National Academies Press: OpenBook

Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report (2016)

Chapter: Appendix O: Summary Results from the Diet Quality of American Young Children by WIC Participation Status

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix O: Summary Results from the Diet Quality of American Young Children by WIC Participation Status." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
×
Suggested Citation:"Appendix O: Summary Results from the Diet Quality of American Young Children by WIC Participation Status." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
×

TABLE O-1 FNS Reported Prevalence of Inadequacy of Vitamins and Minerals for Children Ages 1 to 4 Years, NHANES 2005–2008, % Inadequacy

Nutrient % Inadequacy
EAR (Ages 1–3/Age 4) (per Day) All Children (N = 1,956) WIC Participants (N = 791) Income-Eligible Nonparticipants (N = 496) Higher-Income Nonparticipants (N = 606)
Calcium 500/800 mg 14.7 13.4 15.6 13.7
Iron 3.0/4.1 mg 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.2
Magnesium 65/110 mg 0.8 0.8 1.0 0.8
Phosphorus 380/405 mg 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.1
Zinc 2.5/4.0 mg 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.2
Vitamin A 210/275 μg RAE 1.7 2.0 1.8 1.1
Vitamin E 5/6 mg αTOC 82.9 78.5 81.9 89.8
Vitamin C 13/22 mg 0.6 0.4 0.5 0.6
Thiamin 0.4/0.5 mg 0.1 0.0 0.2 0.1
Riboflavin 0.4/0.5 mg 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Niacin 5/6 mg 0.3 0.2 0.6 0.4
Vitamin B6 0.4/0.5 mg 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.0
Folate 120/160 μg DFE 0.2 0.1 0.6 0.1
Vitamin B12 0.7/1.0 mg 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

NOTES: αTOC = α-tocopherol; DFE = dietary folate equivalents; EAR = Estimated Average Requirement; FNS = Food and Nutrition Service; N = sample size; RAE = retinol activity equivalents; % Inadequacy = percentage of individuals with usual intake below the EAR. Usual intake was estimated using the National Cancer Institute (NCI) method.

SOURCE: Adapted from USDA/FNS, 2015.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix O: Summary Results from the Diet Quality of American Young Children by WIC Participation Status." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
×

TABLE O-2 FNS Reported Usual Intakes of Macronutrients for Children Ages 1 to 4 Years, NHANES 2005–2008

Nutrient Recommended Intake (Ages 1–3/Age 4) All Children (N = 1,956) WIC Participants (N = 791) Income-Eligible Nonparticipants (N = 496) Higher-Income Nonparticipants (N = 606)
Protein (% of kcal)
% below AMDR < 5/10% of kcal 0.3 0.1 0.1 0.7
% above AMDR > 20/30% of kcal 1.0 0.6 0.2 2.1
Carbohydrate (% of kcal), total
% below AMDR < 45% of kcal 3.3 4.1 3.5 3.3
% above AMDR > 65% of kcal 2.3 3.8 1.8 2.4
Fat (% of kcal), total
% below AMDR < 30/25% of kcal 23.3 26.5 21.1 22.3
% above AMDR > 40/35% of kcal 6.9 9.8 9.4 4.1
Fat, saturated (% of kcal)
Median < 10% of kcal 17.1 19.2 10.6 NR
Fiber (g/d)
% of AI 19/25 g/d 48.0 48.0 48.0 48.0

NOTES: AI = adequate intake; AMDR = Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range; FNS = Food and Nutrition Service; kcal = kilocalories; NR = not reliable. Usual intake was estimated using the National Cancer Institute (NCI) method.

SOURCE: Adapted from USDA/FNS, 2015. Intake data from NHANES 2005–2008.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix O: Summary Results from the Diet Quality of American Young Children by WIC Participation Status." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
×

REFERENCE

USDA/FNS (U.S. Department of Agriculture/Food and Nutrition Service). 2015. Diet quality of American young children by WIC participation status: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005–2008. Alexandria, VA: USDA/FNS. http://www.fns.usda.gov/sites/default/files/ops/NHANES-WIC05-08.pdf (accessed September 8, 2015).

Suggested Citation:"Appendix O: Summary Results from the Diet Quality of American Young Children by WIC Participation Status." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
×
Page 447
Suggested Citation:"Appendix O: Summary Results from the Diet Quality of American Young Children by WIC Participation Status." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
×
Page 448
Suggested Citation:"Appendix O: Summary Results from the Diet Quality of American Young Children by WIC Participation Status." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
×
Page 449
Suggested Citation:"Appendix O: Summary Results from the Diet Quality of American Young Children by WIC Participation Status." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
×
Page 450
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The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) began 40 years ago as a pilot program and has since grown to serve over 8 million pregnant women, and mothers of and their infants and young children. Today the program serves more than a quarter of the pregnant women and half of the infants in the United States, at an annual cost of about $6.2 billion. Through its contribution to the nutritional needs of pregnant, breastfeeding, and post-partum women; infants; and children under 5 years of age; this federally supported nutrition assistance program is integral to meeting national nutrition policy goals for a significant portion of the U.S. population.

To assure the continued success of the WIC, Congress mandated that the Food and Nutrition Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) reevaluate the program's food packages every 10 years. In 2014, the USDA asked the Institute of Medicine to undertake this reevaluation to ensure continued alignment with the goals of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. This, the second report of this series, provides a summary of the work of phase I of the study, and serves as the analytical underpinning for phase II in which the committee will report its final conclusions and recommendations.

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