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Reducing the Use of Highly Enriched Uranium in Civilian Research Reactors (2016)

Chapter: Appendix B: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Reducing the Use of Highly Enriched Uranium in Civilian Research Reactors. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21818.
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Appendix B

Biographical Sketches of Committee Members

Julia M. Phillips, chair, is the former vice president and chief technology officer at Sandia National Laboratories, a U.S. Department of Energy multiprogram science and engineering laboratory. She was responsible for leading the laboratory’s approximately $160 million Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program, research strategy development and implementation, and intellectual property protection and deployment. Dr. Phillips joined Sandia in 1995 after spending 14 years at AT&T Bell Laboratories, where she performed research on epitaxial metallic and insulating films on semiconductors; high-temperature superconducting, ferroelectric and magnetic oxide thin films; and novel transparent conducing materials. Other positions at Sandia included deputy chief technology officer and director of laboratory research strategy and partnerships; director of nuclear weapons science and technology programs; director of the Physical, Chemical, and Nano Sciences Center; and director of the DOE Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies at Sandia and Los Alamos national laboratories. Dr. Phillips is a member of the National Academy of Engineering (NAE) and a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Materials Research Society (MRS), American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), and the American Physical Society (APS). She served on the Council of the NAE and the AAAS Board of Directors and is past chair of the APS Topical Group on Energy Research and Applications and the APS Division of Condensed Matter Physics. She also served as president of the MRS. Her “leadership and pioneering research in materials physics for industrial and national security applications” was recognized by the 2008 George E. Pake Prize. She has served

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Reducing the Use of Highly Enriched Uranium in Civilian Research Reactors. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21818.
×

on the editorial boards of the Journal of Materials Research, Journal of Applied Physics, and Applied Physics Reviews. Dr. Phillips has edited 2 books, written 3 book chapters, and published more than 100 journal papers, 12 major review articles, and 45 refereed conference proceedings publications. She also holds five patents. Dr. Phillips has a Ph.D. in applied physics from Yale University and a B.S. in physics from the College of William and Mary.

Pablo Adelfang recently retired as leader of the Research Reactor Section in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Before joining the IAEA in 2003, he worked for 23 years for the Argentine National Commission of Atomic Energy (CNEA), where he served as head of the Department of Nuclear Fuels and deputy director of the Constituyentes Atomic Centre. At CNEA, Lic. Adelfang led the development of high-density fuels for research and test reactors and the installation of the Laboratory for Post-irradiation Examinations. He conducted the successful qualification of low enriched uranium (LEU) silicide-type fuel elements for research and test reactor fuel conversion. He also led the development effort to convert the production of the medical isotope, molybdenum-99 (99Mo), from highly enriched uranium (HEU) to LEU targets. Argentina was the first country to convert its domestic production of 99Mo from HEU to LEU targets. Lic. Adelfang was also responsible for the Argentine participation in the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors program and for the Argentine contribution in the international effort to develop very high-density research and test reactor fuel based on uranium-molybdenum alloys. He received his Licenciatura in chemistry from the University of Buenos Aires, Argentina, and later specialized in nuclear chemistry at CNEA.

Gerald Gabrielse is the Leverett Professor of Physics at Harvard University. His previous positions include assistant and associate professor at the University of Washington-Seattle and chair of the Harvard Physics Department. His physics research focuses on making the most accurate measurements of the electron’s magnetic moment and its fine-structure constant, and on precise laser spectroscopy of helium. At the European Organization for Nuclear Research (formerly the Conseil Européen pour la Recherche Nucléaire, a.k.a. CERN), Dr. Gabrielse also led the International Antihydrogen Trap, or “ATRAP”, Collaboration which pioneered accurate hydrogen spectroscopy and first observed hot antihydrogen atoms. His many awards and prizes include fellow of the American Physical Society (APS), the Davisson-Germer Prize of the APS, the Humboldt Research Award (Germany, 2005), and the Tomassoni Award (Italy, 2008). Harvard University awarded Dr. Gabrielse both its George Ledlie Research Prize and its Levenson Teaching Prize. Hundreds of outside lectures include a

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Reducing the Use of Highly Enriched Uranium in Civilian Research Reactors. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21818.
×

Källén Lecture (Sweden), a Poincaré Lecture (France), a Faraday Lecture (Cambridge, UK), a Schrödinger lecture (Austria), a Zachariasen Lecture (University of Chicago), and a Rosenthal Lecture (Yale University). He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences. He has a B.S. from Calvin College and an M.S. and a Ph.D. in physics from the University of Chicago.

