National Academies Press: OpenBook

Toxicity of Military Smokes and Obscurants: Volume 3 (1999)

Chapter: Appendix I: 1,4-Diaminoanthraquinone

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix I: 1,4-Diaminoanthraquinone." National Research Council. 1999. Toxicity of Military Smokes and Obscurants: Volume 3. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9645.
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Appendix I
1,4-Diaminoanthraquinone

BACKGROUND

1,4-DIAMINOANTHRAQUINONE (DAA) is a combustion product of 1,4-diamino-2,3-dihydroanthraquinone, a component of the old violet-dye mixture.

TOXICOKINETICS

No data are available on the toxicokinetics of DAA.

TOXICITY SUMMARY

Effects in Humans

No data are available on the effect of DAA in humans.

Effects in Animals

DAA was found to produce moderate eye irritation in rabbits at a dose of 0.5 grams (g) for 24 hr (Lundy and Eaton 1994). DAA has a reported

Suggested Citation:"Appendix I: 1,4-Diaminoanthraquinone." National Research Council. 1999. Toxicity of Military Smokes and Obscurants: Volume 3. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9645.
×

lethal dose for 50% of the test animals (LD50) of 4.9 g per kilogram (kg) of body weight (route of exposure not reported) (RTECS 1981-82, as cited in Lundy and Eaton 1994).

Mutagenicity Studies

DAA was reported to produce positive effects in the Ames assay in a report by Lundy and Eaton (1994). Rubin (1982) also reported positive effects with DAA in the Ames assay and made the point that the results showed DAA to be more active in the Ames assay than DDA.

SUBCOMMITTEE EVALUATION OF DYE TOXICITY

Experimental data are insufficient to assess the toxic effects of DAA.

REFERENCES

Lundy, D., and J. Eaton. 1994. Occupational Health Hazards Posed by Inventory U.S. Army Smoke/Obscurant Munitions (Review Update). WRAIR/RT-94-0001. AD-A276-774. U.S. Army Medical Research Detachment, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH.


RTECS (Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances). 1981-82. 1,4-Diaminoanthraquinone. National Institute of Occupational Health and Safety, Cincinnati, OH.

Rubin, I. B., M.V. Buchanan, and J.H. Moneyhun. 1982. Chemical Characterization and Toxicologic Evaluation of Airborne Mixtures. Chemical Characterization of Combusted Inventory Red and Violet Smoke Mixes. Final Report. ORNL/TM-8810. AD A1311527. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN .

Suggested Citation:"Appendix I: 1,4-Diaminoanthraquinone." National Research Council. 1999. Toxicity of Military Smokes and Obscurants: Volume 3. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9645.
×
Page 90
Suggested Citation:"Appendix I: 1,4-Diaminoanthraquinone." National Research Council. 1999. Toxicity of Military Smokes and Obscurants: Volume 3. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9645.
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Toxicity of Military Smokes and Obscurants: Volume 3 Get This Book
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A variety of smokes and obscurants have been developed and used to screen armed forces from view, signal friendly forces, and mark positions. Smokes are produced by burning or vaporizing particular products. Obscurants are anthropogenic or naturally occurring particles suspended in the air. They block or weaken transmission of particular parts of the electromagnetic spectrum, such as visible and infrared radiation or microwaves. Fog, mist, and dust are examples of natural obscurants. White phosphorus and hexachloroethane smokes are examples of anthropogenic obscurants.

The U.S. Army seeks to reduce the likelihood that exposure to smokes and obscurants during training would have adverse health effects on military personnel or civilians. To protect the health of exposed individuals, the Office of the Army Surgeon General requested that the National Research Council (NRC) independently review data on the toxicity of smokes and obscurants and recommend exposure guidance levels for military personnel in training and for the general public residing or working near military-training facilities.

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