National Academies Press: OpenBook

Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report (2016)

Chapter: Appendix J: Dietary Reference Intake Values and Nutrients and Foods Analyzed

« Previous: Appendix I: Evidence Review Strategy
Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Dietary Reference Intake Values and Nutrients and Foods Analyzed." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
×
Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Dietary Reference Intake Values and Nutrients and Foods Analyzed." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
×

TABLE J-1a Dietary Reference Intakes Used for Assessing Nutrient Intakes of WIC-Eligible Subgroups

Nutrient
Calcium (mg/d) Copper (μg/d) Iron (mg/d) Magnesium (mg/d) Phosphorus (mg/d) Selenium (μg/d) Zinc (mg/d) Potassium (mg/d) Sodium (mg/d)
Infants 0 to 6 mo
EAR/AI 200* 200* 0.27* 30* 100* 15* 2* 400* 120*
UL 1,000 ND 40 ND ND 45 4 NA ND
Infants 6 to 12 mo
EAR/AI 260* 220* 6.9 75* 275* 20* 2.5 700* 370*
UL 1,500 ND 40 ND ND 60 5 NA ND
Children 1–3 y
EAR/AI 500 260 3 65 380 17 2.5 3,000* 1,000*
UL 2,500 1,000 40 65 3,000 90 7 NA 1,500
Children 4–8 y
EAR/AI 800 340 4.1 110 405 23 4 3,800* 1,200*
UL 2,500 3,000 40 110 3,000 150 12 NA 1,900
Females 19–30 y
EAR/AI 800 700 8.1 255 580 45 6.8 4,700* 1,500*
UL 2,500 10,000 45 350 4,000 400 40 NA 2,300
Females 31–50 y
EAR/AI 800 700 8.1 265 580 45 6.8 4,700* 1,300*
UL 2,500 10,000 45 350 4,000 400 40 NA 2,300
Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Dietary Reference Intake Values and Nutrients and Foods Analyzed." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
×
Pregnancy 19–30 y
EAR/AI 800 800 22 290 580 49 9.5 4,700* 1,500*
UL 2,500 10,000 45 350 3,500 400 40 NA 2,300
Pregnancy 31–50 y
EAR/AI 800 800 22 300 580 49 9.5 4,700* 1,500*
UL 2,500 10,000 45 350 3,500 400 40 NA 2,300
Lactation 19–30 y
EAR/AI 800 1,000 6.5 255 580 59 10.4 5,100* 1,500*
UL 2,500 10,000 45 350 4,000 400 40 NA 2,300
Lactation 31–50 y
EAR/AI 800 1,000 6.5 265 580 59 10.4 5,100* 1,500*
UL 2,500 10,000 45 350 4,000 400 40 NA 2,300

NOTES: AI = Adequate Intake, used when necessary, followed by an asterisk (*); EAR = Estimated Average Requirement, used when available; NA = Not Applicable; ND = not determined due to lack of data; UL = Tolerable Upper Intake Level.

The UL for magnesium represents intake from pharmacological agents only and does not include intake from food.

The AIs for calcium for infants are based on the calcium content of human milk. The UL values for phosphorous and sodium in this table were corrected to mg units from the values in the originally posted prepublication, which were in g units.

DATA SOURCES for Tables J-1a to J-1c are listed after Table J-1c.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Dietary Reference Intake Values and Nutrients and Foods Analyzed." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
×

TABLE J-1b Dietary Reference Intakes Used for Assessing Nutrient Intakes of WIC-Eligible Subgroups

Nutrient
Vitamin A (μg/d) Vitamin D (IU/d) Vitamin E (mg/d) Vitamin C (mg/d) Thiamin (mg/d)
Infants 0 to 6 mo
EAR/AI 400* 400* 4* 40* 0.2*
UL 600 1,000 ND ND ND
Infants 6 to 12 mo
EAR/AI 500* 400* 5* 50* 0.3*
UL 600 1,500 ND ND ND
Children 1–3 y
EAR/AI 210 400 5 13 0.4
UL 600 2,500 200 400 ND
Children 4–8 y
EAR/AI 275 400 6 22 0.5
UL 900 3,000 300 650 ND
Females 19–30 y
EAR/AI 500 400 12 60 0.9
UL 3,000 4,000 1,000 2,000 ND
Females 31–50 y
EAR/AI 500 400 12 60 0.9
UL 3,000 4,000 1,000 2,000 ND
Pregnancy 19–30 y
EAR/AI 550 400 12 70 1.2
UL 3,000 4,000 1,000 2,000 ND
Pregnancy 31–50 y
EAR/AI 550 400 12 70 1.2
UL 3,000 4,000 1,000 2,000 ND
Lactation 19–30 y
EAR/AI 900 400 16 100 1.2
UL 3,000 4,000 1,000 2,000 ND
Lactation 31–50 y
EAR/AI 900 400 16 100 1.2
UL 3,000 4,000 1,000 2,000 ND
Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Dietary Reference Intake Values and Nutrients and Foods Analyzed." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
×
Riboflavin (mg/d) Niacin (mg/d) Vitamin B6 (mg/d) Folate (μg DFE/d) Vitamin B12 (mg/d) Choline (mg/d)
0.3* 2* 0.1* 65* 0.4* 125*
ND ND ND ND ND ND
0.4* 4* 0.3* 80* 0.5* 150*
ND ND ND ND ND ND
0.4 5 0.4 120 0.7 200*
ND 10 30 300 ND 1,000
0.5 6 0.5 160 1.0 250*
ND 15 40 400 ND 1,000
0.9 11 1.1 320 2.0 425*
ND 35 100 1,000 ND 3,500
0.9 11 1.1 320 2.0 425*
ND 35 100 1,000 ND 3,500
1.2 14 1.6 520 2.2 450*
ND 35 100 1,000 ND 3,500
1.2 14 1.6 520 2.2 450*
ND 35 100 1,000 ND 3,500
1.3 13 1.7 450 2.4 550*
ND 35 100 1,000 ND 3,500
1.3 13 1.7 450 2.4 550*
ND 35 100 1,000 ND 3,500
Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Dietary Reference Intake Values and Nutrients and Foods Analyzed." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
×

