National Academies Press: OpenBook

Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D (2011)

Chapter: Summary Tables: Dietary Reference Intakes

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Page 1103 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Summary Tables: Dietary Reference Intakes." Institute of Medicine. 2011. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13050.
×

Summary Tables
Dietary Reference Intakes

Estimated Average Requirements

Recommended Dietary Allowances and Adequate Intakes, Vitamins

Recommended Dietary Allowances and Adequate Intakes, Elements

Recommended Dietary Allowances and Adequate Intakes, Total Water and Macronutrients

Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges

Additional Macronutrient Recommendations

Tolerable Upper Intake Levels, Vitamins

Tolerable Upper Intake Levels, Elements

Page 1104 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Summary Tables: Dietary Reference Intakes." Institute of Medicine. 2011. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13050.
×

Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): Estimated Average Requirements

Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, National Academies

Life Stage Group

Calcium (mg/d)

CHO (g/kg/d)

Protein (g/d)

Vit A (μg/d)a

Vit C (mg/d)

Vit D (μg/d)

Vit E (mg/d)b

Thiamin (mg/d)

Riboflavin (mg/d)

Niacin (mg/d)c

Infants

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

0–6 mo

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6–12 mo

 

 

1.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Children

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1–3 y

500

100

0.87

210

13

10

5

0.4

0.4

5

4–8 y

800

100

0.76

275

22

10

6

0.5

0.5

6

Males

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

9–13 y

1,100

100

0.76

445

39

10

9

0.7

0.8

9

14–18 y

1,100

100

0.73

630

63

10

12

1.0

1.1

12

19–30 y

800

100

0.66

625

75

10

12

1.0

1.1

12

31–50 y

800

100

0.66

625

75

10

12

1.0

1.1

12

51–70 y

800

100

0.66

625

75

10

12

1.0

1.1

12

> 70 y

1,000

100

0.66

625

75

10

12

1.0

1.1

12

Females

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

9–13 y

1,100

100

0.76

420

39

10

9

0.7

0.8

9

14–18 y

1,100

100

0.71

485

56

10

12

0.9

0.9

11

19–30 y

800

100

0.66

500

60

10

12

0.9

0.9

11

31–50 y

800

100

0.66

500

60

10

12

0.9

0.9

11

51–70 y

1,000

100

0.66

500

60

10

12

0.9

0.9

11

> 70 y

1,000

100

0.66

500

60

10

12

0.9

0.9

11

Pregnancy

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

14–18 y

1,000

135

0.88

530

66

10

12

1.2

1.2

14

19–30 y

800

135

0.88

550

70

10

12

1.2

1.2

14

31–50 y

800

135

0.88

550

70

10

12

1.2

1.2

14

Lactation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

14–18 y

1,000

160

1.05

885

96

10

16

1.2

1.3

13

19–30 y

800

160

1.05

900

100

10

16

1.2

1.3

13

31–50 y

800

160

1.05

900

100

10

16

1.2

1.3

13

NOTE: An Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) is the average daily nutrient intake level estimated to meet the requirements of half of the healthy individuals in a group. EARs have not been established for vitamin K, pantothenic acid, biotin, choline, chromium, fluoride, manganese, or other nutrients not yet evaluated via the DRI process.

aAs retinol activity equivalents (RAEs). 1 RAE = 1 μg retinol, 12 μg β-carotene, 24 μg α-carotene, or 24 μg β-cryptoxanthin. The RAE for dietary provitamin A carotenoids is two-fold greater than retinol equivalents (RE), whereas the RAE for preformed vitamin A is the same as RE.

bAs α-tocopherol. α-tocopherol includes RRR-α-tocopherol, the only form of α-tocopherol that occurs naturally in foods, and the 2R-stereoisomeric forms of α-tocopherol (RRR-, RSR-, RRS-, and RSS-α-tocopherol) that occur in fortified foods and supplements. It does not include the 2S-stereoisomeric forms of α-tocopherol (SRR-, SSR-, SRS-, and SSS-α-tocopherol), also found in fortified foods and supplements.

