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Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report (2016)

Chapter: Appendix E: The U.S. Department of Agriculture's Food and Nutrition Service Funded Studies Describing the Effect of the 2009 WIC Food Package Changes

« Previous: Appendix D: Composition of the WIC Food Packages
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: The U.S. Department of Agriculture's Food and Nutrition Service Funded Studies Describing the Effect of the 2009 WIC Food Package Changes." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
×
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: The U.S. Department of Agriculture's Food and Nutrition Service Funded Studies Describing the Effect of the 2009 WIC Food Package Changes." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
×

TABLE E-1 USDA-FNS Funded Studies Describing the Effect of the 2009 WIC Food Package Changes

Reference Study Objective Population General Findings

Andreyeva and Luedicke, 2013: Federal food package revisions: Effects on purchases of whole-grain products

Assess how the WIC revisions affected purchases of bread and rice among WIC-participating households in Connecticut and Massachusetts

2,137 WIC-participating households in Connecticut and Massachusetts

2009 WIC revisions significantly increased purchases of whole grain bread and rice among WIC-participating families

Andreyeva and Luedicke, 2014: Incentivizing fruit and vegetable purchases among participants in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children

Examine the impact of the newly implemented CVV on fruit and vegetable purchases

2,137 WIC-participating households in Connecticut and Massachusetts

Fresh and frozen vegetable purchases increased by 17.5 percent and 27.8 percent, respectively, and fresh fruit purchases increased by 28.6 percent

Andreyeva et al., 2011: Changes in access to healthy foods after implementation of the WIC food package revisions

Evaluate the impact of the WIC food package revisions using multiple determinants of access to healthy food

252 (all) convenience stores and non-chain grocery stores in 5 towns of Connecticut, including 33 WIC-authorized stores and 219 non-WIC stores

Strong evidence that stores responded to the food package revisions by improving the availability and variety of healthy foods in urban and suburban settings, especially in WIC-authorized stores

Andreyeva et al., 2012: Positive influence of the revised Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children food packages on access to healthy foods

Effect of the new WIC food packages on food access

252 (all) convenience stores and non-chain grocery stores in 5 towns of Connecticut including 33 WIC-authorized stores and 219 non-WIC stores

Access to healthy foods improved using a composite score measure mostly due to increased availability and variety of whole grain products

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: The U.S. Department of Agriculture's Food and Nutrition Service Funded Studies Describing the Effect of the 2009 WIC Food Package Changes." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
×

Andreyeva et al., 2013: Effects of reduced juice allowances in food packages for the Women, Infants, and Children program

Describe changes in purchases of 100% juice and other beverages among WIC participants after the WIC revisions

2,137 WIC-participating households in Connecticut and Massachusetts

Purchases of 100% juice among WIC households declined by 25 percent. Little compensation occurred from non-WIC funds for juice or other beverages

Andreyeva et al., 2014: The positive effects of the revised milk and cheese allowances in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children

Examine the effect of the new food packages on milk and cheese, and saturated fat intakes

515 WIC households in Connecticut and Massachusetts

Whole-milk share declined in WIC milk purchases with no change in non-WIC purchases. Total milk volume fell by 14.2 percent, whole milk by half, and WIC-eligible cheese by 37.2 percent. Saturated fat from milk and cheese declined by 85 g/month per household in Connecticut and 107 g/month per household in Massachusetts

Gleason and Pooler, 2011: The effects of changes in WIC food packages on redemptions: Final report

Exploratory study to assess participant satisfaction with the food package changes by monitoring redemptions before and 6, 12, or 18 months after the 2009 food package changes

WIC participants in Wisconsin: 126,850 prior to the food package change and 116,956 after the food package change

Overall positive response to the food package changes. Decreases were noted in redemptions that differed among racial and ethnic subpopulations. Use of the CVV among racial and ethnic subpopulations were also disproportionate

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: The U.S. Department of Agriculture's Food and Nutrition Service Funded Studies Describing the Effect of the 2009 WIC Food Package Changes." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
×
Reference Study Objective Population General Findings

Herman et al., 2006: Choices made by low-income women provided with an economic supplement for fresh fruit and vegetable purchase

