APPENDIX A Committee and Staff Biographies
Robert T. Paine (Chair) earned his Ph.D. from the University of Michigan in 1961. He recently retired (1998) from his position as professor and former chairman of the Zoology Department at the University of Washington, where he worked since 1962. His research interests include experimental ecology of organisms on rocky shores, interrelationships between species in an ecosystem, and the organization and structure of marine communities. He has examined the roles of predation and disturbance in promoting coexistence and biodiversity. Dr. Paine is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and was a member of the National Research Council’s Board of Life Sciences. He is currently serving on two Academy committees: Committee on the Protection of Ecology and Resources of the Caspian Sea and the Temporary Nominating Group for Global and Human Environmental Sciences. His extensive National Research Council experience includes committee service for the reports Understanding Marine Biodiversity and Sustaining Marine Fisheries.
Daniel W. Bromley earned his Ph.D. in natural resource economics from Oregon State University in 1969. Dr. Bromley is currently the Anderson-Bascom Professor of Applied Economics at the University of Wisconsin, Madison. His research interests include institutional economics, political economy, natural resource economics, and environmental implications of economic development. He served as president of the International Asso-
ciation for the Study of Common Property. Dr. Bromley was chair of the National Research Council’s Committee on Common Property Resource Management and served as a member of the National Research Council’s Committee to Review the Community Development Quota Program in Alaska.
Michael A. Castellini earned his Ph.D. in marine biology from the Scripps Institution of Oceanography in 1981. Dr. Castellini is director of the Institute of Marine Science at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks. His research interests focus on adaptations of marine mammals to life in the sea, including diving physiology, nutritional biochemistry, behavior, development, and survival in species such as Steller sea lions, harbor seals, Weddell seals, and elephant seals. His laboratory is also working on lipid metabolism in marine mammals, the biochemistry of contaminants, metal and antioxidant chemistry, and immune function. He is a charter member of the Society for Marine Mammalogy, past science director for the Alaska SeaLife Center in Seward, and a member and past officer of the American Physiological Society.
Larry B. Crowder earned his Ph.D. in zoology from Michigan State University, East Lansing, in 1978. Dr. Crowder is currently the Stephen Toth Professor in Marine Ecology at Duke University. His research interests include species interactions and community ecology of aquatic systems, including freshwater and marine systems, predation, competition, and food web interactions. He has studied fisheries recruitment and population dynamics. He also has been involved in population modeling and data analysis to address various management scenarios for threatened and endangered species, especially those taken as bycatch. He has served on the editorial board for Ecology and Ecological Applications. He is a member of the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources Marine Turtle Specialist Group and serves on the National Research Council’s Ocean Studies Board. Dr. Crowder was a member of the Program Management Committee for the South Atlantic Bight Recruitment Experiment.
James A. Estes earned his Ph.D. in biology and statistics from the University of Arizona in 1974. Dr. Estes is a research biologist with the Western Ecological Research Center of the U.S. Geological Survey in Santa Cruz, California, where he has worked for the past 20 years. He is also a research associate and adjunct professor with the Center for Marine Studies at the University of California, Santa Cruz. His research interests include wildlife ecology; predation and conservation; and more specifically killer whale interactions with sea otters and Steller sea lions; and spatial, tem-
poral, and functional dimensions of sea otter and kelp forest interactions. He has served on the Board of Editors for the Ecological Society of America, as deputy chairman for the Species Survival Commission of the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, and as cochairman for the Standing Committee on Marine Mammals of the American Society of Mammalogists.
Jacqueline M. Grebmeier earned her Ph.D. in biological oceanography from the University of Alaska, Fairbanks, in 1987. Dr. Grebmeier is currently a research associate professor and project director at the University of Tennessee, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology. Her research interests include pelagic-benthic coupling, benthic carbon cycling, and benthic faunal population structures in the marine environment in both the Arctic and the Antarctic. Dr. Grebmeier has served as a member of the U.S. Arctic Research Commission since 2000. She is involved with research efforts for the National Science Foundation’s global change research project on shelf-basin interactions and ecosystem change studies in the Bering and Chukchi Seas. She served on the National Research Council’s committee for the report The Bering Sea Ecosystem.