Page 1105 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Summary Tables: Dietary Reference Intakes." Institute of Medicine. 2011. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13050.
×

Vit B6 (mg/d)

Folate (μg/d)d

Vit B12 (μg/d)

Copper (μg/d)

Iodine (μg/d)

Iron (mg/d)

Magnesium (mg/d)

Molybdenum (μg/d)

Phosphorus (mg/d)

Selenium (μg/d)

Zinc (mg/d)

 

 

 

 

 

6.9

 

 

 

 

2.5

0.4

120

0.7

260

65

3.0

65

13

380

17

2.5

0.5

160

1.0

340

65

4.1

110

17

405

23

4.0

0.8

250

1.5

540

73

5.9

200

26

1,055

35

7.0

1.1

330

2.0

685

95

7.7

340

33

1,055

45

8.5

1.1

320

2.0

700

95

6

330

34

580

45

9.4

1.1

320

2.0

700

95

6

350

34

580

45

9.4

1.4

320

2.0

700

95

6

350

34

580

45

9.4

1.4

320

2.0

700

95

6

350

34

580

45

9.4

0.8

250

1.5

540

73

5.7

200

26

1,055

35

7.0

1.0

330

2.0

685

95

7.9

300

33

1,055

45

7.3

1.1

320

2.0

700

95

8.1

255

34

580

45

6.8

1.1

320

2.0

700

95

8.1

265

34

580

45

6.8

1.3

320

2.0

700

95

5

265

34

580

45

6.8

1.3

320

2.0

700

95

5

265

34

580

45

6.8

1.6

520

2.2

785

160

23

335

40

1,055

49

10.5

1.6

520

2.2

800

160

22

290

40

580

49

9.5

1.6

520

2.2

800

160

22

300

40

580

49

9.5

1.7

450

2.4

985

209

7

300

35

1,055

59

10.9

1.7

450

2.4

1,000

209

6.5

255

36

580

59

10.4

1.7

450

2.4

1,000

209

6.5

265

36

580

59

10.4

cAs niacin equivalents (NE). 1 mg of niacin = 60 mg of tryptophan.

dAs dietary folate equivalents (DFE). 1 DFE = 1 μg food folate = 0.6 μg of folic acid from fortified food or as a supplement consumed with food = 0.5 μg of a supplement taken on an empty stomach.

SOURCES: Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorous, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride (1997); Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline (1998); Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids (2000); Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc (2001); Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids (2002/2005); and Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D (2011). These reports may be accessed via www.nap.edu.

Page 1106 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Summary Tables: Dietary Reference Intakes." Institute of Medicine. 2011. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13050.
×

Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): Recommended Dietary Allowances and Adequate Intakes, Vitamins

Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, National Academies

Life Stage Group

Vitamin A (μg/d)a

Vitamin C (mg/d)

Vitamin D (μg/d)b,c

Vitamin E (mg/d)d

Vitamin K (μg/d)

Thiamin (mg/d)

Infants

 

 

 

 

 

 

0–6 mo

400*

40*

10*

4*

2.0*

0.2*

6–12 mo

500*

50*

10*

5*

2.5*

0.3*

Children

 

 

 

 

 

 

1–3 y

300

15

15

6

30*

0.5

4–8 y

400

25

15

7

55*

0.6

Males

 

 

 

 

 

 

9–13 y

600

45

15

11

60*

0.9

14–18 y

900

75

15

15

75*

1.2

19–30 y

900

90

15

15

120*

1.2

31–50 y

900

90

15

15

120*

1.2

51–70 y

900

90

15

15

120*

1.2

> 70 y

900

90

20

15

120*

1.2

Females

 

 

 

 

 

 

9–13 y

600

45

15

11

60*

0.9

14–18 y

700

65

15

15

75*

1.0

19–30 y

700

75

15

15

90*

1.1

31–50 y

700

75

15

15

90*

1.1

51–70 y

700

75

15

15

90*

1.1

> 70 y

700

75

20

15

90*

1.1

Pregnancy

 

 

 

 

 

 

14–18 y

750

80

15

15

75*

1.4

19–30 y

770

85

15

15

90*

1.4

31–50 y

770

85

15

15

90*

1.4

Lactation

 

 

 

 

 

 

14–18 y

1,200

115

15

19

75*

1.4

19–30 y

1,300

120

15

19

90*

1.4

31–50 y

1,300

120

15

19

90*

1.4

NOTE: This table (taken from the DRI reports, see www.nap.edu) presents Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) in bold type and Adequate Intakes (AIs) in ordinary type followed by an asterisk (*). An RDA is the average daily dietary intake level sufficient to meet the nutrient requirements of nearly all (97–98 percent) healthy individuals in a group. It is calculated from an Estimated Average Requirement (EAR). If sufficient scientific evidence is not available to establish an EAR, and thus calculate an RDA, an AI is usually developed. For healthy breast-fed infants, an AI is the mean intake. The AI for other life stage and gender groups is believed to cover the needs of all healthy individuals in the groups, but lack of data or uncertainty in the data prevent being able to specify with confidence the percentage of individuals covered by this intake.

