Acronyms, Abbreviations, and Glossary
ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS
25-hydroxyvitamin D In this report, 25OHD (also referred to as calcidiol or calcifediol); indicates no distinction between D2 and D3 forms. When relevant, forms distinguished as 25OHD2 and 25OHD3.
1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D In this report, calcitriol. Ercalcitriol refers to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D2, but in this report, the term “calcitriol” will be used for both.
24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D In this report, 24,25(OH)2D.
AHRQ Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality
AI Adequate Intake
ALTM All-laboratory trimmed mean
AMDR Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range
ATBC Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study
BDI Beck Depression Inventory
BMAD Bone mineral apparent density
BMC Bone mineral content
BMD Bone mineral density
BMI Body mass index
BV Bone volume
CCHS Canadian Community Health Survey
CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
CG Control group
CHMS Canadian Health Measures Survey
CI Confidence interval
CNF Canadian Nutrient File
CPBA Competitive protein binding assay
CVD Cardiovascular disease
CYP Cytochrome P450
DBP Vitamin D binding protein
DEQAS Vitamin D External Quality Assurance Scheme
DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid
DRI Dietary Reference Intake
DXA Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry
EAR Estimated Average Requirement
EPIC European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition
EPIDOS Epidémiologie de l’Ostéoporose study
FGF23 Fibroblast-like growth factor-23
FN Femoral neck
GC Gas chromatography
GFR Glomerular filtration rate
HPFS Health Professionals Follow-up Study
HR Hazard ratio
IBD Inflammatory bowel disease
IG Intervention group
IHD Ischemic heart disease
IOM Institute of Medicine
iPTH Intact parathyroid hormone
IU International Unit
K-MMSE Mini-Mental State Examination for Koreans
LC Liquid chromatography
LOAEL Lowest-observed-adverse-effect level
LS Lumbar spine
LSM Least squares mean
MAS Milk-alkali syndrome
MMSE Mini-Mental State Examination
mRNA Messenger ribonucleic acid
MrOS Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study
MS Mass spectrometry; Multiple sclerosis
MS/MS Tandem mass spectrometry
NA Not applicable
NCHS National Center for Health Statistics
NCI National Cancer Institute
ND Not determined
NHANES National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
NHS Nurses’ Health Study
NIH National Institutes of Health
NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology
NOAEL No-observed-adverse-effect level
NOD Nonobese diabetic
NR Not reported
NS Not significant
OC Oral contraceptive
OR Odds ratio
OV Osteoid volume
PLCO Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial
POMS Profile of Mood States
PTH Parathyroid hormone
PTHrP Parathyroid hormone–related protein
RA Rheumatoid arthritis
RANK Receptor activator for nuclear factor κ B
RCT Randomized controlled trial
RDA Recommended Dietary Allowance
RECORD Randomised Evaluation of Calcium and/Or vitamin D trial
RNI Recommended Nutrient Intake
RR Relative risk
SD Standard deviation
SE Standard error
SEM Standard error of the mean
SLE Systemic lupus erythematosus
SPA Single-photon absorptiometry
SPF Sun protection factor
SRM Standard Reference Material
TB Tuberculosis; Total body
Th T helper
TH Total hip
TRPV6 Transient receptor potential cation channel, vanilloid family member 6
UK United Kingdom
UL Tolerable Upper Intake Level
U.S. United States
USDA U.S. Department of Agriculture
UVB Ultraviolet B
VDDR Vitamin D–dependent rickets
VDR Vitamin D receptor
VDRE Vitamin D–responsive element
VEGF Vascular endothelial growth factor
WHI Women’s Health Initiative
WWEIA What We Eat in America
Achlorhydria A lack of hydrochloric acid in the digestive juices in the stomach.
Adenoma A benign epithelial tumor of glandular origin.
Adequate Intake The recommended average daily intake level of a nutrient based on observed or experimentally determined approximations or estimates of intakes that are assumed to be adequate for a group (or groups) of apparently healthy people; used when the Recommended Dietary Allowance cannot be determined.
Adipokines Cytokines, growth factors, and other proteins produced and secreted by adipose tissue.
Adipose tissue A connective tissue consisting chiefly of fat cells surrounded by reticular fibers and arranged in lobular groups or along the course of one of the smaller blood vessels.