Investigate whether supplemental financial support specifically for purchase of fresh fruits and vegetables (bimonthly vouchers at the level of $10/ wk for 6 months) would result in high uptake of the supplement, and what the individuals would choose to purchase

602 women enrolled at three WIC sites in Los Angeles, California

Wide variety of items purchased at supermarket and farmers’ market sites. Ten most frequently mentioned items: oranges, apples, bananas, peaches, grapes, tomatoes, carrots, lettuce, broccoli, and potatoes. Farmers’ market potatoes: 9.1 percent of total fruit and vegetable items reported. Supermarket potatoes: 10.4 percent of total fruit and vegetable items reported

IOM, 2011: Planning a WIC research agenda: Workshop summary

Workshop to guide planning for the use of significant WIC research dollars

Considered the WIC target population

Defined research priorities in the areas of birth outcomes, obesity, breastfeeding, food security, nutritional status, and nutrition education, as well as cost, benefits, and effectiveness of the program

Joyce and Reeder, 2015: Changes in breastfeeding among WIC participants following implementation of the new food package

Analyze changes in breastfeeding among WIC participants before and after the new food package

PRAMS in 19 states 2004–2010, PedNSS in 16 states 2007–2010, NIS from 50 states and DC 2004–2010

Data showed steady upward trends in ever-breastfed infants on WIC but not statistically different from trends in breastfeeding among non-WIC low-income

Kim et al., 2013: Mothers prefer fresh fruits and vegetables over jarred baby fruits and vegetables in the new Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for

Examine WIC participant use and satisfaction with jarred baby foods, preference for CVVs versus jarred baby foods, and variations among ethnic groups

2,996 participants who received WIC in California in 2010 (NEFPI survey) and California WIC redemption data

Participants reported high satisfaction with the CVV and jarred baby foods with significant variations across ethnic groups. About two-thirds of participants preferred CVV over jarred baby foods. Redemption rates for jarred

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: The U.S. Department of Agriculture's Food and Nutrition Service Funded Studies Describing the Effect of the 2009 WIC Food Package Changes." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
×

Women, Infants, and Children food package

foods declined with increasing age of infant across all ethnic groups

Kreider et al., 2016: Identifying the effects of WIC on food insecurity among infants and children

Examine the effects of WIC on the nutritional well-being and food security of infants and young children

4,614 low-income infants and children less than 5 years of age from 1999–2008 NHANES

WIC was estimated to reduce the prevalence of child food insecurity by at least 3.6 percentage points (20 percent)

May et al., 2015: Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) Infant and Toddler Feeding Practices Study 2 (ITFPS-2): Intention to breastfeed

Examine the effects of WIC on attitudes around breastfeeding; comparing data from 1995 to 2013

A nationally representative sample of 2,649 women either pregnant or having a child less than 3 months of age

Overall increase in perceptions of the positive benefits of breastfeeding; overall decrease in the number of women with specific perceived barriers to breastfeeding; increase in number of women reporting that breastfeeding is painful, and no one else can feed the baby

O’Malley et al., 2014: Use of a new availability index to evaluate the effect of policy changes to the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) on the food environment in New Orleans

Assess changes before and after WIC revisions using a new index developed to monitor the retail environment’s adoption of these new food supply requirements (WIC-AI)

Supermarkets, medium and small WIC stores, and non-WIC food stores in New Orleans, Louisiana

Median WIC-AI score increased in medium and small stores. In small stores, this increase was mostly attributed to increased availability of cereals and grains, juices and fruit, and infant fruits and vegetables

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: The U.S. Department of Agriculture's Food and Nutrition Service Funded Studies Describing the Effect of the 2009 WIC Food Package Changes." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
×
Reference Study Objective Population General Findings

Ritchie et al., 2014: Satisfaction of California WIC participants with food package changes

Assess California WIC participant satisfaction with the 2009 food package revisions, compare based on language preference and timing of WIC enrollment

2,996 WIC participants in California in 2010

Most (91.3 percent) were satisfied with checks for new WIC foods (fruits/ vegetables, whole grains, and lower-fat milk), and 82.7 percent were satisfied with amounts of foods reduced in the new packages (milk, cheese, eggs, juice). A higher percentage of Spanish speakers than English speakers reported satisfaction. A higher percentage of newer enrollees reported satisfaction compared to those participating in WIC before the revisions