aAs retinol activity equivalents (RAEs). 1 RAE = 1 μg retinol, 12 μg β-carotene, 24 μg α-carotene, or 24 μg β-cryptoxanthin. The RAE for dietary provitamin A carotenoids is two-fold greater than retinol equivalents (REs), whereas the RAE for preformed vitamin A is the same as RE.

bAs cholecalciferol. 1 μg cholecalciferol = 40 IU vitamin D.

cUnder the assumption of minimal sunlight.

dAs α-tocopherol. α-tocopherol includes RRR-α-tocopherol, the only form of α-tocopherol that occurs naturally in foods, and the 2R-stereoisomeric forms of α-tocopherol (RRR-, RSR-, RRS-, and RSS-α-tocopherol) that occur in fortified foods and supplements. It does not include the 2S-stereoisomeric forms of α-tocopherol (SRR-, SSR-, SRS-, and SSS-α-tocopherol), also found in fortified foods and supplements.

eAs niacin equivalents (NE). 1 mg of niacin = 60 mg of tryptophan; 0–6 months = preformed niacin (not NE).

fAs dietary folate equivalents (DFE). 1 DFE = 1 μg food folate = 0.6 μg of folic acid from fortified food or as a supplement consumed with food = 0.5 μg of a supplement taken on an empty stomach.

Page 1107 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Summary Tables: Dietary Reference Intakes." Institute of Medicine. 2011. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13050.
×

Riboflavin (mg/d)

Niacin (mg/d)e

Vitamin B6 (mg/d)

Folate (μg/d)f

Vitamin B12 (μg/d)

Pantothenic Acid (mg/d)

Biotin (μg/d)

Choline (mg/d)g

0.3*

2*

0.1*

65*

0.4*

1.7*

5*

125*

0.4*

4*

0.3*

80*

0.5*

1.8*

6*

150*

0.5

6

0.5

150

0.9

2*

8*

200*

0.6

8

0.6

200

1.2

3*

12*

250*

0.9

12

1.0

300

1.8

4*

20*

375*

1.3

16

1.3

400

2.4

5*

25*

550*

1.3

16

1.3

400

2.4

5*

30*

550*

1.3

16

1.3

400

2.4

5*

30*

550*

1.3

16

1.7

400

2.4h

5*

30*

550*

1.3

16

1.7

400

2.4h

5*

30*

550*

0.9

12

1.0

300

1.8

4*

20*

375*

1.0

14

1.2

400i

2.4

5*

25*

400*

1.1

14

1.3

400i

2.4

5*

30*

425*

1.1

14

1.3

400i

2.4

5*

30*

425*

1.1

14

1.5

400

2.4h

5*

30*

425*

1.1

14

1.5

400

2.4h

5*

30*

425*

1.4

18

1.9

600j

2.6

6*

30*

450*

1.4

18

1.9

600j

2.6

6*

30*

450*

1.4

18

1.9

600j

2.6

6*

30*

450*

1.6

17

2.0

500

2.8

7*

35*

550*

1.6

17

2.0

500

2.8

7*

35*

550*

1.6

17

2.0

500

2.8

7*

35*

550*

gAlthough AIs have been set for choline, there are few data to assess whether a dietary supply of choline is needed at all stages of the life cycle, and it may be that the choline requirement can be met by endogenous synthesis at some of these stages.

hBecause 10 to 30 percent of older people may malabsorb food-bound B12, it is advisable for those older than 50 years to meet their RDA mainly by consuming foods fortified with B12 or a supplement containing B12.

iIn view of evidence linking folate intake with neural tube defects in the fetus, it is recommended that all women capable of becoming pregnant consume 400 μg from supplements or fortified foods in addition to intake of food folate from a varied diet.

jIt is assumed that women will continue consuming 400 μg from supplements or fortified food until their pregnancy is confirmed and they enter prenatal care, which ordinarily occurs after the end of the periconceptional period—the critical time for formation of the neural tube.

SOURCES: Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorous, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride (1997); Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline (1998); Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids (2000); Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc (2001); Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate (2005); and Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D (2011). These reports may be accessed via www.nap.edu.

