1,4-DIAMINOANTHRAQUINONE (DAA) is a combustion product of 1,4-diamino-2,3-dihydroanthraquinone, a component of the old violet-dye mixture.
No data are available on the toxicokinetics of DAA.
Effects in Humans
No data are available on the effect of DAA in humans.
Effects in Animals
DAA was found to produce moderate eye irritation in rabbits at a dose of 0.5 grams (g) for 24 hr (Lundy and Eaton 1994). DAA has a reported
lethal dose for 50% of the test animals (LD50) of 4.9 g per kilogram (kg) of body weight (route of exposure not reported) (RTECS 1981-82, as cited in Lundy and Eaton 1994).
DAA was reported to produce positive effects in the Ames assay in a report by Lundy and Eaton (1994). Rubin (1982) also reported positive effects with DAA in the Ames assay and made the point that the results showed DAA to be more active in the Ames assay than DDA.
SUBCOMMITTEE EVALUATION OF DYE TOXICITY
Experimental data are insufficient to assess the toxic effects of DAA.
Lundy, D., and J. Eaton. 1994. Occupational Health Hazards Posed by Inventory U.S. Army Smoke/Obscurant Munitions (Review Update). WRAIR/RT-94-0001. AD-A276-774. U.S. Army Medical Research Detachment, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH.
RTECS (Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances). 1981-82. 1,4-Diaminoanthraquinone. National Institute of Occupational Health and Safety, Cincinnati, OH.
Rubin, I. B., M.V. Buchanan, and J.H. Moneyhun. 1982. Chemical Characterization and Toxicologic Evaluation of Airborne Mixtures. Chemical Characterization of Combusted Inventory Red and Violet Smoke Mixes. Final Report. ORNL/TM-8810. AD A1311527. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN .