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5This synthesis identifies practices and improvements that have been implemented and documented at airport termi- nals of varying size with a goal of reducing energy costs by means of energy efficiency. Before implementation of any program or project, studies and decisions are required to determine the scope of the project, the cost of the project, funding sources, and potential payback or rebates. For the purposes of this report, these decisions are grouped under the term âplanning.â This chapter discusses key planning and facility evaluation methods identified by respondents that are important to the successful design, funding, and implementation of energy efficiency practices. ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN AIRPORT PLANNING With energy as a significant percentage of yearly costs for most airports (usually 10% to 15% of the total operating budget), efficiency is identified as a high priority by respon- dents in current long-range plans. Based on survey results, many terminals are planning for energy improvements by including retrofits or upgrades in long-range plans whereas others work to save energy through energy audits and ongo- ing O&M plans. Literature sources also noted that it is impor- tant that strategic business plans include goals for efficient building operation as a part of asset management [Portland Energy Conservation, Inc. (PECI) 1999a, p. 3]. Plans can consider efficiency projects of all scales, costs, and paybacks to leverage investment. Although this report primarily addresses short payback, low-cost improvements, it is important to note that major, infrequent retrofit projects such as air handlers and boilers can also bring dramatic cost savings. WAYS TO IDENTIFY ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROJECTS O&M is a primary and cost-effective way airports can identify areas for energy efficiency improvements; however, commis- sioning and energy audits by local utilities also play a major role. A key to identifying where improvements are necessary or will be most effective is to collect and analyze data about airport systems. Collect and Analyze Data with Audits and Meters One of the most basic methods of gathering data about energy use is to perform an energy audit. Utility companies and energy service companies (ESCOs) offer many different types of audits. Most are no-to-low cost. Respondents suggested contacting the local utility company to determine the best audit method for a given facility. Airport staff or energy con- sultants can also perform audits. Audit types vary in scope and are typically dependent on facility type, size, and loca- tion. They can be done on existing and planned facilities. Existing buildings can receive a re-commissioning or retro- commissioning audit to identify ways to save energy and reduce costs. Audit data also provide accountability to fund- ing agencies and show money well spent or where design/ construction fell short of promises by validating equipment performance. Nearly one half of survey respondents reported using audits for improvement identification. Perform an Operations Assessment In addition to gathering quantitative data, literature sources sug- gest that an O&M assessment be performed to identify opti- mization practices. These practices are potentially lower cost than retrofits identified by an audit (PECI 1999b, pp. 4â5). CHAPTER TWO PLANNING FOR ENERGY EFFICIENCY Box 1 Audit vs. Assessment Audits typically refer to the analysis of the energy used by existing equipment over a period of time, often resulting in technological solutions to save energy. Assessments focus on the evaluation of operations programs and procedures to identify low-cost improvements. WEBLINKâCONSERVATION TIPS Simple Steps to Conserve From the DOE http://www1.eere.energy.gov/femp/services/ energy_aware_oec.html Review Energy Bills Analysis of existing electrical, gas, and water meter data and billing reports can also identify anomalies and assist in
calculating project payback. By reviewing billing history, yearly escalation costs per unit of energy, which for some air- ports has exceeded 10% for natural gas, can be determined and applied to payback analysis, potentially shortening the payback term. Recent literature relating to metering best practices iden- tify two methods of utilizing meter data called âefficiency opportunity identificationâ and âoperational opportunity iden- tificationâ (Sullivan et al. 2007, pp. 7.7â7.8). Efficiency oppor- tunity identification seeks to highlight variations in meter data for additional analysis, trending, and precision monitor- ing using portable means such as data loggers. Operational opportunity identification is described as âtuningâ the build- ing by comparing meter data with existing system parameters and settings to highlight failed, by-passed, disconnected, or defeated energy efficiency measures (Sullivan et al. 2007, pp. 7.7â7.8). See chapter four for additional discussion of audits and meters. Start Early Another tactic for identifying strategies is to begin thinking about efficiency early in any project. Integrating energy effi- ciency criteria into Pre-Design or Schematic