Page 1108 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Summary Tables: Dietary Reference Intakes." Institute of Medicine. 2011. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13050.
×

Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): Recommended Dietary Allowances and Adequate Intakes, Elements

Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, National Academies

Life Stage Group

Calcium (mg/d)

Chromium (μg/d)

Copper (μg/d)

Fluoride (mg/d)

Iodine (μg/d)

Iron (mg/d)

Magnesium (mg/d)

Manganese (mg/d)

Infants

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

0–6 mo

200*

0.2*

200*

0.01*

110*

0.27*

30*

0.003*

6–12 mo

260*

5.5*

220*

0.5*

130*

11

75*

0.6*

Children

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1–3 y

700

11*

340

0.7*

90

7

80

1.2*

4–8 y

1,000

15*

440

1*

90

10

130

1.5*

Males

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

9–13 y

1,300

25*

700

2*

120

8

240

1.9*

14–18 y

1,300

35*

890

3*

150

11

410

2.2*

19–30 y

1,000

35*

900

4*

150

8

400

2.3*

31–50 y

1,000

35*

900

4*

150

8

420

2.3*

51–70 y

1,000

30*

900

4*

150

8

420

2.3*

> 70 y

1,200

30*

900

4*

150

8

420

2.3*

Females

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

9–13 y

1,300

21*

700

2*

120

8

240

1.6*

14–18 y

1,300

24*

890

3*

150

15

360

1.6*

19–30 y

1,000

25*

900

3*

150

18

310

1.8*

31–50 y

1,000

25*

900

3*

150

18

320

1.8*

51–70 y

1,200

20*

900

3*

150

8

320

1.8*

> 70 y

1,200

20*

900

3*

150

8

320

1.8*

Pregnancy

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

14–18 y

1,300

29*

1,000

3*

220

27

400

2.0*

19–30 y

1,000

30*

1,000

3*

220

27

350

2.0*

31–50 y

1,000

30*

1,000

3*

220

27

360

2.0*

Lactation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

14–18 y

1,300

44*

1,300

3*

290

10

360

2.6*

19–30 y

1,000

45*

1,300

3*

290

9

310

2.6*

31–50 y

1,000

45*

1,300

3*

290

9

320

2.6*

NOTE: This table (taken from the DRI reports, see www.nap.edu) presents Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) in bold type and Adequate Intakes (AIs) in ordinary type followed by an asterisk (*). An RDA is the average daily dietary intake level sufficient to meet the nutrient requirements of nearly all (97–98 percent) healthy individuals in a group. It is calculated from an Estimated Average Requirement (EAR). If sufficient scientific evidence is not available to establish an EAR, and thus calculate an RDA, an AI is usually developed. For healthy breast-fed infants, an AI is the mean intake. The AI for other life stage and gender groups is believed to cover the needs of all healthy individuals in the groups, but lack of data or uncertainty in the data prevent being able to specify with confidence the percentage of individuals covered by this intake.

Page 1109 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Summary Tables: Dietary Reference Intakes." Institute of Medicine. 2011. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13050.
×

Molybdenum (μg/d)

Phosphorus (mg/d)

Selenium (μg/d)

Zinc (mg/d)

Potassium (g/d)

Sodium (g/d)

Chloride (g/d)

2*

100*

15*

2*

0.4*

0.12*

0.18*

3*

275*

20*

3

0.7*

0.37*

0.57*

17

460

20

3

3.0*

1.0*

1.5*

22

500

30

5

3.8*

1.2*

1.9*

34

1,250

40

8

4.5*

1.5*

2.3*

43

1,250

55

11

4.7*

1.5*

2.3*

45

700

55

11

4.7*

1.5*

2.3*

45

700

55

11

4.7*

1.5*

2.3*

45

700

55

11

4.7*

1.3*

2.0*

45

700

55

11

4.7*

1.2*

1.8*

34

1,250

40

8

4.5*

1.5*

2.3*

43

1,250

55

9

4.7*

1.5*

2.3*

45

700

55

8

4.7*

1.5*

2.3*

45

700

55

8

4.7*

1.5*

2.3*

45

700

55

8

4.7*

1.3*

2.0*

45

700

55

8

4.7*

1.2*

1.8*

50

1,250

60

12

4.7*

1.5*

2.3*

50

700

60

11

4.7*

1.5*

2.3*

50

700

60

11

4.7*

1.5*

2.3*

50

1,250

70

13

5.1*

1.5*

2.3*

50

700

70

12

5.1*

1.5*

2.3*

50

700

70

12

5.1*

1.5*

2.3*

SOURCES: Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorous, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride (1997); Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline (1998); Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids (2000); Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc (2001); Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate (2005); and Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D (2011). These reports may be accessed via www.nap.edu.