Rose et al., 2014: The influence of the WIC food package changes on the retail food environment in New Orleans

Examine the effect of the WIC food package changes on the availability of healthy foods in small stores

102 small stores in New Orleans were visited in 2009 and 91 percent of these revisited in 2010 (27 WIC and 66 non-WIC)

WIC stores were more likely to improve the availability of lower-fat milks than non-WIC stores and more likely to improve the availability of whole grains. WIC stores showed a relative increase in varieties of fresh fruits and shelf length of vegetables

USDA/FNS, 2011: Evaluation of the birth month breastfeeding changes to the WIC food packages

Examine changes in breastfeeding initiation, duration, or intensity that occurred following issuance of the 2007 interim rule for food package changes

A pre/post study collecting data between April 2009 and May 2010 from 17 randomly sampled local WIC agencies, followed by data from 300,000 participants

Notable differences in package assignments were observed, including decreases in the partial breastfeeding package, and increases in the full breastfeeding and full formula packages; infants receiving no formula in the first month increased; the proportion receiving the maximum allowance of formula also increased

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: The U.S. Department of Agriculture's Food and Nutrition Service Funded Studies Describing the Effect of the 2009 WIC Food Package Changes." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
×

No differences were observed in breastfeeding rates or intensity; a slight increase in duration was observed

USDA/FNS, 2012: Effects of the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC): A review of recent research

Comprehensively review all literature on WIC program impacts between 2002 and 2010 (published research) and 1999 to 2010 (“gray” literature). Report is intended as an update of the review published by Fox et al. in 2004

Peer-reviewed studies focusing on WIC published between 2002 and 2010 or unpublished studies completed between 1999 and 2010

Prenatal WIC participation is consistently positively associated with gestational age and mean birth weight and negatively associated with incidence of low and very low birth weight when not adjusted for gestational age. There is no clear evidence of an association between WIC and adequate weight gain during pregnancy

USDA/FNS, 2013: WIC food package cost report, fiscal year 2010

Estimate the average monthly food costs for each WIC participant subgroup and total dollars spent on 17 major categories of WIC-eligible foods in 2010; data are compared to 2005

National estimates for participation and national average retail prices for each WIC food category were used to generate cost estimates for each food package

The average monthly food cost with rebates in 2010 was $41.44. Costs increased 11 percent compared to 2005, below the Consumer Price Index for food at home. The relative cost of the infant food package increased

USDA/FNS, 2015: WIC food packages policy options II, final report

Examine state agency responses to policy options in the final rule, determine differences in food options and cost-containment measures across state agencies, observe changes in WIC food lists before and after implementation of the final rule

86 state agencies representing 99.98 percent of all WIC participants

WIC participants were offered more options after the implementation of the final rule. WIC participants have access to foods consistent with recommendations made by the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and by the American Academy of Pediatrics. State agencies employ a variety of cost-containment strategies while increasing options for participants

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: The U.S. Department of Agriculture's Food and Nutrition Service Funded Studies Describing the Effect of the 2009 WIC Food Package Changes." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
×
Reference Study Objective Population General Findings

Whaley et al., 2012: Revised WIC food package improves diets of WIC families

To explore the impact of the new WIC food package on WIC participant consumption of fruit, vegetables, whole grain food, and lower-fat milk

3,004 California WIC participants in 2009; 2,996 in 2010

Whole grain consumption increased by 17.3 percentage points. Whole milk consumption by caregivers and children who usually consumed whole milk decreased by 15.7 and 19.7 percent, respectively. Lower-fat milk consumption increased accordingly. Small but significant increases in consumption of fruits and vegetables were observed

Wilde et al., 2012: Food-package assignments and breastfeeding initiation before and after a change in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children

Measure changes pre-post WIC package changes in WIC food-package assignments, WIC infant formula amounts, and breastfeeding initiation

National random sample of 17 local WIC agencies. Administrative records for 206,092 dyads with an infant aged 0–5 months in the sampled WIC agencies

After the changes, fewer mothers received the partial breastfeeding package. More mothers received the full breastfeeding package and the full formula package

