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Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report (2016)

Chapter: Appendix Q: Food Intake of WIC and WIC-Eligible Populations

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix Q: Food Intake of WIC and WIC-Eligible Populations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
×

Appendix Q

Food Intake of WIC and WIC-Eligible Populations

DEFINITIONS FOR TABLE SUBGROUPS

Subgroup definitions are as follows:

  1. WIC = All individuals reporting participation in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) regardless of income level.
  2. Eligible Non-WIC = Low-income individuals who did not report participation in WIC.
  3. All Low-Income = All individuals at less than or equal to 185 percent of poverty. At the time of analysis, the WIC indicator was not available for the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011–2012. Thus, the “All Low-Income 2011–2012” group serves as a proxy for current intakes of this population.

LIST OF TABLES

TABLE Q-1 Food Group Intake Distributions of Pregnant and Breastfeeding Women 19 to 50 Years, All Low-Income, 2011–2012

TABLE Q-2 Food Group Intake Distributions of Women Ages 19 to 50 Years, WIC, 2005–2008

TABLE Q-3 Food Group Intake Distributions of Women Ages 19 to 50 Years, Eligible Non-WIC, 2005–2008

TABLE Q-4 Food Group Intake Distributions of Infants 0 to Less Than 6 Months, All Low-Income, 2011–2012

Suggested Citation:"Appendix Q: Food Intake of WIC and WIC-Eligible Populations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
×

TABLE Q-1 starts on the next page.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix Q: Food Intake of WIC and WIC-Eligible Populations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
×

TABLE Q-1 Food Group Intake Distributions of Pregnant Women Ages 19 to 50 Years, All Low-Income, NHANES 2011–2012

Percentiles and Mean (SE)
Food Group N 10th 25th Median
Total Fruit (c-eq/d) 21 0.36 0.73 1.49 (NA)
Total Vegetables (c-eq/d) 26 0.67 0.96 1.37 (NA)

Dark Green Vegetables (c-eq/wk)

3 0.05 0.24 0.89 (NA)

Red and Orange Vegetables (c-eq/wk)

23 1.54 2.11 2.95 (NA)

Beans and Peas Computed as Vegetables (c-eq/wk)

0 NA NA NA (NA)

Starchy Vegetables (c-eq/wk)

7 0.84 1.33 1.97 (NA)

Other Vegetables (c-eq/wk)

17 0.74 1.40 2.65 (NA)
Total Grains (oz-eq/d) 29 4.12 5.36 7.01 (NA)

Whole Grains (oz-eq/d)

12 0.33 0.51 0.85 (NA)

Refined Grains (oz-eq/d)

29 3.56 4.70 6.22 (NA)
Total Protein Foods (oz-eq/d) 28 4.50 5.06 5.72 (NA)

Meat, Poultry, and Eggs (not Seafood) (oz-eq/wk)

27 28.32 30.86 33.85 (NA)

Seafood (oz-eq/wk)

0 NA NA NA (NA)

Nuts Seeds and Soy (oz-eq/wk)

5 0.47 1.54 3.90 (NA)
Total Dairy (c-eq/d) 25 1.20 1.57 2.06 (NA)
Oils (g-eq/d) 28 10.59 15.52 22.74 (NA)
Solid Fats (g-eq/d) 27 31.50 36.65 42.83 (NA)
Added Sugars (tsp-eq/d) 27 6.63 11.14 17.91 (NA)