Amenorrhea Abnormal suppression or absence of menstruation.
Anorexia The symptom of poor appetite whatever the cause.
Anorexia nervosa A psychophysiological disorder usually occurring in teenage women that is characterized by fear of becoming obese, a distorted self-image, a persistent aversion to food, and severe weight loss, and that is often marked by hyperactivity, self-induced vomiting, amenorrhea, and other physiological changes.
Antigen Any substance that stimulates an immune response in the body.
Antirachitic Cures or prevents rickets.
Asthma A chronic inflammatory disease of the airways.
Autism A complex developmental disability that typically appears during the first few years of life; is the result of a neurological disorder that affects the normal functioning of the brain, impacting development in the areas of social interaction and communication skills.
Biomarker A biochemical, physiological, behavioral, or other alteration that can be measured in the body or its products that influences, predicts, or is associated with an established or possible outcome, health impairment, or disease.
Body mass index An indirect measure of body fat calculated as the ratio of a person’s body weight to the square of a person’s height: BMI (kg/m2) = weight (kilograms)/height (meters)2 BMI (lb/in2) = weight (pounds)/height (inches)2 × 703
Bone mineral content The hardness of bone results from its mineral content in the organic matrix.
Bone mineral density A measure of bone density that reflects the strength of bones as represented by calcium content.
Calcification Impregnation with calcium or calcium salts; hardening, as of tissue, by such impregnation.
Calcinosis The abnormal deposition of calcium salts in a part or tissue of the body.
Calcitonin A peptide hormone, produced by the thyroid gland in humans, that acts to lower plasma calcium and phosphate levels without augmenting calcium accretion.
Calcitriol Another name for 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D.
Calcium A mineral found mainly in the hard part of bones, where it is stored; it is essential for healthy bones and is important for muscle contraction, heart action, nervous system maintenance, and normal blood clotting.
Calciuria The presence of calcium in the urine.
Cancer A malignant and invasive growth or tumor.
Cardiovascular disease Any abnormal condition characterized by dysfunction of the heart and blood vessels; includes atherosclerosis (especially coronary heart disease), cerebrovascular disease, and hypertension.
Chondrocyte A connective tissue cell that occupies a lacuna within the cartilage matrix.
Chylomicron One of the microscopic particles of fat occurring in chyle (a digestive fluid) and in the blood, especially after a meal high in fat.
Computed tomography Tomography used in diagnostic studies of internal bodily structures, in which computer analysis of a series of cross–sectional scans made along a single axis of a bodily structure or tissue is used to construct a three-dimensional image of that structure.
Creatinine One of the nonprotein constituents of blood, a breakdown product of creatinine (protein used to make adenosine triphosphate). Increased quantities of serum creatinine are found in advanced stages of renal disease.
Crohn’s disease A chronic inflammatory disease of the intestines that primarily causes ulcerations (breaks in the lining) of the small and large intestines, but can affect the digestive system anywhere from the mouth to the anus.
Cut-point A specified quantitative measure used to demarcate the presence or absence of a health-related condition; often used in interpreting measures obtained from analysis of blood (example: blood measures below “x” ng/mL indicate a deficiency state for Nutrient Y).
Cytochrome Any of a class of iron-containing proteins important to cell respiration as catalysts of oxidation–reduction reactions.
Depression A condition of general emotional dejection and withdrawal; sadness greater and more prolonged than that warranted by any objective reason.
Dermis The sensitive connective tissue layer of the skin located below the epidermis, containing nerve endings, sweat and sebaceous glands, and blood and lymph vessels.
Diabetes mellitus A group of metabolic diseases characterized by high blood sugar (glucose) levels that result from defects in insulin secretion or action, or both.
Diabetes, type 1 An autoimmune disease that occurs when T cells attack and decimate the β-cells in the pancreas that are needed to produce insulin, so that the pancreas makes too little insulin (or no insulin); there is a genetic predisposition to type 1 diabetes, and the disease tends to occur in childhood, adolescence, or early adulthood (before age 30), but it may have its clinical onset at any age.
Diabetes, type 2 Disease in which the β-cells of the pancreas produce insulin but the body is unable to use it effectively because the cells of the body are resistant to the action of insulin; also known as insulin-resistant diabetes, non-insulin-dependent diabetes, and adult-onset diabetes.