Zenk et al., 2014: Impact of the revised Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) food package policy on fruit and vegetable prices

Observe changes in fruit and vegetable prices pre-post WIC policy changes

Data from WIC vendors in 7 northern Illinois counties from 2008 to 2010

WIC policy revisions contributed to modest reductions in fruit and vegetable prices. WIC participants’ purchasing power can differ depending on type of WIC vendor and neighborhood

NOTES: CDC = Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; CVV = cash value voucher; FNS = Food and Nutrition Service; NIS = National Immunization Survey; PedNSS = Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance System; PRAMS = Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System; USDA = U.S. Department of Agriculture; WIC-AI = WIC availability index.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: The U.S. Department of Agriculture's Food and Nutrition Service Funded Studies Describing the Effect of the 2009 WIC Food Package Changes." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
×

REFERENCES

Andreyeva, T., and J. Luedicke. 2013. Federal food package revisions: Effects on purchases of whole-grain products. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 45(4):422-429.

Andreyeva, T., and J. Luedicke. 2014. Incentivizing fruit and vegetable purchases among participants in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children. Public Health Nutrition 18(1):33-41.

Andreyeva, T., J. Luedicke, A. E. Middleton, M. W. Long, and M. B. Schwartz. 2011. Changes in access to healthy foods after implementation of the WIC food package revisions. Washington, DC: USDA/ERS.

Andreyeva, T., J. Luedicke, A. E. Middleton, M. W. Long, and M. B. Schwartz. 2012. Positive influence of the revised Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children food packages on access to healthy foods. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics 112(6):850-858.

Andreyeva, T., J. Luedicke, A. S. Tripp, and K. E. Henderson. 2013. Effects of reduced juice allowances in food packages for the Women, Infants, and Children program. Pediatrics 131(5):919-927.

Andreyeva, T., J. Luedicke, K. E. Henderson, and M. B. Schwartz. 2014. The positive effects of the revised milk and cheese allowances in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics 114(4):622-630.

Gleason, S., and J. Pooler. 2011. The effects of changes in WIC food packages on redemptions: Final report. Portland, ME: Altarum Institute. http://naldc.nal.usda.gov/download/50613/PDF (accessed March 2, 2015).

Herman, D. R., G. G. Harrison, and E. Jenks. 2006. Choices made by low-income women provided with an economic supplement for fresh fruit and vegetable purchase. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 106(5):740-744.

IOM (Institute of Medicine). 2011. Planning a WIC research agenda: Workshop summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

Joyce, T., and J. Reeder. 2015. Changes in breastfeeding among WIC participants following implementation of the new food package. Maternal and Child Health Journal 19(4):868-876.

Kim, L. P., S. E. Whaley, P. H. Gradziel, N. J. Crocker, L. D. Ritchie, and G. G. Harrison. 2013. Mothers prefer fresh fruits and vegetables over jarred baby fruits and vegetables in the new Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children food package. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior 45(6):723-727.

Kreider, B., J. V. Pepper, and M. Roy. 2016. Identifying the effects of WIC on food insecurity among infants and children. Southern Economic Journal. Forthcoming.

May, L., C. Borger, S. McNutt, G. Harrison, N. Weinfield, C. MacAllum, and J. Montaquila. 2015. WIC ITFPS-2 infant report: Intention to breastfeed. Rockville, MD: Westat. http://www.fns.usda.gov/sites/default/files/ops/WICITFPS2-Prenatal.pdf (accessed June 1, 2015).

O’Malley, K., B. G. Luckett, L. F. Dunaway, J. N. Bodor, and D. Rose. 2014. Use of a new availability index to evaluate the effect of policy changes to the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) on the food environment in New Orleans. Public Health Nutrition 18(1):25-32.

Ritchie, L. D., S. E. Whaley, and N. J. Crocker. 2014. Satisfaction of California WIC participants with food package changes. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior 46(3 Suppl):S71-S78.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: The U.S. Department of Agriculture's Food and Nutrition Service Funded Studies Describing the Effect of the 2009 WIC Food Package Changes." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
×

Rose, D., K. O’Malley, L. F. Dunaway, and J. N. Bodor. 2014. The influence of the WIC food package changes on the retail food environment in New Orleans. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior 46(3 Suppl):S38-S44.