NOTES: AI = Adequate Intake, used when necessary, followed by an asterisk (*); EAR = Estimated Average Requirement, used when available; NA = Not Applicable; ND = not determined due to lack of data; UL = Tolerable Upper Intake Level.

The UL for vitamin A refers to preformed vitamin A only.

The UL for vitamin E applies to synthetic forms obtained from dietary supplements, and fortified foods, not from vitamin E naturally occurring in foods.

DATA SOURCES for Tables J-1a to J-1c are listed after Table J-1c.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Dietary Reference Intake Values and Nutrients and Foods Analyzed." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
×

TABLE J-1c Macronutrient Intake Recommendations for WIC-Eligible Subgroups

Macronutrient Recommended Intake
Infants 0 to Less Than 6 Months Infants 6 to Less Than 12 Months Children 1–3 Years Children and Adolescents 4–18 Years Adults
Fat (% of kcal AMDR) 31g/d 30 g/d 30–40 25–35 20–35
Carbohydrate (% of kcal AMDR)a 60 g/d 95 g/d 45–65 45–65 45–65
Protein (% of kcal AMDR) ND ND 5–20 10–30 10–35
Protein (g/kg/d EAR) 1.52b 1.0 1.1 0.95 0.88

NOTES: AMDR = Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range; EAR = Estimated Average Requirement.

a Units are % of kcal except where noted.

b Adequate intake (AI).

DATA SOURCES for Tables J-1a to J-1c: Nutrients of concern are as presented in the Scientific Report of the 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee (USDA/HHS, 2015). Dietary Reference Intake values are from Institute of Medicine reports (IOM, 1997, 1998, 2000, 2001, 2002/2005, 2005, 2011).

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Dietary Reference Intake Values and Nutrients and Foods Analyzed." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
×

TABLE J-2 Nutrients Selected for Intake Analysis

Nutrients Available in WWEIA Include in Analyses Rationale for Exclusion in Current Report
Food energy (kcal) images
Protein (g) images
Carbohydrate (g) images
Fat, total (g) images
Dietary fiber, total (g) images
Saturated fatty acids, total (g) images
Monounsaturated fatty acids, total (g) No DRI
Polyunsaturated fatty acids, total (g) No DRI
Cholesterol (mg) No DRI or DGAC recommendation
Linoleic 18:2 (g) Used USDA food pattern “oils” as a proxy
Linolenic 18:3 (g) Used USDA food pattern “oils” as a proxy
EPA 20:5 (g) No DRI, seafood intake as proxy
DHA 22:6 (g) No DRI, seafood intake as proxy
Vitamin A as RAE (μg) images
Retinol (μg) images
Vitamin E as alpha-tocopherol (mg) images
Added vitamin E (mg) images
Vitamin D (D2 + D3)(μg) images Only infants 0 to less than 12 months
Vitamin D, 25-Hydroxy images
Vitamin K as phylloquinone (μg) Inadequacy is extremely rare
Vitamin C (mg) images
Thiamin (mg) images
Riboflavin (mg) images
Niacin (mg) images
Vitamin B6 (mg) images
Folate as DFE (μg) images
Folic acid (μg) images
Vitamin B12 (μg) images
Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Dietary Reference Intake Values and Nutrients and Foods Analyzed." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
×
Nutrients Available in WWEIA Include in Analyses Rationale for Exclusion in Current Report
Calcium (mg) images
Iron (mg) images
Magnesium (mg) images
Phosphorus (mg) images
Potassium (mg) images
Sodium (mg) images
Zinc (mg) images
Copper (mg) images
Selenium (μg) images
Choline (mg) images

NOTES: DGAC = Scientific Report of the 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee; DRI = Dietary Reference Intake; WWEIA = What We Eat in America.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Dietary Reference Intake Values and Nutrients and Foods Analyzed." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
×