NOTES: N = 29. The reference food intake pattern used was 2,200 kcals, which was the calculated EER for WIC women in NHANES 2005–2008. All women were pregnant, breastfeeding, or postpartum. See additional notes following Table Q-15.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix Q: Food Intake of WIC and WIC-Eligible Populations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
×
  Recommended Intake % Below Recommended Intake (SE)
Mean 75th 90th
2.19 (0.45) 2.85 4.84 2 62 (18.21)
1.48 (0.17) 1.88 2.42 3 97 (12.56)
1.29 (NA) 2.03 3.22 2 74 (NA)
3.24 (0.53) 4.05 5.31 6 94 (5.15)
NA NA NA NA NA
1.99 (0.74) 2.63 3.17 6 100 (12.56)
3.55 (0.69) 4.68 7.44 5 78 (9.15)
7.38 (0.59) 9.00 11.10 7 50 (12.46)
1.13 (0.30) 1.41 2.22 3.5 97 (20.80)
6.53 (0.58) 8.02 9.88 3.5 9 (8.57)
5.76 (0.39) 6.41 7.07 6 61 (15.02)
34.02 (2.74) 36.99 39.95 28 9 (19.54)
NA NA NA NA NA
4.62 (1.30) 7.13 10.04 5 60 (17.12)
2.15 (0.21) 2.63 3.21 3 86 (21.48)
25.06 (2.75) 32.07 42.52 29 68 (15.60)
% Above Recommended Intake (SE)
43.36 (3.85) 49.49 55.89 < 18 100 (22.19)
20.07 (8.78) 26.63 36.22 < 8 87 (24.40)
Suggested Citation:"Appendix Q: Food Intake of WIC and WIC-Eligible Populations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
×

TABLE Q-2 Food Group Intake Distributions of Women Ages 19 to 50 Years, WIC, NHANES 2005–2008

Food Group N Percentiles and Mean (SE)
10th 25th Median
Total Fruit (c-eq/d) 137 0.14 0.35 0.85 (0.15)
Total Vegetables (c-eq/d) 198 0.69 0.93 1.26 (0.08)

Dark Green Vegetables (c-eq/wk)

5 NA NA NA

Red and Orange Vegetables (c-eq/wk)

148 0.88 1.40 2.23 (0.23)

Beans and Peas Computed as Vegetables (c-eq/wk)

21 0.00 0.05 0.37 (0.16)

Starchy Vegetables (c-eq/wk)

80 1.54 2.03 2.71 (1.23)

Other Vegetables (c-eq/wk)

148 0.73 1.35 2.51 (0.40)
Total Grains (oz-eq/d) 225 4.07 5.20 6.68 (0.36)

Whole Grains (oz-eq/d)

68 0.04 0.16 0.47 (0.08)

Refined Grains (oz-eq/d)

224 3.85 4.85 6.15 (0.33)
Total Protein Foods (oz-eq/d) 219 2.74 3.66 4.88 (0.29)

Meat, Poultry, and Eggs (not Seafood) (oz-eq/wk)

215 16.85 22.27 29.35 (1.99)

Seafood (oz-eq/wk)

6 0.11 0.54 1.98 (0.73)

Nuts, Seeds, and Soy (oz-eq/wk)

26 0.02 0.18 0.92 (0.49)
Total Dairy (c-eq/d) 208 0.75 1.14 1.70 (0.10)
Oils (g-eq/d) 203 8.46 12.69 18.89 (1.43)
Solid Fats (g-eq/d) 225 18.88 25.91 35.21 (1.68)
Added Sugars (tsp-eq/d) 222 8.90 13.72 20.78 (5.83)

NOTES: N = 226. The reference food intake pattern used was 2,200 kcals, which was the calculated EER for WIC women in NHANES 2005–2008. All women were pregnant, breastfeeding, or postpartum. See additional notes following Table Q-15.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix Q: Food Intake of WIC and WIC-Eligible Populations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
×
  Recommended Intake % Below Recommended Intake (SE)
Mean 75th 90th
1.47 (0.12) 1.85 3.47 2 77 (3.19)
1.33 (0.06) 1.64 2.05 3 99 (4.41)
NA NA NA NA NA
2.63 (0.18) 3.42 4.87 6 95 (3.73)
0.94 (0.13) 1.28 2.69 2 84 (6.95)
2.91 (0.98) 3.58 4.54 6 98 (4.96)
3.31 (0.32) 4.37 6.86 5 80 (5.09)
6.96 (0.29) 8.42 10.21 7 55 (2.76)
0.56 (0.06) 0.85 1.21 3.5 100 (1.00)
6.38 (0.26) 7.65 9.20 3.5 6 (0.38)
5.10 (0.23) 6.30 7.75 6 71 (3.34)
30.58 (1.59) 37.54 45.88 28 45 (2.49)
3.32 (0.58) 4.86 8.57 9 91 (6.93)
1.93 (0.39) 2.62 5.14 5 89 (5.90)
1.88 (0.08) 2.43 3.23 3 87 (3.05)
20.87 (1.14) 26.87 35.75 29 80 (4.50)
% Above Recommended Intake (SE)
36.98 (1.34) 46.12 57.34 < 18 91 (0.13)
23.00 (4.65) 29.86 39.91 < 8 93 (0.17)
Suggested Citation:"Appendix Q: Food Intake of WIC and WIC-Eligible Populations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
×