Dietary Reference Intake A set of four distinct nutrient-based reference values that replaced the former Recommended Dietary Allowance in the United States. These include Estimated Average Requirement (EAR), Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), Adequate Intake (AI), and Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL).
Dose–response assessment Determination of the relationship between nutrient intake (dose) and some criterion of either adequacy or adverse effect.
Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry Means of measuring bone density with two X-ray beams with differing energy levels aimed at an individual’s bones.
Emesis The act or process of vomiting.
Endocrine Pertaining to hormones and the glands that make and secrete them into the bloodstream through which they travel to affect distant organs.
Epidermis The nonvascular outer protective layer of the skin, covering the dermis.
Ergosterol A plant sterol that is converted into vitamin D by ultraviolet radiation.
Estimated Average Requirement The average daily nutrient intake level that is estimated to meet the requirements of half of the healthy individuals in a particular life stage and gender group.
Estradiol The most potent naturally occurring estrogen.
Etiology Causes and origins of disease.
Fibroblast A cell ubiquitous in connective tissue that makes and secretes collagen.
Glucocorticoid Any of a group of steroid-like compounds, such as hydrocortisone, that are produced by the adrenal cortex, are involved in carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism, and are used as antiinflammatory agents.
Hematocrit The percentage by volume of packed red blood cells in a given sample of blood after centrifugation.
Homeostasis A property of cells, tissues, and organisms that allows the maintenance and regulation of the stability and constancy needed to function properly.
Hormone A substance, usually a peptide or a steroid, produced by one tissue and conveyed in the bloodstream to another to effect physiological activity, such as growth or metabolism.
Hydroxyapatite The principal bone salt that provides the compressional strength of vertebrate bone.
Hypercalcemia A higher than normal level of calcium in the blood.
Hypercalciuria Excess calcium in the urine.
Hyperglycemia A high blood sugar; an elevated level specifically of the sugar glucose in the blood.
Hypertension/hypertensive Systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mmHg.
Hypophosphatemia Abnormally low concentrations of phosphates in the blood.
Inflammatory bowel disease Any of several incurable and debilitating diseases of the gastro-intestinal tract characterized by inflammation and obstruction of parts of the intestine.
Influenza An acute, commonly epidemic disease occurring in several forms, caused by numerous rapidly mutating viral strains and characterized by respiratory symptoms and general prostration.
Ligand An ion, a molecule, or a molecular group that binds to another chemical entity to form a larger complex.
LOAEL The lowest intake (or experimental dose) of a nutrient at which an adverse effect has been identified.
Lumisterol A naturally occurring compound that is part of the vitamin D family of steroid compounds.
Macrophage A type of white blood cell that ingests foreign material.
Menopause The state of an absence of menstrual periods for 12 months.
Metabolic syndrome Also called insulin resistance syndrome and Metabolic Syndrome X. A group of conditions that increase risk of heart disease, diabetes, and stroke. The five conditions are high blood pressure, high blood sugar levels, high levels of circulating triglycerides, low levels of circulating high-density lipoprotein, and excess fat in the abdominal area.
Microsome A small particle in the cytoplasm of a cell, typically consisting of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum to which ribosomes are attached.
Milk-alkali syndrome Caused by the ingestion of large amounts of calcium and absorbable alkali with resulting hypercalcemia; if untreated, can lead to metastatic calcification and renal failure.
Morbidity Illness or disease.
Mortality A fatal outcome; death.
Multiple sclerosis A disease in which the nerves of the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) degenerate.
Natriuresis Excretion of excessive amounts of sodium in the urine.
Neoplasm A new, often uncontrolled growth of abnormal tissue; tumor.
Nephrocalcinosis Renal lithiasis characterized by diffusely scattered foci of calcification in the kidneys.
Nephrolithiasis Calculi in the kidneys.
NOAEL The highest intake (or experimental dose) of a nutrient at which no adverse effect has been observed.
Nutrient A substance (such as a chemical element or inorganic compound) that an organism needs to live and grow; a substance used in an organism’s metabolism that must be taken in from its environment.
Nutriture A state of nutrition in the body.
Osteoblast A cell from which bone develops.
Osteoclast A large multinucleate cell found in growing bone that resorbs bony tissue, as in the formation of canals and cavities.