Design phases of terminal projects through a design basis memorandum con- tinues the commitments to efficiency established in long-range plans [Clean Airport Partnership, Inc. (CAP) 2003, p. 6]. In addition to specifically noting efficiency, the memoran- dum can reference commissioning and adequate funding and time for efficiency upgrades. When integrated into a project at the earliest phase, there is also less chance of resistance to improvements because many design criteria are just being established. Reach for âLow Hanging Fruitâ This metaphor for seeking projects that are easy to achieve was seen by many respondents as a way to initiate cost-effective energy efficiency projects when resources are limited. One airport indicated that any improvement that qualifies for grants, rebates, or other assistance from the utility company is given highest priority. What is critical to this strategy is to select projects with ânet incremental expenses repaid through energy savings (or rebates) and then quantifying the projected energy savingsâ such that the programs receive appropriate political attention and âaggressive but achievable conservation targetsâ are set (CAP 2003b, p. 8). Leverage Commissioning Efforts Interview comments by a consulting mechanical engineer indi- cated that when retrofit projects are commissioned, support- ing equipment, ducting, or sensors are often found to be out of specification or in need of replacement. 6 Use Existing Standards to Guide Energy Efficient Design A useful resource for determining energy use targets are the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Con- dition Engineers (ASHRAE) and Illuminating Engineering Society standards such as ASHRA 55-2004, which in part establishes indoor temperature levels for comfort. Other national standards and quasi-public sustainability rating sys- tems such as the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC), Leadership Energy and Environmental Design (LEEDÂ®) pro- gram provides detailed high-performance building require- ments and often strategies for achieving those requirements. Box 2 Leadership Energy Environmental Design LEEDÂ® Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) is a point based system of evaluating, rating, and certifying sus- tainability in new and existing buildings. When a building is documented in compliance with the LEED guidelines it can be identified as LEED Certified. The rating system and certification is administered by the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC)âa non-profit cor- poration promoting sustainable building design. Achieving certification for a building requires registration with the USGBC and documentation of sustainability strategies within a prescriptive point system. Many points concern energy efficiency and involve mechanical or electrical systems and occupant comfort. Handbooks and other resources for the LEED program include documented strategies for achieving points toward certification. LEED does not specifically cover airport terminals. Because many smaller airport terminals function like small to mid-sized office buildings, strategies within LEED proposed for commercial construction offer an excellent resource for planning energy efficiency projects. Specific practices cited within this report that contribute to LEED points include: â¢ On-site or off-site renewable energy â¢ System level metering (U.S. Green Building Council 2008). WEBLINKâUSGBC LEED More information about the LEED Program: http://www.usgbc.org/LEED STRATEGIES TO PLAN ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROJECTS Small airports with limited budgets are often unable to dedi- cate funds to efficiency planning because of basic operational
7needs. The following section documents resources or strate- gies that may assist in planning for projects. Ensure SuccessâIncorporate Improvements into Projects and Plans After identification of improvements or development of strate- gies, incorporation of those improvements into individual proj- ects, O&M, airport budgets, and long-range plans will ensure improvements become reality. Some respondents noted the most success by including energy efficiency in the design of individual projects, whereas others incorporate energy efficiency into general or capital improvement budgets and long-range plans. Considering energy efficiency in long-range plans and general budgets will ensure consistent attention and funding and provide building data to justify additional improvements. At a minimum, energy efficiency projects included within the budget can be implemented more successfully when proj- ects can be broken down into phases, incremental steps, or by funding allocation for specific departments within the terminal/ airport budget. Energy Management Plan In addition to typical plans and planning processes, a number of larger airports have dedicated energy management plans. A comprehensive energy management plan can describe energy efficiency measures to implement, promoting those measures with the highest rate of return and energy savings that will meet the facilityâs specific operational needs. Small airport operators might also consider dedicated management plans as a