TABLE Q-3 Food Group Intake Distributions of Women Ages 19 to 50 Years, Eligible Non-WIC, NHANES 2005–2008

Food Group N Percentiles and Mean (SE)
10th 25th Median
Total Fruit (c-eq/d) 54 0.22 0.47 0.96 (0.19)
Total Vegetables (c-eq/d) 69 0.62 0.91 1.33 (0.15)

Dark Green Vegetables (c-eq/wk)

3 0.22 0.38 0.64 (NA)

Red and Orange Vegetables (c-eq/wk)

48 1.10 1.55 2.23 (0.30)

Beans and Peas Computed as Vegetables (c-eq/wk)

9 0.02 0.11 0.47 (NA)

Starchy Vegetables (c-eq/wk)

30 0.56 1.27 2.58 (0.59)

Other Vegetables (c-eq/wk)

55 0.75 1.45 2.81 (0.64)
Total Grains (oz-eq/d) 76 5.34 6.28 7.46 (0.48)

Whole Grains (oz-eq/d)

23 0.05 0.18 0.47 (NA)

Refined Grains (oz-eq/d)

76 5.22 5.98 6.90 (0.43)
Total Protein Foods (oz-eq/d) 74 3.44 4.35 5.50 (0.46)

Meat, Poultry, and Eggs (not Seafood) (oz-eq/wk)

73 14.82 21.01 29.41 (2.33)

Seafood (oz-eq/wk)

3 0.91 1.97 4.32 (NA)

Nuts, Seeds, and Soy (oz-eq/wk)

12 0.12 0.42 1.32 (NA)
Total Dairy (c-eq/d) 70 1.03 1.37 1.81 (0.23)
Oils (g-eq/d) 68 11.93 15.49 20.27 (2.21)
Solid Fats (g-eq/d) 76 22.86 29.73 38.90 (2.08)
Added Sugars (tsp-eq/d) 75 11.65 16.87 24.02 (8.85)

NOTES: N = 76. The reference food intake pattern used was 2,200 kcals, which was the calculated EER for WIC women in NHANES 2005–2008. All women were pregnant, breastfeeding, or postpartum. See additional notes following Table Q-15.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix Q: Food Intake of WIC and WIC-Eligible Populations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
×
  Recommended Intake % Below Recommended Intake (SE)
Mean 75th 90th
1.36 (0.15) 1.81 2.99 2 79 (11.17)
1.46 (0.12) 1.87 2.46 3 96 (8.24)
0.71 (NA) 0.96 1.32 2 99 (NA)
2.47 (0.24) 3.12 4.15 6 98 (5.84)
0.85 (0.16) 1.25 2.25 2 87 (15.99)
3.40 (0.47) 4.62 7.25 6 84 (7.21)
3.84 (0.51) 5.06 8.18 5 75 (12.85)
7.60 (0.38) 8.76 10.05 7 40 (1.36)
0.64 (0.13) 0.92 1.44 3.5 100 (2.32)
6.99 (0.34) 7.89 8.86 3.5 0.2 (8.57)
5.67 (0.37) 6.80 8.11 6 61 (12.00)
31.22 (1.86) 39.45 49.91 28 46 (3.90)
7.16 (NA) 8.90 16.39 9 75 (NA)
2.87 (1.19) 3.42 7.09 5 84 (13.54)
1.91 (0.18) 2.34 2.90 3 92 (6.07)
21.32 (1.76) 25.99 32.01 29 84 (10.40)
% Above Recommended Intake (SE)
40.84 (1.66) 49.82 61.30 < 18 96 (0.01)
25.66 (7.06) 32.66 41.73 < 8 97 (4.99)
Suggested Citation:"Appendix Q: Food Intake of WIC and WIC-Eligible Populations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
×