Page 1110 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Summary Tables: Dietary Reference Intakes." Institute of Medicine. 2011. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13050.
×

Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): Recommended Dietary Allowances and Adequate Intakes, Total Water and Macronutrients

Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, National Academies

Life Stage Group

Total Watera (L/d)

Carbohydrate (g/d)

Total Fiber (g/d)

Fat (g/d)

Linoleic Acid (g/d)

α-Linolenic Acid (g/d)

Proteinb (g/d)

Infants

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

0–6 mo

0.7*

60*

ND

31*

4.4*

0.5*

9.1*

6–12 mo

0.8*

95*

ND

30*

4.6*

0.5*

11.0

Children

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1–3 y

1.3*

130

19*

NDc

7*

0.7*

13

4–8 y

1.7*

130

25*

ND

10*

0.9*

19

Males

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

9–13 y

2.4*

130

31*

ND

12*

1.2*

34

14–18 y

3.3*

130

38*

ND

16*

1.6*

52

19–30 y

3.7*

130

38*

ND

17*

1.6*

56

31–50 y

3.7*

130

38*

ND

17*

1.6*

56

51–70 y

3.7*

130

30*

ND

14*

1.6*

56

> 70 y

3.7*

130

30*

ND

14*

1.6*

56

Females

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

9–13 y

2.1*

130

26*

ND

10*

1.0*

34

14–18 y

2.3*

130

26*

ND

11*

1.1*

46

19–30 y

2.7*

130

25*

ND

12*

1.1*

46

31–50 y

2.7*

130

25*

ND

12*

1.1*

46

51–70 y

2.7*

130

21*

ND

11*

1.1*

46

> 70 y

2.7*

130

21*

ND

11*

1.1*

46

Pregnancy

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

14–18 y

3.0*

175

28*

ND

13*

1.4*

71

19–30 y

3.0*

175

28*

ND

13*

1.4*

71

31–50 y

3.0*

175

28*

ND

13*

1.4*

71

Lactation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

14–18

3.8*

210

29*

ND

13*

1.3*

71

19–30 y

3.8*

210

29*

ND

13*

1.3*

71

31–50 y

3.8*

210

29*

ND

13*

1.3*

71

NOTE: This table (take from the DRI reports, see www.nap.edu) presents Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) in bold type and Adequate Intakes (AI) in ordinary type followed by an asterisk (*). An RDA is the average daily dietary intake level sufficient to meet the nutrient requirements of nearly all (97–98 percent) healthy individuals in a group. It is calculated from an Estimated Average Requirement (EAR). If sufficient scientific evidence is not available to establish an EAR, and thus calculate an RDA, an AI is usually developed. For healthy breast-fed infants, an AI is the mean intake. The AI for other life stage and gender groups is believed to cover the needs of all healthy individuals in the groups, but lack of data or uncertainty in the data prevent being able to specify with confidence the percentage of individuals covered by this intake.

aTotal water includes all water contained in food, beverages, and drinking water.

bBased on g protein per kg of body weight for the reference body weight, e.g., for adults 0.8 g/kg body weight for the reference body weight.

cNot determined.

SOURCE: Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids (2002/2005) and Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate (2005). The report may be accessed via www.nap.edu.

Page 1111 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Summary Tables: Dietary Reference Intakes." Institute of Medicine. 2011. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13050.
×

Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges

Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, National Academies

Macronutrient

Range (percent of energy)

Children, 1–3 y

Children, 4–18 y

Adults

Fat

30–40

25–35

20–35

n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acidsa (linoleic acid)

5–10

5–10

5–10

n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acidsa (α-linolenic acid)

0.6–1.2

0.6–1.2

0.6–1.2

Carbohydrate

45–65

45–65

45–65

Protein

5–20

10–30

10–35

aApproximately 10 percent of the total can come from longer-chain n-3 or n-6 fatty acids.

SOURCE: Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids (2002/2005). The report may be accessed via www.nap.edu.

Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): Additional Macronutrient Recommendations

Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, National Academies

Macronutrient

Recommendation

Dietary cholesterol

As low as possible while consuming a nutritionally adequate diet

Trans fatty acids

As low as possible while consuming a nutritionally adequate diet

Saturated fatty acids

As low as possible while consuming a nutritionally adequate diet

Added sugarsa

Limit to no more than 25% of total energy

aNot a recommended intake. A daily intake of added sugars that individuals should aim for to achieve a healthful diet was not set.