Alexander Glaser is an assistant professor at the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs and in the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at Princeton University, where he directs the Nuclear Futures Laboratory. His research interests focus on technical aspects of nuclear disarmament and nonproliferation, nuclear transparency and verification, the nuclear fuel cycle, and nuclear energy. Dr. Glaser is the co-editor of Science & Global Security. He is the co-chair of the International Panel on Fissile Materials, which publishes the annual Global Fissile Material Report. He has consulted for the International Atomic Energy Agency and was a member of a joint working group of the American Physical Society and the American Association for the Advancement of Science on Nuclear Forensics: Role, State of the Art, Program Needs. He has extensively studied and written about the challenges of converting research reactors to low enriched fuel and performed neutronics calculations of Germany’s FRM-II reactor, which uses highly enriched uranium fuel. He is a co-author of Unmaking the Bomb: A Fissile Material Approach to Nuclear Disarmament and Nonproliferation. Dr. Glaser received an M.A. and a Ph.D. in physics from Darmstadt University of Technology, Germany.

David W. Johnson, Jr., is currently an editor-in-chief for the Journal of the American Ceramic Society. He is the retired director of materials research at Bell Laboratories, Lucent Technologies, and former adjunct professor of materials science at Stevens Institute of Technology. His research activities included fabrication and processing of glass and ceramics with emphasis on materials for electronic and photonic applications. He is a member of several professional societies, including a fellow, distinguished life member, and past president of the American Ceramic Society. Dr. Johnson won the Taylor Lecture Award and the Distinguished Alumni Award from Pennsylvania State University; the Ross Coffin Purdy Award for the best paper in ceramic literature; the Fulrath Award; the John Jeppson Award; the Orton Lecture Award from the American Ceramic Society; and the International Ceramics Prize for Industrial Research from the World Academy of Ceramics. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering and the World Academy of Ceramics. He holds 46 U.S. patents and has published numerous papers on materials sciences. He earned a B.S. in ceramic technology and a Ph.D. in ceramic science from Pennsylvania State University.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Reducing the Use of Highly Enriched Uranium in Civilian Research Reactors. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21818.
×

Patrick Lemoine retired as research director of Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA, the French Atomic Energy Commission) in February 2014 after a 40-year career in structural materials and nuclear fuels for power and research reactors. From 2001 through 2014, Mr. Lemoine directed the CEA program of development and qualification of fuels for research reactors, including the next-generation low enriched uranium fuel (LEU), specifically for the Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR), the materials testing reactor currently under construction at CEA-Cadarache Center in France. He has worked directly with international fuel developers at laboratories in the United States, Belgium, Russia, Korea, Canada, and Argentina and has participated in numerous fuel development working groups of the International Atomic Energy Agency. He is familiar with European and international research and test reactor fuels. In parallel to his work on JHR fuels, Mr. Lemoine also served as program manager (2001–2009) for safety-related experimental reactors (Cabri and Phébus) and a fast neutron reactor (Phénix). Before that, he served as head of the applied metallurgy unit at CEA-Saclay (1987–1994) and head of the materials unit at CEA-Grenoble (1997–2001). Mr. Lemoine was appointed as an international expert by the CEA in 2009 in the domain of structural materials and nuclear fuels. He received a civil engineering degree from École Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées, where in parallel with his first CEA activities, he taught continuum mechanics for 15 years as lecturer (1972–1987).