TABLE Q-4 Food Group Intake Distributions of Infants 0 to Less Than 6 Months, All Low-Income, NHANES 2011–2012

Food Group N Percentiles and Mean (SE)
10th 25th Median Mean 75th 90th
Total Fruit (c-eq/d) 12 0 0 0.01 (0.05) 0.10 (0.04) 0.11 0.31
Total Vegetables (c-eq/d) 5 0 0 0.02 (0.01) 0.06 (0.01) 0.08 0.18

Dark Green Vegetables (c-eq/wk)

0 NA NA NA NA NA NA

Red and Orange Vegetables (c-eq/wk)

4 0 0 0.04 (NA) 0.31 (NA) 0.32 1.00

Beans and Peas Computed as Vegetables (c-eq/wk)

0 NA NA NA NA NA NA

Starchy Vegetables (c-eq/wk)

1 NA NA NA NA NA NA

Other Vegetables (c-eq/wk)

0 NA NA NA NA NA NA
Total Grains (oz-eq/d) 16 0 0 0.01 (0.04) 0.10 (0.03) 0.13 0.33

Whole Grains (oz-eq/d)

4 0 0 0 0.04 (NA) 0.01 0.10

Refined Grains (oz-eq/d)

10 0 0 0.02 (0.03) 0.09 (0.02) 0.10 0.26
Total Protein Foods (oz-eq/d) 0 NA NA NA NA NA NA

Meat, Poultry, and Eggs (not Seafood) (oz-eq/wk)

0 NA NA NA NA NA NA

Seafood (oz-eq/wk)

0 NA NA NA NA NA NA

Nuts, Seeds, and Soy (oz-eq/wk)

0 NA NA NA NA NA NA
Total Dairy (c-eq/d) 0 NA NA NA NA NA NA
Oils (g-eq/d) 1 NA NA NA NA NA NA
Solid Fats (g-eq/d) 0 NA NA NA NA NA NA
Added Sugars (tsp-eq/d) 1 NA NA NA NA NA NA

NOTES: N = 71. See additional notes following Table Q-15.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix Q: Food Intake of WIC and WIC-Eligible Populations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
×

TABLE Q-5 Food Group Intake Distributions of Infants 0 to Less Than 6 Months, WIC, NHANES 2005–2008

Food Group N Percentiles and Mean (SE)
10th 25th Median Mean 75th 90th
Total Fruit (c-eq/d) 59 0 0 0.07 (0.03) 0.19 (0.02) 0.31 0.57
Total Vegetables (c-eq/d) 33 0 0 0.01 (0.01) 0.09 (0.01) 0.12 0.31

Dark Green Vegetables (c-eq/wk)

0 NA NA NA NA NA NA

Red and Orange Vegetables (c-eq/wk)

23 0 0 0.04 (0.09) 0.40 (0.07) 0.41 1.24

Beans and Peas Computed as Vegetables (c-eq/wk)

0 NA NA NA NA NA NA

Starchy Vegetables (c-eq/wk)

8 0 0 0.01 (0.05) 0.18 (0.04) 0.15 0.57

Other Vegetables (c-eq/wk)

1 NA NA NA NA NA NA
Total Grains (oz-eq/d) 69 0 0 0.16 (0.08) 0.35 (0.06) 0.56 0.99

Whole Grains (oz-eq/d)

27 0 0 0.03 (0.03) 0.11 (0.02) 0.14 0.34

Refined Grains (oz-eq/d)

52 0 0 0.06 (0.06) 0.24 (0.05) 0.36 0.73
Total Protein Foods (oz-eq/d) 6 0 0 0 0.03 (0.01) 0.02 0.10

Meat, Poultry, and Eggs (not Seafood) (oz-eq/wk)

6 0 0 0 0.20 (0.05) 0.14 0.73

Seafood (oz-eq/wk)

0 NA NA NA NA NA NA

Nuts, Seeds, and Soy (oz-eq/wk)

0 NA NA NA NA NA NA
Total Dairy (c-eq/d) 6 0 0 0 0.01 (NA) 0.00 0.03
Oils (g-eq/d) 8 0 0 0 0.06 (0.01) 0.01 0.17
Solid Fats (g-eq/d) 13 0 0 0 0.21 (0.05) 0.17 0.79
Added Sugars (tsp-eq/d) 12 0 0 0 0.15 (0.30) 0.06 0.36

