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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2015. Industrialization of Biology: A Roadmap to Accelerate the Advanced Manufacturing of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/19001.
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Industrialization
of Biology

A Roadmap to Accelerate the Advanced
Manufacturing of Chemicals

Committee on Industrialization of Biology:
A Roadmap to Accelerate the Advanced Manufacturing of Chemicals

Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology

Board on Life Sciences

Division on Earth and Life Studies

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
                          OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.

www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2015. Industrialization of Biology: A Roadmap to Accelerate the Advanced Manufacturing of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/19001.
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS    500 Fifth Street, NW    Washington, DC 20001

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This study was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under Grant DE-SC0010761 and the National Science Foundation under Grant CBET-1344363.

This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to a specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or agency thereof.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-31652-1
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-31652-9
Library of Congress Control Number: 2015937241

Additional copies of the report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu.

Copyright 2015 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2015. Industrialization of Biology: A Roadmap to Accelerate the Advanced Manufacturing of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/19001.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president of the Institute of Medicine.

The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council.

www.national-academies.org

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2015. Industrialization of Biology: A Roadmap to Accelerate the Advanced Manufacturing of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/19001.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2015. Industrialization of Biology: A Roadmap to Accelerate the Advanced Manufacturing of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/19001.
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COMMITTEE ON INDUSTRIALIZATION OF BIOLOGY:
A ROADMAP TO ACCELERATE THE
ADVANCED MANUFACTURING OF CHEMICALS

Members

THOMAS M. CONNELLY, JR. (Chair), E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company (ret.)

MICHELLE C. CHANG, University of California, Berkeley

LIONEL CLARKE, UK Synthetic Biology Leadership Council

ANDREW D. ELLINGTON, University of Texas at Austin

NATHAN J. HILLSON, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

RICHARD A. JOHNSON, Global Helix LLC

JAY D. KEASLING, University of California, Berkeley

STEPHEN S. LADERMAN, Agilent Technologies, Inc.

PILAR OSSORIO, University of Wisconsin Law School

KRISTALA L. J. PRATHER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

RESHMA P. SHETTY, Ginkgo Bioworks, Inc.

CHRISTOPHER A. VOIGT, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

HUIMIN ZHAO, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

National Research Council Staff

DOUGLAS FRIEDMAN, Study Director, Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology

INDIA HOOK-BARNARD, Senior Program Officer, Board on Life Sciences

CARL-GUSTAV ANDERSON, Research Associate

ELIZABETH FINKELMAN, Program Coordinator

NAWINA MATSHONA, Senior Program Assistant

JOHN SADOWSKI, Christine Mirzayan Science & Technology Policy Fellow (Winter 2014)

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2015. Industrialization of Biology: A Roadmap to Accelerate the Advanced Manufacturing of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/19001.
×

BOARD ON CHEMICAL SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGY

Members

TIMOTHY SWAGER, (Co-Chair), Massachusetts Institute of Technology

DAVID WALT, (Co-Chair), Tufts University

HÉCTOR D. ABRUÑA, Cornell University

JOEL C. BARRISH, Bristol-Myers Squibb

MARK A. BARTEAU, University of Michigan

DAVID BEM, The Dow Chemical Company

ROBERT G. BERGMAN, University of California, Berkeley

JOAN BRENNECKE, University of Notre Dame

HENRY E. BRYNDZA, E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company

MICHELLE V. BUCHANAN, Oak Ridge National Laboratory

DAVID W. CHRISTIANSON, University of Pennsylvania

RICHARD EISENBERG, University of Rochester

JILL HRUBY, Sandia National Laboratories

FRANCES S. LIGLER, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, and North Carolina State University

SANDER G. MILLS, Merck Research Laboratories (ret.)

JOSEPH B. POWELL, Shell

ROBERT E. ROBERTS, Institute for Defense Analyses

PETER J. ROSSKY, Rice University

National Research Council Staff

TERESA FRYBERGER, Director

DOUGLAS FRIEDMAN, Senior Program Officer

KATHRYN HUGHES, Senior Program Officer

CAMLY TRAN, Postdoctoral Fellow

CARL-GUSTAV ANDERSON, Research Associate

ELIZABETH FINKELMAN, Program Coordinator

NAWINA MATSHONA, Senior Program Assistant

COTILYA BROWN, Senior Program Assistant

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2015. Industrialization of Biology: A Roadmap to Accelerate the Advanced Manufacturing of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/19001.
×

BOARD ON LIFE SCIENCES

Members

JAMES P. COLLINS (Chair), Arizona State University

ENRIQUETA C. BOND, Burroughs Wellcome Fund (ret.)

ROGER D. CONE, Vanderbilt University Medical Center

JOSEPH R. ECKER, Salk Institute for Biological Studies

SEAN EDDY, HHMI Janelia Farm Research Campus

SARAH C. R. ELGIN, Washington University in St. Louis

DAVID R. FRANZ, Former Commander USAMRIID; Consultant

STEPHEN FRIEND, Sage Bionetworks

ELIZABETH HEITMAN, Vanderbilt University Medical Center

JOHN G. HILDEBRAND, University of Arizona

RICHARD A. JOHNSON, Global Helix LLC

JUDITH KIMBLE, University of Wisconsin, Madison

MARY E. MAXON, Science Philanthropy Alliance

KAREN E. NELSON, J. Craig Venter Institute

ROBERT M. NEREM, Georgia Institute of Technology

MARY E. POWER, University of California, Berkeley

MARGARET RILEY, University of Massachusetts, Amherst

LANA SKIRBOLL, Sanofi

JANIS C. WEEKS, University of Oregon

MARY WOOLLEY, Research!America

Staff

FRANCES E. SHARPLES, Director

JO L. HUSBANDS, Scholar/Senior Project Director

JAY B. LABOV, Senior Scientist/Program Director for Biology Education

KATHERINE W. BOWMAN, Senior Program Officer

MARILEE K. SHELTON-DAVENPORT, Senior Program Officer

KEEGAN SAWYER, Program Officer

AUDREY THEVENON, Associate Program Officer

BETHELHEM MEKASHA, Financial Associate

ANGELA KOLESNIKOVA, Administrative Assistant

P. KANOKO MAEDA, Senior Project Assistant

JENNA OGILVIE, Senior Project Assistant

Page viii Cite
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2015. Industrialization of Biology: A Roadmap to Accelerate the Advanced Manufacturing of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/19001.
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Preface