TABLE J-3 Food Groups for Analyses Based on Food Pattern Components in FPID and FPED

Main Components FPID/FPED Components (2011–2012)
Fruit Total fruit
Vegetables Total vegetables
Dark green vegetables
Total red and orange vegetables
Total starchy vegetables
Other vegetables
Beans and peas computed as vegetables
Grains Total grains
Whole grains
Refined grains
Protein Foods Total protein foods
Total meat, poultry, and seafood
Meat, poultry, and eggs (not seafood)
Seafood
Nuts, seeds, soy (nuts and seeds and soybean products)
Dairy Total dairy (milk, yogurt, cheese, whey)
Oils Oils
Solid Fats Solid fats
Added Sugars Added sugars

NOTES: FPED = Food Patterns Equivalents Database; FPID = Food Patterns Ingredients Database.

SOURCE: USDA/ARS, 2014.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Dietary Reference Intake Values and Nutrients and Foods Analyzed." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
×

REFERENCES

IOM (Institute of Medicine). 1997. Dietary reference intakes for calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, vitamin D, and fluoride. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

IOM. 1998. Dietary reference intakes for thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folate, vitamin B12, pantothenic acid, biotin, and choline. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

IOM. 2000. Dietary reference intakes for vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, and carotenoids. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

IOM. 2001. Dietary reference intakes for vitamin A, vitamin K, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium, and zinc. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

IOM. 2002/2005. Dietary reference intakes for energy, carbohydrate, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein, and amino acids. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

IOM. 2005. Dietary reference intakes for water, potassium, sodium, chloride, and sulfate. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

IOM. 2011. Dietary reference intakes for calcium and vitamin D. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

USDA/ARS (U.S. Department of Agriculture/Agricultural Research Service). 2014. Food patterns equivalents database 2011–2012: Methodology and user guide. Beltsville, MD: USDA/ARS. http://www.ars.usda.gov/SP2UserFiles/Place/80400530/pdf/fped/FPED_1112.pdf (accessed August 31, 2015).

USDA/HHS (U.S. Department of Agriculture/U.S. Department of Health and Human Services). 2015. The report of the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee on the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2015, to the Secretary of Agriculture and the Secretary of Health and Human Services. Washington, DC: USDA/HHS. http://www.health.gov/dietaryguidelines/2015-scientific-report/PDFs/Scientific-Report-of-the-2015-DietaryGuidelines-Advisory-Committee.pdf (accessed May 24, 2015).

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Dietary Reference Intake Values and Nutrients and Foods Analyzed." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
×

This page intentionally left blank.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Dietary Reference Intake Values and Nutrients and Foods Analyzed." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
×
Page 419
Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Dietary Reference Intake Values and Nutrients and Foods Analyzed." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
×
Page 420
Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Dietary Reference Intake Values and Nutrients and Foods Analyzed." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
×
Page 421
Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Dietary Reference Intake Values and Nutrients and Foods Analyzed." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
×
Page 422
Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Dietary Reference Intake Values and Nutrients and Foods Analyzed." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
×
Page 423
Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Dietary Reference Intake Values and Nutrients and Foods Analyzed." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
×
Page 424
Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Dietary Reference Intake Values and Nutrients and Foods Analyzed." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
×
Page 425
Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Dietary Reference Intake Values and Nutrients and Foods Analyzed." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
×
Page 426
Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Dietary Reference Intake Values and Nutrients and Foods Analyzed." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
×
Page 427
Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Dietary Reference Intake Values and Nutrients and Foods Analyzed." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
×
Page 428
Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Dietary Reference Intake Values and Nutrients and Foods Analyzed." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
×
Page 429
Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Dietary Reference Intake Values and Nutrients and Foods Analyzed." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
×
Page 430
Next: Appendix K: Diet Quality Indexes »
Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report Get This Book
×
Buy Paperback | $84.00 Buy Ebook | $64.99
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) began 40 years ago as a pilot program and has since grown to serve over 8 million pregnant women, and mothers of and their infants and young children. Today the program serves more than a quarter of the pregnant women and half of the infants in the United States, at an annual cost of about $6.2 billion. Through its contribution to the nutritional needs of pregnant, breastfeeding, and post-partum women; infants; and children under 5 years of age; this federally supported nutrition assistance program is integral to meeting national nutrition policy goals for a significant portion of the U.S. population.

To assure the continued success of the WIC, Congress mandated that the Food and Nutrition Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) reevaluate the program's food packages every 10 years. In 2014, the USDA asked the Institute of Medicine to undertake this reevaluation to ensure continued alignment with the goals of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. This, the second report of this series, provides a summary of the work of phase I of the study, and serves as the analytical underpinning for phase II in which the committee will report its final conclusions and recommendations.

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    Switch between the Original Pages, where you can read the report as it appeared in print, and Text Pages for the web version, where you can highlight and search the text.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  9. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!