NOTES: N = 171. See additional notes following Table Q-15.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix Q: Food Intake of WIC and WIC-Eligible Populations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
×

TABLE Q-6 Food Group Intake Distributions of Infants 0 to Less Than 6 Months, Eligible Non-WIC, NHANES 2005–2008

1
Food Group N Percentiles and Mean (SE)
10th 25th Median Mean 75th 90th
Total Fruit (c-eq/d) 2 0 0 0.00 (NA) 0.20 (NA) 0.05 0.74
Total Vegetables (c-eq/d) 2 0 0 0.00 (NA) 0.09 (NA) 0.03 0.44

Dark Green Vegetables (c-eq/wk)

0 NA NA NA NA NA NA

Red and Orange Vegetables (c-eq/wk)

2 NA NA NA NA NA NA

Beans and Peas Computed as Vegetables (c-eq/wk)

0 NA NA NA NA NA NA

Starchy Vegetables (c-eq/wk)

1 NA NA NA NA NA NA

Other Vegetables (c-eq/wk)

0 NA NA NA NA NA NA
Total Grains (oz-eq/d) 4 0 0 0.00 (NA) 0.26 (NA) 0.41 0.95

Whole Grains (oz-eq/d)

0 NA NA NA NA NA NA

Refined Grains (oz-eq/d)

4 0 0 0.00 (NA) 0.16 (NA) 0.45 0.49
Total Protein Foods (oz-eq/d) 1 NA NA NA NA NA NA

Meat, Poultry, and Eggs (not Seafood) (oz-eq/wk)

1 NA NA NA NA NA NA

Seafood (oz-eq/wk)

0 NA NA NA NA NA NA

Nuts, Seeds, and Soy (oz-eq/wk)

0 NA NA NA NA NA NA
Total Dairy (c-eq/d) 0 NA NA NA NA NA NA
Oils (g-eq/d) 0 NA NA NA NA NA NA
Solid Fats (g-eq/d) 1 NA NA NA NA NA NA
Added Sugars (tsp-eq/d) 0 NA NA NA NA NA NA

NOTES: N = 19. See additional notes following Table Q-15.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix Q: Food Intake of WIC and WIC-Eligible Populations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
×

TABLE Q-7 Food Group Intake Distributions of Infants 6 to Less Than 12 Months, All Low-Income, NHANES 2011–2012

Food Group N Percentiles and Mean (SE)
10th 25th Median Mean 75th 90th
Total Fruit (c-eq/d) 58 0.23 0.38 0.63 (0.08) 0.73 (0.06) 0.96 1.36
Total Vegetables (c-eq/d) 48 0.16 0.25 0.39 (0.05) 0.45 (0.04) 0.58 0.82

Dark Green Vegetables (c-eq/wk)

0 NA NA NA NA NA NA

Red and Orange Vegetables (c-eq/wk)

32 0.89 1.48 2.56 (0.79) 3.40 (0.63) 4.33 6.86

Beans and Peas Computed as Vegetables (c-eq/wk)

1 NA NA NA NA NA NA

Starchy Vegetables (c-eq/wk)

17 0.13 0.31 0.63 (NA) 0.79 (0.14) 1.10 1.67

Other Vegetables (c-eq/wk)

14 0.05 0.13 0.32 (NA) 0.60 (0.13) 0.72 1.42
Total Grains (oz-eq/d) 63 0.44 0.78 1.34 (0.15) 1.61 (0.12) 2.14 3.10

Whole Grains (oz-eq/d)

29 0.07 0.14 0.26 (NA) 0.32 (0.05) 0.44 0.66

Refined Grains (oz-eq/d)

57 0.24 0.49 0.97 (0.16) 1.30 (0.13) 1.75 2.78
Total Protein Foods (oz-eq/d) 29 0.12 0.30 0.60 (NA) 0.73 (0.13) 1.01 1.50

Meat, Poultry, and Eggs (not Seafood) (oz-eq/wk)

27 0.46 1.39 3.27 (NA) 4.57 (0.94) 6.33 10.33

Seafood (oz-eq/wk)