component of operational plans to be prepared for funding opportunities. Test-Drive Strategies with Demonstration Projects One unique planning concept noted by larger airport respon- dents, including Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport (DFW) and MinneapolisâSt. Paul International Airport (MSP) is the use of demonstration projects. These tests often are ini- tiated with vendor support and allow airports to evaluate new technologies before large-scale implementation and to secure other funding sources. This proofing is a challenge for small terminals, but can be used where opportunities are presented. Larger airport demonstration projects are a resource that can be shared with all airports. Look to Other Terminals in Your Region for Practices Comparing energy use at contemporary airport terminals with similar space programs, climates, and building areas may help to establish energy efficiency goals, especially if those airports have implemented successful energy efficiency programs (CAP 2003b). Designate an Energy Advocate(s) on Project Teams As a strategy to reduce the vulnerability of energy efficiency measures to âvalue engineeringâ within larger projects, inter- viewees suggested designating an energy advocate or panel to support and monitor energy efficiency aspects of the project through all phases of design and construction (CAP 2003b). Pass it onâGenerate Tenant Improvement Planning Standards Renovation or tenant improvements within the airport termi- nal can be a way to reduce energy use and test practices for larger scale implementation. Providing proscriptive guidelines or standards for tenants allows the facility management to control and monitor improvements when O&M compo- nents are limited in airline leases or when tenants demand quick return on investments (CAP 2003a, p. 3). Examples range from simply specifying ENERGY STARÂ® compliant products as a part of the project to writing facility-specific (and usually more restrictive) energy codes or âLEEDÂ®â style standards. Customized standards developed with staff and consultant input can apply to many technical aspects of a project but may, at a minimum, apply to mechanical and electrical systems. Future Proofing An effective method of planning for energy efficiency noted by interviewees is to think ahead in anticipation of future tech- nologies or changes in fuel or energy supply and integrate sup- port systems into current projects. Known as âfuture-proofing,â investments in the form of an additional conduit under pave- ments, heavier roof structure for photovoltaic (PV) panels, or larger mechanical rooms could reduce the cost of future retro- fits or new projects (EPA and DOE n.d.a). Seek Out Existing Documents and Programs When planning for energy efficiency projects and programs, a wide variety of documents and resources can be consulted. Many smaller airports surveyed rely on other airport managers and consultants for information and data, whereas larger air- ports seek information from multiple sources including local and regional codes, sustainable building rating systems, con- sultants, and utility company programs. Over the last decade, sustainability trends within commer- cial construction and real estate, as well as public and govern- ment construction, have led to greater accessibility to energy efficiency strategies for airport managers and consultants. Some programs, such as the EPA/DOE ENERGY STARÂ®
program, provide an energy performance rating system and energy management tools for achieving energy efficiency tar- gets, whereas others such as LEED 2009 for Existing Build- ings: O&M, include suggested strategies and technologies (for achieving points) related to energy efficiency (EPA and DOE n.d.a.; USGBC 2008) (see Figure 1). WEBLINKâENERGY STAR UPGRADE MANUAL This manual outlines a process for developing a comprehensive energy-management strategy and an integrated approach to upgrading existing buildings: http://www.energystar.gov/ia/business/ EPA_BUM_Full.pdf An additional resource developed concurrent with this report by the Sustainable Aviation Guidance Alliance is the Airport Sustainability Database (âSustainable Aviation Guidance Allianceâ 2009). This database seeks to be a com- prehensive, searchable resource that identifies measures, including energy efficiency practices, to improve sustain- ability at airports. Also concurrent with this report and developed by the Chicago Department of Aviation is the Sustainable Airport Manual. This update of a 2003 document was introduced in August 2009 and will include future chapters on planning and O&M (Chicago Department of Aviation 2009). WEBLINKâADDITIONAL PLANNING RESOURCES AIRPORT SUSTAINABILITY DATABASE (SAGA): http://www.airportsustainability.org/database WEBLINKâADDITIONAL PLANNING RESOURCES SUSTAINABLE AIRPORT MANUAL: http://www.airportsgoinggreen.org/SAM 8 FUNDING SOURCES FOR PLANNING Airports large and small that have planned for energy effi- ciency most often have included funding for planning in the budget. Dedicated Sustainability Budget One major airport has broken out sustainability as a category within the budget, allowing critical review and accountabil- ity for energy efficiency and other