The efficient production of useful and beneficial goods and services has been the cornerstone of industrial development, driving economic growth for more than two centuries. Throughout this period, the underpinning technologies driving industrialization have evolved in response to new scientific understanding, new technological capabilities, and new market demands. Insights into the chemical nature of matter, reaction mechanisms, and the role of physical and catalytic processes transformed the industrial landscape during the 19th century. By the early 20th century, a new understanding of chemistry transformed crude oil into a feedstock for a vast array of chemical products ranging from plastics and paints to detergents and textiles—transforming nearly every aspect of our lives.

Today, we are at a new inflection point. The tremendous progress in biology over the past half century—from Watson and Crick’s elucidation of the structure of DNA to today’s astonishing, rapid progress in the field of synthetic biology—has positioned us for the new round of innovation in chemical production. This observation provided the impetus for this study, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Science Foundation. Our committee was charged with understanding how to accelerate biological production of chemicals and also to create a roadmap to that future.

The committee of 13 members (Appendix C) convened from approximately February 2014 through December 2014 and met in person four times. Expertise included synthetic biology, metabolic engineering, molecular biology, microbiology, systems biology, synthetic chemistry, chemical

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2015. Industrialization of Biology: A Roadmap to Accelerate the Advanced Manufacturing of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/19001.
×

engineering, bioinformatics, systems integration, metrology, chemical manufacturing, and law and bioethics. The committee heard from researchers at the leading edge of microbial biotechnology and from industry leaders, including large, established chemical companies and technology-rich startups. We had dialogue with representatives of U.S. government agencies and with nongovernment organizations. In May 2014 the committee held a 2-day workshop (Appendix D), which laid the foundation for the conclusions, recommendations, and roadmap found in this report.

Any roadmap is an ephemeral guide—a snapshot in time. The committee took care to set ambitious goals that emphasize outcomes over individual technologies. As science and technology advance and economic circumstances change, it is often the road-mapping process that can provide lasting value. This observation, coupled with the broad, outcome-oriented goals herein, led the committee to discuss the road-mapping process as a continuing activity that the sponsoring agencies may wish to consider on a regular basis in order to ensure acceleration of this field and maintenance of the roadmap in a living, evergreen process.

As stated in the National Bioeconomy Blueprint released in 2012, “[e]conomic activity that is fueled by research and innovation in the biological science, the ‘bioeconomy,’ is a large and rapidly growing segment of the world economy that provides substantial public benefit.” The picture that emerged through the course of the study was that of a field with tremendous potential for innovation, economic impact, and great discovery—if only we can accelerate its maturity.

Thomas M. Connelly, Jr., Chair

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2015. Industrialization of Biology: A Roadmap to Accelerate the Advanced Manufacturing of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/19001.
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Acknowledgment of Reviewers

This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process.

We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report:

Scott Baker, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

Sean Eddy, HHMI Janelia Farm Research Campus

Jennifer Holmgren, LanzaTech

Sang Yup Lee, KAIST

James Liao, University of California, Los Angeles

Richard Murray, California Institute of Technology

Kathie Olsen, ScienceWorks, LLC

Markus Pompejus, BASF Corporation

Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2015. Industrialization of Biology: A Roadmap to Accelerate the Advanced Manufacturing of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/19001.
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before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Klavs Jensen of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Michael Ladisch of Purdue University. Appointed by the National Research Council, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2015. Industrialization of Biology: A Roadmap to Accelerate the Advanced Manufacturing of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/19001.
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The tremendous progress in biology over the last half century - from Watson and Crick's elucidation of the structure of DNA to today's astonishing, rapid progress in the field of synthetic biology - has positioned us for significant innovation in chemical production. New bio-based chemicals, improved public health through improved drugs and diagnostics, and biofuels that reduce our dependency on oil are all results of research and innovation in the biological sciences. In the past decade, we have witnessed major advances made possible by biotechnology in areas such as rapid, low-cost DNA sequencing, metabolic engineering, and high-throughput screening. The manufacturing of chemicals using biological synthesis and engineering could expand even faster. A proactive strategy - implemented through the development of a technical roadmap similar to those that enabled sustained growth in the semiconductor industry and our explorations of space - is needed if we are to realize the widespread benefits of accelerating the industrialization of biology.

Industrialization of Biology presents such a roadmap to achieve key technical milestones for chemical manufacturing through biological routes. This report examines the technical, economic, and societal factors that limit the adoption of bioprocessing in the chemical industry today and which, if surmounted, would markedly accelerate the advanced manufacturing of chemicals via industrial biotechnology. Working at the interface of synthetic chemistry, metabolic engineering, molecular biology, and synthetic biology, Industrialization of Biology identifies key technical goals for next-generation chemical manufacturing, then identifies the gaps in knowledge, tools, techniques, and systems required to meet those goals, and targets and timelines for achieving them. This report also considers the skills necessary to accomplish the roadmap goals, and what training opportunities are required to produce the cadre of skilled scientists and engineers needed.

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