0 NA NA NA NA NA NA

Nuts, Seeds, and Soy (oz-eq/wk)

1 NA NA NA NA NA NA
Total Dairy (c-eq/d) 32 0.00 0.03 0.13 (0.20) 0.56 (0.16) 0.48 1.35
Oils (g-eq/d) 40 0.25 0.70 2.02 (1.57) 5.20 (1.23) 5.44 12.54
Solid Fats (g-eq/d) 43 0.14 0.87 2.98 (1.57) 5.48 (1.25) 7.17 13.73
Added Sugars (tsp-eq/d) 46 0.19 0.51 1.41 (3.43) 3.13 (2.74) 3.56 7.65

NOTES: N = 73. See additional notes following Table Q-15.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix Q: Food Intake of WIC and WIC-Eligible Populations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
×

TABLE Q-8 Food Group Intake Distributions of Infants 6 to Less Than 12 Months, WIC, NHANES 2005–2008

Food Group N Percentiles and Mean (SE)
10th 25th Median Mean 75th 90th
Total Fruit (c-eq/d) 171 0.20 0.38 0.70 (0.05) 0.86 (0.04) 1.16 1.73
Total Vegetables (c-eq/d) 150 0.09 0.17 0.31 (0.03) 0.40 (0.02) 0.53 0.81

Dark Green Vegetables (c-eq/wk)

2 0.00 0.00 0.00 (NA) 0.05 (NA) 0.03 0.13

Red and Orange Vegetables (c-eq/wk)

104 0.22 0.50 1.19 (0.34) 2.13 (0.27) 2.60 5.01

Beans and Peas Computed as Vegetables (c-eq/wk)

7 0.00 0.00 0.03 (NA) 0.16 (0.05) 0.18 0.51

Starchy Vegetables (c-eq/wk)

69 0.16 0.36 0.76 (0.15) 1.02 (0.12) 1.38 2.18

Other Vegetables (c-eq/wk)

42 0.06 0.13 0.28 (0.08) 0.40 (0.06) 0.53 0.90
Total Grains (oz-eq/d) 188 0.37 0.70 1.25 (0.09) 1.49 (0.07) 2.02 2.91

Whole Grains (oz-eq/d)

83 0.04 0.10 0.21 (0.04) 0.26 (0.03) 0.36 0.54

Refined Grains (oz-eq/d)

181 0.24 0.50 0.96 (0.09) 1.22 (0.07) 1.66 2.53
Total Protein Foods (oz-eq/d) 123 0.04 0.21 0.58 (0.19) 0.80 (0.15) 1.13 1.83

Meat, Poultry, and Eggs (not Seafood) (oz-eq/wk)

119 0.32 1.46 3.86 (1.04) 5.22 (0.83) 7.44 11.79

Seafood (oz-eq/wk)

1 NA NA NA NA NA NA

Nuts, Seeds, and Soy (oz-eq/wk)

2 0.00 0.01 0.03 (NA) 0.12 (NA) 0.10 0.30
Total Dairy (c-eq/d) 112 0.03 0.08 0.25 (0.71) 0.58 (0.57) 0.65 1.43
Oils (g-eq/d) 133 0.21 0.56 1.47 (0.34) 2.80 (0.27) 3.43 6.79
Solid Fats (g-eq/d) 158 0.41 1.39 4.28 (1.05) 9.11 (0.84) 11.02 22.98
Added Sugars (tsp-eq/d) 136 0.13 0.39 1.16 (1.75) 2.72 (1.40) 3.07 6.75

NOTES: N = 212. See additional notes following Table Q-15.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix Q: Food Intake of WIC and WIC-Eligible Populations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
×

TABLE Q-9 Food Group Intake Distributions of Infants 6 to Less Than 12 Months, Eligible Non-WIC, NHANES 2005–2008

Food Group N Percentiles and Mean (SE)
10th 25th Median Mean 75th 90th
Total Fruit (c-eq/d) 26 0.38 0.56 0.82 (NA) 0.90 (0.09) 1.16 1.53
Total Vegetables (c-eq/d) 21 0.13 0.22 0.38 (NA) 0.45 (0.06) 0.61 0.87

Dark Green Vegetables (c-eq/wk)

