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Beyond 'Fortress America': National Security Controls on Science and Technology in a Globalized World (2009)

Chapter: Appendix D: Recent Studies and Initiatives Outside the National Academies

« Previous: Appendix C: Background on the Roundtable/Commission on Scientific Communication and National Security
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Recent Studies and Initiatives Outside the National Academies." National Research Council. 2009. Beyond 'Fortress America': National Security Controls on Science and Technology in a Globalized World. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12567.
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Page 101
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Recent Studies and Initiatives Outside the National Academies." National Research Council. 2009. Beyond 'Fortress America': National Security Controls on Science and Technology in a Globalized World. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12567.
×
Page 102
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Recent Studies and Initiatives Outside the National Academies." National Research Council. 2009. Beyond 'Fortress America': National Security Controls on Science and Technology in a Globalized World. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12567.
×
Page 103
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Recent Studies and Initiatives Outside the National Academies." National Research Council. 2009. Beyond 'Fortress America': National Security Controls on Science and Technology in a Globalized World. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12567.
×
Page 104
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Recent Studies and Initiatives Outside the National Academies." National Research Council. 2009. Beyond 'Fortress America': National Security Controls on Science and Technology in a Globalized World. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12567.
×
Page 105
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Recent Studies and Initiatives Outside the National Academies." National Research Council. 2009. Beyond 'Fortress America': National Security Controls on Science and Technology in a Globalized World. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12567.
×
Page 106

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Appendix D Recent Studies and Initiatives Outside the National Academies U.S. Government Congressional Export Control Working Group (Congress) The Defense Trade Controls Performance Improvement Act of 2007 (H.R. 4246), as amended, is now Subtitle A of Title I of the Security Assistance and Arms Export Control Reform Act of 2008 (H.R. 5916). Sponsored by Donald Manzullo (R-IL), Reps. Bradley Sherman (D-CA), Joseph Crowley (D-NY), and Roy Blunt (R-MO). Congressional Research Service The Export Administration Act: Evolution, Provisions, and Debate, Updated January 9, 2008, Ian F. Fergusson, Specialist in International Trade and Finance, Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division, RL31832. Foreign Science and Engineering Presence in U.S. Institutions and the Labor Force, Updated July 2008, Christine M. Matthews, 97-746. Military Technology and Conventional Weapons Export Controls: The Wassenaar Arrangement, Updated September 29, 2006, Richard F. G ­ rimmett, Specialist in National Defense Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division, RS20517. 101

102 APPENDIX D Deemed Export Advisory Committee, a technical advisory committee of the Bureau of Industry and Security, Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C. The Deemed Export Rule in the Era of Globalization. Released Decem- ber 20, 2007. Executive Office of the President Presidential Export Controls Directive to “ensure that U.S. defense trade policies and practices better support the National Security Strat- egy of the United States, ” January 21, 2008. Government Accountability Office Export Controls: Challenges with Commerce’s Validated End-User Pro­ gram May Limit its Ability to Ensure that Semiconductor Equipment Exported to China Is Used as Intended. Report to the Committee on For­ eign Affairs, House of Representatives. Released September 2008. Export Controls: State and Commerce Have not Taken Basic Steps to ­Better Ensure U.S. Interests Are Protected. Testimony Before the Sub­committee on Oversight of Government Management, the Federal Workforce, and the District of Columbia, Committee on Homeland Security and Govern­ mental Affairs, U.S. Senate. Released April 2008. Defense Trade: State Department Needs to Conduct Assessments to Iden­ tify and Address Inefficiencies and Challenges in the Arms Export Process. Report to the Committee on Foreign Affairs, House of Representatives. Released November 2007. Defense Technologies: DOD’s Critical Technologies Lists Rarely Inform Export Control and Other Policy Decisions. GAO-06-793. Washington, D.C.: July 28, 2006. Export Controls: Improvements to Commerce’s Dual-Use System Needed to Ensure Protection of U.S. Interests in the Post 9-11 Environment. GAO Report 06-638. Washington, D.C.: June 2006. Export Controls: Issues to Consider in Authorizing a New Export Admin­ istration Act. GAO-02-468T. Washington, D.C.: February 2002.