Osteocyte A branched cell imbedded in the matrix of bone tissue.
Osteogenesis Formation and development of bony tissue.
Osteoid Resembling bone; the bone matrix, especially before calcification.
Osteomalacia The softening of bone, the depletion of calcium from bone; may be caused by poor dietary intake or poor absorption of calcium and other minerals needed to harden bones and can be a characteristic feature of vitamin D deficiency in adults.
Osteopenia A condition of bone in which decreased calcification, decreased density, or reduced mass occurs.
Osteoporosis A condition characterized by a decrease in bone density (a decrease in bone strength that results in fragile bones); leads to abnormally porous bone that is compressible, like a sponge.
Parathyroid gland A gland that regulates calcium, located behind the thyroid gland in the neck, which secretes parathyroid hormone.
Parathyroid hormone A hormone that is made by the parathyroid gland and that is critical to calcium and phosphorus balance.
Perimenopause The interval in which a women’s body begins its transition into menopause.
Periosteal Pertaining to the periosteum, the membrane covering the bones.
Phosphate A form of phosphoric acid; calcium phosphate makes bones and teeth hard.
Polyuria The excessive passage of urine, resulting in profuse urination and urinary frequency.
Preeclampsia A toxic condition developing in late pregnancy characterized by a sudden rise in blood pressure, generalized edema, proteinuria, severe headache, and visual disturbances that may result in eclampsia (convulsive or coma state) if untreated.
Previtamin D3 A short-lived intermediate form arising from exposure of provitamin D3 (7-dehydrocholesterol) in the skin to UVB irradiation. Body heat quickly changes previtamin D3 into vitamin D3.
Prohormone An intraglandular precursor of a hormone.
Provitamin D3(7-dehydrocholesterol) A provitamin present in the skin of humans as well as the milk of mammals that becomes vitamin D3 when exposed to ultraviolet light.
Recommended Dietary Allowance The average daily dietary intake level that is sufficient to meet the nutrient requirements of nearly all (97.5 percent) healthy individuals in a particular life stage and gender group.
Rheumatoid arthritis An autoimmune disease that causes chronic inflammation of the joints.
Rickets A disorder caused by a deficiency of vitamin D, calcium, or phosphate, which leads to softening and weakening of the bones and is seen most commonly in children 6 to 24 months of age.
Sarcoidosis A disease that results from a specific type of inflammation of tissues of the body that can appear in almost any body organ, often starting in the lungs or lymph nodes.
Scleroderma A pathological thickening and hardening of the skin caused by swelling and thickening of fibrous tissue.
Systemic lupus erythematosus A chronic, autoimmune, inflammatory disease of connective tissue that causes fever, weakness, fatigue, joint pains, and skin lesions on the face, neck, or arms.
Tachysterol An isomer of ergosterol that forms vitamin D2 when irradiated with ultraviolet light.
Tolerable Upper Intake Level The highest average daily nutrient intake level that is likely to pose no risk of adverse effects to almost all individuals in the general population. As intake increases above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level, the potential risk of adverse effects may increase.
Transgenic Having genetic material (deoxyribonucleic acid) from another species.
Tuberculosis A highly contagious infection caused by the bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Ultraviolet Pertaining to electromagnetic radiation having wavelengths in the range of approximately 5 to 400 nm; shorter than visible light, but longer than X-rays.
Ultraviolet B Medium wavelength (280 to 320 nm) ultraviolet rays from the sun; help synthesis of vitamin D3; the “burning” rays in the ultraviolet spectrum.
Vasodilatation Relaxation or widening of the blood vessels; leads to a lowered blood pressure.
Vitamin D Also referred to as calciferol; comprises a group of fat-soluble seco-sterols. The two major forms are vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 (both vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 can be synthesized commercially and may be found in dietary supplements or fortified foods; they differ only in their side chain structure).
Vitamin D2 Also referred to as ergocalciferol; originates from plants and is found in the human diet.
Vitamin D3 Also referred to as cholecalciferol; is synthesized in the skin of humans from 7-dehydrocholesterol and is also consumed in the diet via the intake of animal-based foods.
Vitamin D–resistant rickets An inherited form of rickets characterized by high concentrations of phosphate in the blood due to defective renal tubular reabsorption of phosphate and subnormal absorption of dietary calcium.