Frances M.D. Gulland earned her Ph.D. and doctorate in veterinary medicine from Cambridge University, Great Britain. She is currently the director of veterinary science at the Marine Mammal Center in Sausalito, California. Her research interests include sources of mortality in marine mammal populations, and she was the first to identify domoic acid from the phytoplankton Pseudonitzschia australis as the cause of death for several hundred California sea lions in the Monterey Bay region in 1998. She is also a member of the Committee of Scientific Advisors of the U.S. Marine Mammal Commission.
Gordon H. Kruse earned his Ph.D. in fisheries science in 1983 from Oregon State University. Dr. Kruse worked as a marine fisheries scientist at the Alaska Department of Fish & Game from 1989 until 2001. In November 2001, Dr. Kruse began a new position as the president’s professor of fisheries at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks, Juneau Center, School of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences. His research focuses on population estimation models, stock production parameters, population dynamics, alternative management strategies, fishery oceanography, and ecosystem dynamics. Dr. Kruse is a delegate to the Fishery Science Committee of the North Pacific Marine Science Organization, and he chaired the state of Alaska’s Steller Sea Lion Restoration Team. He recently served on the National Research Council’s Committee on Ecosystem Effects of Fishing: Phase 1—Effects of Bottom Trawling on Seafloor Habitats.
Nathan J. Mantua earned his Ph.D. in atmospheric sciences from the University of Washington in 1994. His graduate studies focused on the dynamics of El Niño and the Southern Oscillation. For the past 6 years he has worked as a research scientist and affiliate assistant professor in Atmospheric Sciences and Marine Affairs at the University of Washington. In April 2000 he received the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers for his research on climate impacts on ecosystems and society. He currently serves as a scientific advisor to the U.S. delegation of the North Pacific Anadromous Fisheries Commission and is a member of the scientific steering committee for the U.S. Global Oceans-Ecosystems Dynamics research program.
James D. Schumacher (a.k.a. Two Crow) earned his Ph.D. in marine sciences from the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, in 1974. He was an oceanographer at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA’s) Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory until 1998 and served as director of NOAA’s Fisheries-Oceanography Coordinated Investigations. Since 1998 he has been president of Two Crow Environmental, Inc. His research is on pathways that link changes in physical phenomena to fluctuations in biological populations and the combined impact of physical and biological changes on native peoples. He is currently involved in the Southeast Bering Sea Carrying Capacity, a NOAA Coastal Ocean Program, where he is examining indices of the environment that may contribute to fluctuations in pollock populations.
Donald B. Siniff earned his Ph.D. in entomology, fisheries, and wildlife from the University of Minnesota in 1967. Dr. Siniff is currently a professor in the Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior at the University of Minnesota, St. Paul. His research interests include population biology of marine mammals. He is a past member of the Marine Mammal Commission and the National Research Council’s Polar Research Board. He is a member of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s Southern Sea Otter and the National Marine Fisheries Service’s Northern Sea Lion Recovery Teams.
Carl J. Walters earned his Ph.D. in fisheries from Colorado State University in 1969. He is a professor at the Fisheries Centre at the University of British Columbia, with a joint appointment in zoology. His areas of research include the dynamics of ecological communities, application of mathematical models and computer simulation techniques to problems in resource ecology, and adaptive management of renewable resources. He is a fellow of the Royal Society of Canada. He served on the National Research Council’s committee for the report Improving Fish Stock Assessment.
NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL STAFF
Susan Roberts (Study Director) received her Ph.D. in marine biology from the Scripps Institution of Oceanography. Dr. Roberts is a senior program officer for the National Research Council’s Ocean Studies Board, where she has directed a number of studies, including the following reports: Effects of Trawling & Dredging on Seafloor Habitat (2002), Marine Protected Areas—Tools for Sustaining Ocean Ecosystems (2001); Bridging Boundaries Through Regional Marine Research (2000), and From Monsoons to Microbes—Understanding the Ocean’s Role in Human Health (1999). Dr. Roberts’ research interests include marine microbiology, fish physiology, and marine bio-technology.
Nancy A. Caputo received a master’s of public policy from the University of Southern California and a bachelor’s degree in political science/international relations. During her tenure with the Ocean Studies Board, she has assisted with the completion of two reports: A Review of the Florida Keys Carrying Capacity Study (2002) and Emulsified Fuels—Risks and Response (2002). Ms. Caputo has previous professional experience researching fisheries management in the northeastern and northwestern United States, socioeconomic assistance programs for fishing communities, and habitat restoration programs. Her interests include marine mammal policy and science, ocean policy, coastal management, and habitat restoration.