sun, J.D., R.F. Henderson, T.C. Marshall, Y.-S. Cheng, J.S. Dutcher, J.A. Pickrell, J.L. Mauderly, F.F. Hahn, D.A. Banas, F.A. Seiler, and C.H. Hobbs. 1987. The inhalation toxicity of two commercial dyes: Solvent yellow 33 and solvent green 3. Fundam. Appl. Toxicol. 8:358-371.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Solvent Green 3." National Research Council. 1999. Toxicity of Military Smokes and Obscurants: Volume 3. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9645.
×
Page 71
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Solvent Green 3." National Research Council. 1999. Toxicity of Military Smokes and Obscurants: Volume 3. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9645.
×
Page 72
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Solvent Green 3." National Research Council. 1999. Toxicity of Military Smokes and Obscurants: Volume 3. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9645.
×
Page 73
Next: Appendix E: Solvent Red 1 »
Toxicity of Military Smokes and Obscurants: Volume 3 Get This Book
×
Buy Paperback | $40.00 Buy Ebook | $31.99
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

A variety of smokes and obscurants have been developed and used to screen armed forces from view, signal friendly forces, and mark positions. Smokes are produced by burning or vaporizing particular products. Obscurants are anthropogenic or naturally occurring particles suspended in the air. They block or weaken transmission of particular parts of the electromagnetic spectrum, such as visible and infrared radiation or microwaves. Fog, mist, and dust are examples of natural obscurants. White phosphorus and hexachloroethane smokes are examples of anthropogenic obscurants.

The U.S. Army seeks to reduce the likelihood that exposure to smokes and obscurants during training would have adverse health effects on military personnel or civilians. To protect the health of exposed individuals, the Office of the Army Surgeon General requested that the National Research Council (NRC) independently review data on the toxicity of smokes and obscurants and recommend exposure guidance levels for military personnel in training and for the general public residing or working near military-training facilities.

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    Switch between the Original Pages, where you can read the report as it appeared in print, and Text Pages for the web version, where you can highlight and search the text.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  9. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!