William R. Martin is a professor and former chair of the Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, and former associate dean for academic affairs in the College of Engineering at the University of Michigan. Dr. Martin’s primary research area is the development of computational methods for the solution of the Boltzmann transport equation, including neutrons, photons, and electrons. He has graduated 35 Ph.D. students during his career at the University of Michigan. Dr. Martin was the founding director of both the Laboratory for Scientific Computation and the Center for Advanced Computing at the University of Michigan. He has been a member and/or chair of review panels for five different national laboratories: Argonne, Sandia, Lawrence Livermore, Oak Ridge, and Los Alamos. He recently served on the National Research Council’s Committee to Review the Quality of the Management and of the Science and Engineering Research at the Department of Energy National Security Laboratories—Phase II. Currently, Dr. Martin is a consultant with Los Alamos National Laboratory on the development of Monte Carlo methods for neutron and photon transport, including nonlinear thermal radiation transport and stochastic media. Dr. Martin is a member of the Board of Directors of the American Nuclear Society and has served in several positions

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Reducing the Use of Highly Enriched Uranium in Civilian Research Reactors. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21818.
×

in the Mathematics and Computation Division, including member of the executive committee, treasurer, numerous program committees, and chair. He received his B.S.E. in engineering physics and his M.S.E. and Ph.D. in nuclear engineering from the University of Michigan. He also received an M.S. in physics from the University of Wisconsin and served in the Naval Reactors Division for the U.S. Navy.

Pavel Podvig (technical consultant) is an independent analyst based in Geneva, where he runs his research project, “Russian Nuclear Forces.” He is also a senior research fellow at the UN Institute for Disarmament Research and a researcher with the Program on Science and Global Security at Princeton University. Dr. Podvig started his work on arms control at the Center for Arms Control Studies at the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT), which was the first independent research organization in Russia dedicated to analysis of technical issues of disarmament and nonproliferation. Dr. Podvig led the Center for Arms Control Studies project that produced the book, Russian Strategic Nuclear Forces (MIT Press, 2001). In recognition of his work in Russia, the American Physical Society awarded Dr. Podvig the Leo Szilard Lectureship Award of 2008 (with Anatoli Diakov). Dr. Podvig worked with the Program on Science and Global Security at Princeton University, the Security Studies Program at MIT, and the Center for International Security and Cooperation at Stanford University. His current research focuses on the Russian strategic forces and nuclear weapons complex, as well as technical and political aspects of nuclear nonproliferation, disarmament, missile defense, and U.S.-Russian arms control process. Dr. Podvig is a member of the International Panel on Fissile Materials. He has a physics degree from the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology and a Ph.D. in political science from the Moscow Institute of World Economy and International Relations.

Roger Pynn is a professor of physics at the University of Indiana, Bloomington. His research activities focus on the development of novel experimentation methods in neutron scattering, the construction of a beamline at the University of Indiana’s Low Energy Neutron Source, and the application of neutron scattering methods to a variety of problems, mainly in macromolecular systems and layered magnetic materials. Prior to his current appointment, he worked at Los Alamos National Laboratory, first as center leader of the Manuel Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center and later as division director of the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE). Concurrent with his work at LANSCE, he was the program manager for Basic Energy Sciences. Prior to coming to LANL, he performed neutron-scattering experiments and developed instrumentation at the Institut Laue-Langevin in France. In 2009, he received Norway’s

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Reducing the Use of Highly Enriched Uranium in Civilian Research Reactors. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21818.
×

Gunnar Randers Research Prize for his pioneering work in neutron-scattering studies and uses in advanced materials science. He is a member of the Norwegian Physical Society and the Materials Research Society. He is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the American Physical Society, and the Neutron Scattering Society of America. He served as president of the Neutron Scattering Society of America from 2005 to 2008. He has served on numerous government committees related to neutron and x-ray sources. Dr. Pynn is an invited lecturer and teacher of a highly rated course on neutron scattering at many neutron scattering schools, including the Niels Bohr Institute, the Argonne National Laboratory/Oak Ridge National Laboratory summer school, and the Manuel Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering School. Dr. Pynn received his B.A. in natural sciences and an M.A. and Ph.D. in physics from Trinity College, University of Cambridge.