SOURCE: Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids (2002/2005). The report may be accessed via www.nap.edu.

Page 1112 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Summary Tables: Dietary Reference Intakes." Institute of Medicine. 2011. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13050.
×

Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): Tolerable Upper Intake Levels, Vitamins

Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, National Academies

Life Stage Group

Vitamin A (μg/d)a

Vitamin C (mg/d)

Vitamin D (μg/d)

Vitamin E (mg/d)b,c

Vitamin K

Thiamin

Riboflavin

Infants

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

0–6 mo

600

NDe

25

ND

ND

ND

ND

6–12 mo

600

ND

38

ND

ND

ND

ND

Children

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1−3 y

600

400

63

200

ND

ND

ND

4−8 y

900

650

75

300

ND

ND

ND

Males

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

9−13 y

1,700

1,200

100

600

ND

ND

ND

14−18 y

2,800

1,800

100

800

ND

ND

ND

19−30 y

3,000

2,000

100

1,000

ND

ND

ND

31−50 y

3,000

2,000

100

1,000

ND

ND

ND

51−70 y

3,000

2,000

100

1,000

ND

ND

ND

> 70 y

3,000

2,000

100

1,000

ND

ND

ND

Females

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

9−13 y

1,700

1,200

100

600

ND

ND

ND

14−18 y

2,800

1,800

100

800

ND

ND

ND

19−30 y

3,000

2,000

100

1,000

ND

ND

ND

31−50 y

3,000

2,000

100

1,000

ND

ND

ND

51−70 y

3,000

2,000

100

1,000

ND

ND

ND

> 70 y

3,000

2,000

100

1,000

ND

ND

ND

Pregnancy

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

14−18 y

2,800

1,800

100

800

ND

ND

ND

19−30 y

3,000

2,000

100

1,000

ND

ND

ND

31−50 y

3,000

2,000

100

1,000

ND

ND

ND

Lactation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

14−18 y

2,800

1,800

100

800

ND

ND

ND

19−30 y

3,000

2,000

100

1,000

ND

ND

ND

31−50 y

3,000

2,000

100

1,000

ND

ND

ND

NOTE: A Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) is the highest level of daily nutrient intake that is likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects to almost all individuals in the general population. Unless otherwise specified, the UL represents total intake from food, water, and supplements. Due to a lack of suitable data, ULs could not be established for vitamin K, thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B12, pantothenic acid, biotin, and carotenoids. In the absence of a UL, extra caution may be warranted in consuming levels above recommended intakes. Members of the general population should be advised not to routinely exceed the UL. The UL is not meant to apply to individuals who are treated with the nutrient under medical supervision or to individuals with predisposing conditions that modify their sensitivity to the nutrient.

aAs preformed vitamin A only.

bAs α-tocopherol; applies to any form of supplemental α-tocopherol.

cThe ULs for vitamin E, niacin, and folate apply to synthetic forms obtained from supplements, fortified foods, or a combination of the two.

Page 1113 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Summary Tables: Dietary Reference Intakes." Institute of Medicine. 2011. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13050.
×

Niacin (mg/d)c

Vitamin B6 (mg/d)

Folate (μg/d)c

Vitamin B12

Pantothenic Acid

Biotin

Choline (g/d)

Carotenoidsd

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

10

30

300

ND

ND

ND

1.0

ND

15

40

400

ND

ND

ND

1.0

ND

20

60

600

ND

ND

ND

2.0

ND

30

80

800

ND

ND

ND

3.0

ND

35

100

1,000

ND

ND

ND

3.5

ND

35

100

1,000

ND

ND

ND

3.5

ND

35

100

1,000

ND

ND

ND

3.5

ND

35

100

1,000

ND

ND

ND

3.5

ND

20

60

600

ND

ND

ND

2.0

ND

30

80

800

ND

ND

ND

3.0

ND

35

100

1,000

ND

ND

ND

3.5

ND

35

100

1,000

ND

ND

ND

3.5

ND

35

100

1,000

ND

ND

ND

3.5

ND

35

100

1,000

ND

ND

ND

3.5

ND

30

80

800

ND

ND

ND

3.0

ND

35

100

1,000

ND

ND

ND

3.5

ND

35

100

1,000

ND

ND

ND

3.5

ND

30

80

800

ND

ND

ND

3.0

ND

35

100

1,000

ND

ND

ND

3.5

ND

35

100

1,000

ND

ND

ND

3.5

ND

dβ-Carotene supplements are advised only to serve as a provitamin A source for individuals at risk of vitamin A deficiency.

eND = Not determinable due to lack of data of adverse effects in this age group and concern with regard to lack of ability to handle excess amounts. Source of intake should be from food only to prevent high levels of intake.