APPENDIX D 103 Nonproliferation: Strategy Needed to Strengthen Multilateral Export Con­ trol Regimes. GAO-03-43. Washington, D.C.: October 2002. U.S.-U.K. and U.S.-Australia Defense Trade Cooperation Treaty Signed by administration in 2007 and currently pending ratification in the Senate. Nongovernmental Organizations American Association for the Advancement of Science. Washington, D.C. “Recommendations for Enhancing the U.S. Visa System to Advance America’s Scientific and Economic Competitiveness and National Secu- rity Interests.” Released May 2005. Association of American Universities/Council on Government Relations. Washington, D.C. “Restrictions on Research Awards:  Troublesome Clauses 2007/2008.” Released July 2008. Center for Strategic and International Studies. Washington, D.C. “Toward a U.S. Export Control and Technology Transfer System for the 21st Century,” May 15, 2008. “Briefing of the Working Group on the Health of the U.S. Space Indus- trial Base and the Impact of Export Controls,” February 2008. “Trusted Partners: Sharing Technology within the U.S.-U.K. Security Relationship,” May 26, 2006. “Security Controls on the Access of Foreign Scientists and Engineers to the United States,” October 2005. “Security Controls on Scientific Information and the Conduct of Scien- tific Research,” June 2005.

104 APPENDIX D Center for International and Security Studies, University of Maryland Controlling Dangerous Pathogens. Authors: John D. Steinbruner, Elisa D. Harris, Nancy Gallagher, Stacy M. Okutani. Released March 2007. Coalition for Security and Competitiveness (a coalition of trade associations and related organizations, including the U.S. Chamber of Commerce) Letter to the President on Export Control Modernization, March 2007. Defense MOU Attachés Group (DMAG) The DMAG’s Vision of the Ideal U.S. Export Control Regime, 2008. The Hudson Institute, Washington D.C. Export Controls and Technology Transfers: Turning Obstacles into Oppor­ tunities. Author: Maria Farkas. Released 2007. Report from the confer- ence Defense Coalitions and the Global Character of the New Defense Industry, Hudson Institute, December 6, 2006. Institute for Defense Analysis, Alexandria, VA Export Controls and the U.S. Defense Industrial Base. Project leader: Richard Van Atta. Released January 2007. NAFSA: Association of International Educators, Washington, D.C. Restoring US Competitiveness for International Students and Scholars. June 19, 2006. NATO Industrial Advisory Group (NIAG) 2007-2008 Study on Transatlantic Defence Industrial Cooperation. RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, California U.S. Competitiveness in Science and Technology. Authors: Titus Gal- ama, James Hosek. Released June 2008.

APPENDIX D 105 Security Defense Agenda in Brussels Cutting through the Transatlantic Tangle of Defence Equipment Export Controls, an SDA Monthly Roundtable Report, January 2007.

Next: Appendix E: Principal Studies Sponsored by the National Academies That Address the Impact of National Security Controls on the Conduct of Science and Technology »
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The national security controls that regulate access to and export of science and technology are broken. As currently structured, many of these controls undermine our national and homeland security and stifle American engagement in the global economy, and in science and technology. These unintended consequences arise from policies that were crafted for an earlier era. In the name of maintaining superiority, the U.S. now runs the risk of becoming less secure, less competitive and less prosperous.

Beyond "Fortress America" provides an account of the costs associated with building walls that hamper our access to global science and technology that dampen our economic potential. The book also makes recommendations to reform the export control process, ensure scientific and technological competitiveness, and improve the non-immigrant visa system that regulates entry into the United States of foreign science and engineering students, scholars, and professionals.

Beyond "Fortress America" contains vital information and action items for the President and policy makers that will affect the United States' ability to compete globally. Interested parties--including military personnel, engineers, scientists, professionals, industrialists, and scholars--will find this book a valuable tool for stemming a serious decline affecting broad areas of the nation's security and economy.

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