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TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2010 www.TRB.org A I R P O R T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M ACRP SYNTHESIS 21 Research Sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration SUBSCRIBER CATEGORIES Aviation â¢ Energy Airport Energy Efficiency and Cost Reduction A Synthesis of Airport Practice CONSULTANTS CRAIG R. LAU JOEL T. STROMGREN and DANIEL J. GREEN Miller Dunwiddie Architecture Minneapolis, Minnesota
AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in transportation of people and goods and in regional, national, and international commerce. They are where the nationâs aviation sys- tem connects with other modes of transportation and where federal responsibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most airports. Research is necessary to solve common oper- ating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The ACRP carries out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating agencies and are not being adequately addressed by existing federal research programs. It is modeled after the successful National Cooperative Highway Research Program and Transit Cooperative Research Program. The ACRP undertakes research and other technical activities in a variety of airport subject areas, including design, construction, maintenance, operations, safety, security, policy, planning, human resources, and administra- tion. The ACRP provides a forum where airport operators can coop- eratively address common operational problems. The ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision 100-Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary participants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Transportation with representation from airport operating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant indus- try organizations such as the Airports Council International-North America (ACI-NA), the American Association of Airport Execu- tives (AAAE), the National Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), and the Air Transport Association (ATA) as vital links to the airport community; (2) the TRB as program manager and sec- retariat for the governing board; and (3) the FAA as program spon- sor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a contract with the National Academies formally initiating the program. The ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of air- port professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research organizations. Each of these participants has different interests and responsibilities, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for the ACRP are solicited period- ically but may be submitted to the TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by identifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel, appointed by the TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport professionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels prepare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing coop- erative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the intended end-users of the research: airport operating agencies, service providers, and suppliers. The ACRP produces a series of research reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties, and industry associations may arrange for work- shops, training aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by airport-industry practitioners. ACRP SYNTHESIS 21 Project 11-03, Topic S10-04 ISSN 1935-9187 ISBN 978-0-309-14316-5 Library of Congress Control Number 2010932654 Â© 2010 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB or FAA endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Airport Cooperative Research Program, conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the Governing Board of the National Research Council. The members of the technical panel selected to monitor this project and to review this report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research Council, and the sponsors of the Airport Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturersâ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Published reports of the AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America
The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished schol- ars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and techni- cal matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Acad- emy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achieve- ments of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the AcademyÃs purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Acad- emy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scien- tific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both the Academies and the Insti- tute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is one of six major divisions of the National Research Council. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisci- plinary, and multimodal. The Boardâs varied activities annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation depart- ments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org
ACRP COMMITTEE FOR PROJECT 11-03 CHAIR BURR STEWART Seattle, Washington MEMBERS RANDALL P. BURDETTE Virginia Department of Aviation GARY C. CATHEY California Department of Transportation KEVIN C. DOLLIOLE Union Consulting, Inc. JULIE KENFIELD Jacobs Engineering Group, Inc. CAROLYN MOTZ Hagerstown Regional Airport FAA LIAISON RANDY MOSENG ACIâNORTH AMERICA LIAISON A.J. MULDOON AIRCRAFT OWNERS AND PILOTS ASSOCIATION JOHN L. COLLINS TRB LIAISON CHRISTINE GERENCHER COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS STAFF CHRISTOPHER W. JENKS, Director, Cooperative Research Programs CRAWFORD F. JENCKS, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs MICHAEL R. SALAMONE, Senior Program Officer EILEEN P. DELANEY, Director of Publications ACRP SYNTHESIS STAFF STEPHEN R. GODWIN, Director for Studies and Special Programs JON M. WILLIAMS, Program Director, IDEA and Synthesis Studies GAIL R. STABA, Senior Program Officer DON TIPPMAN, Editor CHERYL KEITH, Senior Program Assistant DEBBIE IRVIN, Program Associate TOPIC PANEL JOHN D. BULLOUGH, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute CHRISTINE GERENCHER, Transportation Research Board RUSTY T. HODAPP, Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport Board KEVIN MEIKLE, Fresno Yosemite International Airport TERRY MOORE, Mid Ohio Valley Regional Airport Authority DAVE PITTMANN, RenoâTahoe International Airport DENNIS PROBST, MinneapolisâSt. Paul International Airport ARLYN PURCELL, Port Authority of New York & New Jersey PAUL L. FRIEDMAN, Federal Aviation Administration (Liaison) JULIE UNLAND, Federal Aviation Administration (Liaison) Cover figure: Deep overhangs, integrated shading devices, and tinted, insulated glass reduce heat gain and cooling loads while allowing daylight to flood the main concourse at MSP Terminal 2 (Humphrey Terminal). (Photo Credit: Miller Dunwiddie Architecture, Minneapolis, MN.)