SOURCES: Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorous, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride (1997); Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline (1998); Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamine E, Selenium, and Carotenoids (2000); Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc (2001); and Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D (2011). These reports may be accessed via www.nap.edu.

Page 1114 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Summary Tables: Dietary Reference Intakes." Institute of Medicine. 2011. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13050.
×

Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): Tolerable Upper Intake Levels, Elements

Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, National Academies

Life Stage Group

Arsenica

Boron (mg/d)

Calcium (mg/d)

Chromium

Copper (μg/d)

Fluoride (mg/d)

Iodine (μg/d)

Iron (mg/d)

Infants

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

0–6 mo

NDe

ND

1,000

ND

ND

0.7

ND

40

6–12 mo

ND

ND

1,500

ND

ND

0.9

ND

40

Children

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1-3 y

ND

3

2,500

ND

1,000

1.3

200

40

4-8 y

ND

6

2,500

ND

3,000

2.2

300

40

Males

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

9-13 y

ND

11

3,000

ND

5,000

10

600

40

14-18 y

ND

17

3,000

ND

8,000

10

900

45

19-30 y

ND

20

2,500

ND

10,000

10

1,100

45

31-50 y

ND

20

2,500

ND

10,000

10

1,100

45

51-70 y

ND

20

2,000

ND

10,000

10

1,100

45

> 70 y

ND

20

2,000

ND

10,000

10

1,100

45

Females

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

9-13 y

ND

11

3,000

ND

5,000

10

600

40

14-18 y

ND

17

3,000

ND

8,000

10

900

45

19-30 y

ND

20

2,500

ND

10,000

10

1,100

45

31-50 y

ND

20

2,500

ND

10,000

10

1,100

45

51-70 y

ND

20

2,000

ND

10,000

10

1,100

45

> 70 y

ND

20

2,000

ND

10,000

10

1,100

45

Pregnancy

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

14-18 y

ND

17

3,000

ND

8,000

10

900

45

19-30 y

ND

20

2,500

ND

10,000

10

1,100

45

61-50 y

ND

20

2,500

ND

10,000

10

1,100

45

Lactation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

14-18 y

ND

17

3,000

ND

8,000

10

900

45

19-30 y

ND

20

2,500

ND

10,000

10

1,100

45

31-50 y

ND

20

2,500

ND

10,000

10

1,100

45

NOTE: A Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) is the highest level of daily nutrient intake that is likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects to almost all individuals in the general population. Unless otherwise specified, the UL represents total intake from food, water, and supplements. Due to a lack of suitable data, ULs could not be established for vitamin K, thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B12, pantothenic acid, biotin, and carotenoids. In the absence of a UL, extra caution may be warranted in consuming levels above recommended intakes. Members of the general population should be advised not to routinely exceed the UL. The UL is not meant to apply to individuals who are treated with the nutrient under medical supervision or to individuals with predisposing conditions that modify their sensitivity to the nutrient.

aAlthough the UL was not determined for arsenic, there is no justification for adding arsenic to food or supplements.

bThe ULs for magnesium represent intake from a pharmacological agent only and do not include intake from food and water.

cAlthough silicon has not been shown to cause adverse effects in humans, there is no justification for adding silicon to supplements.

Page 1115 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Summary Tables: Dietary Reference Intakes." Institute of Medicine. 2011. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13050.
×

Magnesium (mg/d)b

Manganese (mg/d)

Molybdenum (μg/d)

Nickel (mg/d)

Phosphorus (g/d)

Selenium (μg/d)

Siliconc

Vanadium (mg/d)d

Zinc (mg/d)

Sodium (g/d)

Chloride (g/d)