environmentally focused projects. This reinforces direction from ACRP Research Results Digest 2 to create an on-going energy conservation program with annual investment (Turner et al. 2007, p. 10). Box 3 MSP Metropolitan Airports Commission MEC Program Minneapolis/St. Paul International Airport (MSP) started focused planning for energy efficiency in 1998 with its MAC Energy Conservation Program, when $1 million was allo- cated through the Capital Improvement Program (CIP) for energy efficiency improvements. The budget for these improvements has grown to $2 million annually, and addi- tional projects are continually identified for the program. Projects have ranged from chiller plant improvements and heat recovery from boiler stacks, to commissioning and building automation systems. The program continually looks at new technologies and new standards for potential future projects. The first 10 years of improvements (1998â2008) are expected to have fully paid for themselves by 2012. FIGURE 1 Existing energy efficiency programs. U.S. Department of Energy, ENERGY STAR Program logo with linkage phrase. Planning as a Part of Consultant Services Other airports have innovated by requiring all mechanical and engineering consultants to consider and plan for energy effi- ciency as a part of basic services, thereby building in feasibil- ity studies and planning into every project. Utility Programs, Rebates, and Incentives Additional planning resources have been found through local utility grant and rebate programs as well as federal grants. By focusing on projects eligible for grants or rebates, some larger airports are able to reduce the vulnerability of planning resources and programs within the budgetary process. Utility programs help building owners and operators make informed efficiency decisions, implement energy efficiency strategies, and aid in reducing peak loads on the utility. Typ- ical utility-directed programs are an energy audit, rebates, and capital incentives. Additional programs and rate arrange-
9ments as well as other incentives for large energy users such as airports are also available (U.S. Department of the Inte- rior 2006). Rebate offerings vary greatly among utility companies and by location. Some improvements that may qualify include energy efficient chillers, lighting, lighting occupancy sen- sors, air conditioners, duct inspections/repair, solar window film, ceiling and wall insulation upgrades, motors, refrigera- tion equipment, heat recovery systems, and heat pump water heaters. Interviewees stressed the importance of building a strong relationship with the local energy provider or utility as a key strategy for identifying energy efficiency programs. audits and other planning, ESCOâs will also install, moni- tor, and finance retrofit projects with paybacks greater than five years. An excellent initial resource for state, utility, and other incentive programs is the Financial Incentives for Energy Efficiency table compiled by the Database of State Incentives for Renewable and Efficiencies (see Figure 2). WEBLINKâFINANCIAL INCENTIVES DSIREâFinancial Incentives for Energy Efficiency: http://www.dsireusa.org/summarytables/finee.cfm. PLANNING STRATEGIES SUMMARY From data collected, the following strategies were discussed for planning energy efficiency practices. â¢ Consider energy efficiency in long-range plans. â¢ Consider energy efficiency every day in O&M. â¢ Create a separate sustainability plan. â¢ Include energy efficiency and feasibility studies in every project. â¢ Knowledge resources for planning energy efficiency proj- ects include other airport managers, consultants, local ordinances, utility programs, and national standards. â¢ Primary funding resources for planning may be allo- cated in budgets but also can be found in utility grants and as a requirement of basic consultant services. â¢ Consider phased implementation or departmental prior- itization to focus limited budgets. â¢ Use utility audits, O&M data, and commissioning to develop a list of energy efficiency projects. â¢ Search out utility programs for no-cost audits. â¢ Test improvement projects at a small scale to plan for larger scale implementation. â¢ Enforce efficiency with tenant and airport design standards. Box 4 Retroactive Utility Rebates Utility companies often require commercial customers to apply for rebates during the planning stages of larger pro- jects. MSP has worked closely with its local electrical utility, Xcel Energy, to develop a Joint Efficiency Agreement Pro- gram that allows rebates to be applied for and received retroactively. The advantage of this program is that it allows projects to be fully developed before starting these discus- sions, and the final installation can be evaluated for rebate eligibility. It also allows smaller projects that may have been passed over to be reconsidered and not eliminated as a result of a procedural timeline. ESCO Performance Contracts Energy service companies provide a range of services related to improving energy efficiency and reducing maintenance costs for facilities. Services are performance-based, with compen- sation relating directly to energy saved. In addition to energy
10 FIGURE 2 DSIRE website heading.