Airport administrators, engineers, and researchers often face problems for which informa- tion already exists, either in documented form or as undocumented experience and practice. This information may be fragmented, scattered, and unevaluated. As a consequence, full knowledge of what has been learned about a problem may not be brought to bear on its solu- tion. Costly research findings may go unused, valuable experience may be overlooked, and due consideration may not be given to recommended practices for solving or alleviating the problem. There is information on nearly every subject of concern to the airport industry. Much of it derives from research or from the work of practitioners faced with problems in their day-to- day work. To provide a systematic means for assembling and evaluating such useful informa- tion and to make it available to the entire airport community, the Airport Cooperative Research Program authorized the Transportation Research Board to undertake a continuing project. This project, ACRP Project 11-03, âSynthesis of Information Related to Airport Prac- tices,â searches out and synthesizes useful knowledge from all available sources and prepares concise, documented reports on specific topics. Reports from this endeavor constitute an ACRP report series, Synthesis of Airport Practice. This synthesis series reports on current knowledge and practice, in a compact format, with- out the detailed directions usually found in handbooks or design manuals. Each report in the series provides a compendium of the best knowledge available on those measures found to be the most successful in resolving specific problems. FOREWORD This report documents energy efficiency improvements being implemented at airports across the country that are low cost and short payback by means of a survey, interviews, and a literature review. It targets small airport terminal managers, staff, consultants, and other stakeholders interested in energy efficiency. Craig R. Lau, Joel T. Stromgren, and Daniel J. Green, Miller Dunwiddie Architecture, Minneapolis, Minnesota, collected and synthesized the information and wrote the report. The members of the topic panel are acknowledged on the preceding page. This synthesis is an immediately useful document that records the practices that were acceptable within the limitations of the knowledge available at the time of its preparation. As progress in research and practice continues, new knowledge will be added to that now at hand. PREFACE By Gail R. Staba Senior Program Officer Transportation Research Board
CONTENTS 1 SUMMARY 3 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Audience and Dissemination, 3 Background and Project Scope, 3 Terminology and Key Definitions, 3 Issues Addressed, 3 Report Content, 4 5 CHAPTER TWO PLANNING FOR ENERGY EFFICIENCY Energy Efficiency in Airport Planning, 5 Ways to Identify Energy Efficiency Projects, 5 Strategies to Plan Energy Efficiency Projects, 6 Funding Sources for Planning, 8 Planning Strategies Summary, 9 11 CHAPTER THREE ENERGY EFFICIENCY PRACTICES: BACKGROUND AND UTILIZATION Category and Type of Practice, 11 Methods for Utilizing Strategies, 11 Payback, Cost, and Percentage of Improvement, 11 Outline Structure, 12 13 CHAPTER FOUR ENERGY EFFICIENCY PRACTICES: MANAGEMENT AND OPERATIONS Automation and Controls, 13 Operations and Maintenance, 15 22 CHAPTER FIVE ENERGY EFFICIENCY PRACTICES: ENERGY USE AND SYSTEMS Sources, 22 Mechanical Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning, 25 Lighting, 27 Electrical Loads, 29 32 CHAPTER SIX ENERGY EFFICIENCY PRACTICES: CONSERVATION AND BUILDING ENVELOPE Building Envelope, 32 Reflective Materials to Reduce Heat Gain, 32 Glazing Improvements, 32 Insulation Improvements, 32 Air Movement, 33
35 CHAPTER SEVEN STRATEGIES FOR IMPLEMENTATION Factors That Aid in Implementation of Energy Efficiency Practices, 35 Project Justification, 35 Funding Challenge, 36 38 CHAPTER EIGHT NEW TECHNOLOGIES, INNOVATION, AND LONG-TERM PAYBACK Emerging Technologies, 38 Emerging Project Delivery, 40 Emerging Policy, 41 42 CHAPTER NINE CONCLUSIONS 43 REFERENCES 46 GLOSSARY OF TERMS, ACRONYMS, AND ABBREVIATIONS 48 APPENDIX A METHOD AND SURVEY RESPONSE 50 APPENDIX B AIRPORT ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND COST REDUCTION SURVEY 68 APPENDIX C LIST OF AIRPORTS RESPONDING TO SURVEY 69 APPENDIX D ENERGY EFFICIENCY PRACTICES AND PAYBACK MATRIX