USDA/FNS (U.S. Department of Agriculture/Food and Nutrition Service). 2011. Evaluation of the birth month breastfeeding changes to the WIC food packages. Arlington, VA: USDA/FNS. http://www.fns.usda.gov/sites/default/files/BirthMonth.pdf (accessed March 9, 2015).

USDA/FNS. 2012. Effects of the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC): A review of recent research. Alexandria, VA: USDA/FNS. http://www.fns.usda.gov/sites/default/files/WICMedicaidLitRev.pdf (accessed September 15, 2015).

USDA/FNS. 2013. Fiscal year 2010: WIC food cost report. Alexandria, VA: USDA/FNS. http://www.fns.usda.gov/sites/default/files/WICFoodCost2010_0.pdf (accessed June 8, 2015).

USDA/FNS. 2015. WIC food packages policy options II, final report. Alexandria, VA: USDA/FNS. http://www.fns.usda.gov/wic-food-package-policy-options-ii (accessed November 11, 2015).

Whaley, S. E., L. D. Ritchie, P. Spector, and J. Gomez. 2012. Revised WIC food package improves diets of WIC families. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior 44(3):204-209.

Wilde, P., A. Wolf, M. Fernandes, and A. Collins. 2012. Food-package assignments and breastfeeding initiation before and after a change in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 96(3):560-566.

Zenk, S. N., L. M. Powell, A. M. Odoms-Young, R. Krauss, M. L. Fitzgibbon, D. Block, and R. T. Campbell. 2014. Impact of the revised Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) food package policy on fruit and vegetable prices. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics 114(2):288-296.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: The U.S. Department of Agriculture's Food and Nutrition Service Funded Studies Describing the Effect of the 2009 WIC Food Package Changes." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: The U.S. Department of Agriculture's Food and Nutrition Service Funded Studies Describing the Effect of the 2009 WIC Food Package Changes." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
×
Page 382
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: The U.S. Department of Agriculture's Food and Nutrition Service Funded Studies Describing the Effect of the 2009 WIC Food Package Changes." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
×
Page 383
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: The U.S. Department of Agriculture's Food and Nutrition Service Funded Studies Describing the Effect of the 2009 WIC Food Package Changes." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
×
Page 384
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: The U.S. Department of Agriculture's Food and Nutrition Service Funded Studies Describing the Effect of the 2009 WIC Food Package Changes." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
×
Page 385
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: The U.S. Department of Agriculture's Food and Nutrition Service Funded Studies Describing the Effect of the 2009 WIC Food Package Changes." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
×
Page 386
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: The U.S. Department of Agriculture's Food and Nutrition Service Funded Studies Describing the Effect of the 2009 WIC Food Package Changes." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
×
Page 387
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: The U.S. Department of Agriculture's Food and Nutrition Service Funded Studies Describing the Effect of the 2009 WIC Food Package Changes." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
×
Page 388
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: The U.S. Department of Agriculture's Food and Nutrition Service Funded Studies Describing the Effect of the 2009 WIC Food Package Changes." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: The U.S. Department of Agriculture's Food and Nutrition Service Funded Studies Describing the Effect of the 2009 WIC Food Package Changes." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
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The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) began 40 years ago as a pilot program and has since grown to serve over 8 million pregnant women, and mothers of and their infants and young children. Today the program serves more than a quarter of the pregnant women and half of the infants in the United States, at an annual cost of about $6.2 billion. Through its contribution to the nutritional needs of pregnant, breastfeeding, and post-partum women; infants; and children under 5 years of age; this federally supported nutrition assistance program is integral to meeting national nutrition policy goals for a significant portion of the U.S. population.

To assure the continued success of the WIC, Congress mandated that the Food and Nutrition Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) reevaluate the program's food packages every 10 years. In 2014, the USDA asked the Institute of Medicine to undertake this reevaluation to ensure continued alignment with the goals of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. This, the second report of this series, provides a summary of the work of phase I of the study, and serves as the analytical underpinning for phase II in which the committee will report its final conclusions and recommendations.

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