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

45

ND

ND

4

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

60

ND

ND

5

ND

ND

65

2

300

0.2

3

90

ND

ND

7

1.5

2.3

110

3

600

0.3

3

150

ND

ND

12

1.9

2.9

350

6

1,100

0.6

4

280

ND

ND

23

2.2

3.4

350

9

1,700

1.0

4

400

ND

ND

34

2.3

3.6

350

11

2,000

1.0

4

400

ND

1.8

40

2.3

3.6

350

11

2,000

1.0

4

400

ND

1.8

40

2.3

3.6

350

11

2,000

1.0

4

400

ND

1.8

40

2.3

3.6

350

11

2,000

1.0

3

400

ND

1.8

40

2.3

3.6

350

6

1,100

0.6

4

280

ND

ND

23

2.2

3.4

350

9

1,700

1.0

4

400

ND

ND

34

2.3

3.6

350

11

2,000

1.0

4

400

ND

1.8

40

2.3

3.6

350

11

2,000

1.0

4

400

ND

1.8

40

2.3

3.6

350

11

2,000

1.0

4

400

ND

1.8

40

2.3

3.6

350

11

2,000

1.0

3

400

ND

1.8

40

2.3

3.6

350

9

1,700

1.0

3.5

400

ND

ND

34

2.3

3.6

350

11

2,000

1.0

3.5

400

ND

ND

40

2.3

3.6

350

11

2,000

1.0

3.5

400

ND

ND

40

2.3

3.6

350

9

1,700

1.0

4

400

ND

ND

34

2.3

3.6

350

11

2,000

1.0

4

400

ND

ND

40

2.3

3.6

350

11

2,000

1.0

4

400

ND

ND

40

2.3

3.6

dAlthough vanadium in food has not been shown to cause adverse effects in humans, there is no justification for adding vanadium to food, and vanadium supplements should be used with caution. The UL is based on adverse effects in laboratory animals, and this data could be used to set a UL for adults but not children and adolescents.

eND = Not determinable due to lack of data of adverse effects in this age group and concern with regard to lack of ability to handle excess amounts. Source of intake should be from food only to prevent high levels of intake.

SOURCES: Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorous, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride (1997); Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline (1998); Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids (2000); Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc (2001); Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate (2005); and Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D (2011). These reports may be accessed via www.nap.edu.

Page 1116 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Summary Tables: Dietary Reference Intakes." Institute of Medicine. 2011. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13050.
×

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Suggested Citation:"Summary Tables: Dietary Reference Intakes." Institute of Medicine. 2011. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13050.
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Suggested Citation:"Summary Tables: Dietary Reference Intakes." Institute of Medicine. 2011. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13050.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Summary Tables: Dietary Reference Intakes." Institute of Medicine. 2011. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13050.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Summary Tables: Dietary Reference Intakes." Institute of Medicine. 2011. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13050.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Summary Tables: Dietary Reference Intakes." Institute of Medicine. 2011. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13050.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Summary Tables: Dietary Reference Intakes." Institute of Medicine. 2011. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13050.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Summary Tables: Dietary Reference Intakes." Institute of Medicine. 2011. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13050.
×
Page 1110
Page 1111 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Summary Tables: Dietary Reference Intakes." Institute of Medicine. 2011. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13050.
×
Page 1111
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Suggested Citation:"Summary Tables: Dietary Reference Intakes." Institute of Medicine. 2011. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13050.
×
Page 1112
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Suggested Citation:"Summary Tables: Dietary Reference Intakes." Institute of Medicine. 2011. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13050.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Summary Tables: Dietary Reference Intakes." Institute of Medicine. 2011. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13050.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Summary Tables: Dietary Reference Intakes." Institute of Medicine. 2011. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13050.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Summary Tables: Dietary Reference Intakes." Institute of Medicine. 2011. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13050.
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Calcium and vitamin D are essential nutrients for the human body. Establishing the levels of these nutrients that are needed by the North American population is based on the understanding of the health outcomes that calcium and vitamin D affect. It is also important to establish how much of each nutrient may be "too much."

Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D provides reference intake values for these two nutrients. The report updates the DRI values defined in Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride, the 1997 study from the Institute of Medicine. This 2011 book provides background information on the biological functions of each nutrient, reviews health outcomes that are associated with the intake of calcium and vitamin D, and specifies Estimated Average Requirements and Recommended Dietary Allowances for both. It also identifies Tolerable Upper Intake Levels, which are levels above wish the risk for harm may increase. The book includes an overview of current dietary intake in the U.S. and Canada, and discusses implications of the study. A final chapter provides research recommendations.

The DRIs established in this book incorporate current scientific evidence about the roles of vitamin D and calcium in human health and will serve as a valuable guide for a range of stakeholders including dietitians and other health professionals, those who set national nutrition policy, researchers, the food industry, and private and public health organizations and partnerships.

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