William H. Tobey is a senior fellow at the Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs at Harvard Kennedy School. He was most recently deputy administrator for Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation at the National Nuclear Security Administration. There, he managed the U.S. government’s largest program to prevent nuclear proliferation and terrorism by detecting, securing, and disposing of dangerous nuclear material. Mr. Tobey also served on the National Security Council (NSC) staff in three administrations—Reagan, George H. W. Bush, and George W. Bush—working in defense policy, arms control, and counterproliferation positions. As director of counterproliferation strategy at the NSC, he oversaw development and implementation of U.S. policy on nuclear programs in Iran and North Korea, was a delegate to the Six Party Talks with North Korea, managed U.S. efforts to dismantle Libya’s weapons of mass destruction programs, and authored the first draft of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1540, which criminalizes nonstate proliferation and obligates all states to establish and maintain effective safeguards, security, and export controls. Mr. Tobey previously participated in a variety of international negotiations, including the Nuclear and Space Talks with the Soviet Union and the U.S.-Russia Space Cooperation agreement. He has served on the National Research Council’s Committee on Improving the Assessment of Proliferation Risk of Nuclear Fuel Cycles. He received a B.S. from Northwestern University and an M.P.P. degree from Harvard University.

Paul P. H. Wilson is a professor of nuclear engineering in the University of Wisconsin (UW)-Madison‘s Department of Engineering Physics and faculty director of the Advanced Computing Initiative. Dr. Wilson’s experience combines technical and policy issues, such as analysis methods for determining isotopic inventories in nuclear systems and the implications

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Reducing the Use of Highly Enriched Uranium in Civilian Research Reactors. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21818.
×

for nuclear nonproliferation policy, and the development of next-generation nuclear power systems for future energy policy and needs. He expanded and developed the University of Wisconsin’s computing and analysis capabilities to support the conversion of the university’s research reactor from highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium fuel. Dr. Wilson was invited to present this work at the 2011 National Academy of Sciences–Russian Academy of Sciences joint workshop in Moscow on Progress, Challenges, and Opportunities for Converting U.S. and Russian Research Reactors. Dr. Wilson served as a consultant for the Blue Ribbon Commission on America’s Nuclear Future, contributing a report on the assessment and comparison of civilian nuclear fuel cycle options. At UW-Madison, Dr. Wilson currently serves on the executive committee of the Wisconsin Energy Institute and the steering committee of the Holtz Center for Science and Technology Studies, and is the past-chair of the Energy Analysis and Policy graduate certificate. He is a member of the American and Canadian Nuclear Societies, the American Society for Engineering Education, and the North American Young Generation in Nuclear. Dr. Wilson received his B.S. in engineering science from the University of Toronto. He received his doktor-ingenieur in mechanical engineering from the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany, and his Ph.D. in nuclear engineering from the University of Wisconsin.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Reducing the Use of Highly Enriched Uranium in Civilian Research Reactors. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21818.
×

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Reducing the Use of Highly Enriched Uranium in Civilian Research Reactors. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21818.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Reducing the Use of Highly Enriched Uranium in Civilian Research Reactors. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21818.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Reducing the Use of Highly Enriched Uranium in Civilian Research Reactors. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21818.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Reducing the Use of Highly Enriched Uranium in Civilian Research Reactors. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21818.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Reducing the Use of Highly Enriched Uranium in Civilian Research Reactors. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21818.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Reducing the Use of Highly Enriched Uranium in Civilian Research Reactors. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21818.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Reducing the Use of Highly Enriched Uranium in Civilian Research Reactors. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21818.
×
Page 143
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Reducing the Use of Highly Enriched Uranium in Civilian Research Reactors. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21818.
×
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The continued presence of highly enriched uranium (HEU) in civilian installations such as research reactors poses a threat to national and international security. Minimization, and ultimately elimination, of HEU in civilian research reactors worldwide has been a goal of U.S. policy and programs since 1978. Today, 74 civilian research reactors around the world, including 8 in the United States, use or are planning to use HEU fuel. Since the last National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine report on this topic in 2009, 28 reactors have been either shut down or converted from HEU to low enriched uranium fuel. Despite this progress, the large number of remaining HEU-fueled reactors demonstrates that an HEU minimization program continues to be needed on a worldwide scale. Reducing the Use of Highly Enriched Uranium in Civilian Research Reactors assesses the status of and progress toward eliminating the worldwide use of HEU fuel in civilian research and test reactors.

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