0 NA NA NA NA NA NA

Red and Orange Vegetables (c-eq/wk)

17 0.26 0.58 1.26 (NA) 1.91 (0.29) 2.50 4.34

Beans and Peas Computed as Vegetables (c-eq/wk)

0 NA NA NA NA NA NA

Starchy Vegetables (c-eq/wk)

9 0.26 0.44 0.74 (NA) 0.90 (0.24) 1.19 1.72

Other Vegetables (c-eq/wk)

3 NA NA NA NA NA NA
Total Grains (oz-eq/d) 28 0.64 1.04 1.63 (NA) 1.85 (0.19) 2.42 3.31

Whole Grains (oz-eq/d)

14 0.14 0.27 0.55 (NA) 0.87 (0.29) 1.07 1.93

Refined Grains (oz-eq/d)

26 0.33 0.65 1.21 (NA) 1.51 (0.20) 2.04 3.07
Total Protein Foods (oz-eq/d) 18 0.07 0.19 0.47 (NA) 0.86 (0.14) 1.06 2.07

Meat, Poultry, and Eggs (not Seafood) (oz-eq/wk)

18 0.59 1.35 3.08 (NA) 5.05 (0.75) 6.43 11.71

Seafood (oz-eq/wk)

1 NA NA NA NA NA NA

Nuts, Seeds, and Soy (oz-eq/wk)

1 NA NA NA NA NA NA
Total Dairy (c-eq/d) 19 0.01 0.07 0.40 (NA) 1.76 (0.77) 1.57 4.47
Oils (g-eq/d) 18 0.41 0.87 1.87 (NA) 3.01 (0.64) 3.79 6.84
Solid Fats (g-eq/d) 25 0.50 1.83 6.06 (NA) 14.26 (2.99) 16.56 36.23
Added Sugars (tsp-eq/d) 22 0.73 1.35 2.48 (NA) 3.28 (2.19) 4.32 6.80

NOTES: N = 31. See additional notes following Table Q-15.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix Q: Food Intake of WIC and WIC-Eligible Populations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
×

TABLE Q-10 Food Group Intake Distributions of Children 1 to Less Than 2 Years, All Low-Income, NHANES 2011–2012

Food Group N Percentiles and Mean (SE)
10th 25th Median Mean 75th 90th
Total Fruit (c-eq/d) 79 0.48 0.75 1.15 (0.13) 1.29 (0.10) 1.68 2.27
Total Vegetables (c-eq/d) 65 0.22 0.32 0.47 (0.05) 0.52 (0.04) 0.67 0.90

Dark Green Vegetables (c-eq/wk)

4 0.01 0.03 0.10 (NA) 0.23 (NA) 0.25 0.56

Red and Orange Vegetables (c-eq/wk)

42 0.33 0.58 1.07 (0.33) 1.56 (0.26) 1.94 3.28

Beans and Peas Computed as Vegetables (c-eq/wk)

7 0.00 0.03 0.18 (NA) 0.38 (0.07) 0.58 1.08

Starchy Vegetables (c-eq/wk)

23 0.39 0.66 1.10 (NA) 1.32 (0.16) 1.74 2.53

Other Vegetables (c-eq/wk)

28 0.32 0.48 0.71 (NA) 0.80 (0.14) 1.02 1.37
Total Grains (oz-eq/d) 91 1.89 2.46 3.19 (0.20) 3.31 (0.16) 4.03 4.87

Whole Grains (oz-eq/d)

45 0.10 0.19 0.40 (0.14) 0.69 (0.11) 0.83 1.55

Refined Grains (oz-eq/d)

90 1.73 2.16 2.71 (0.20) 2.78 (0.16) 3.32 3.94
Total Protein Foods (oz-eq/d) 82 1.04 1.44 1.99 (0.20) 2.12 (0.16) 2.66 3.36

Meat, Poultry, and Eggs (not Seafood) (oz-eq/wk)

77 4.96 7.67 11.69 (1.28) 12.99 (1.02) 16.88 22.61

Seafood (oz-eq/wk)

2 0.07 0.19 0.46 (NA) 0.64 (NA) 0.91 1.45

Nuts, Seeds, and Soy (oz-eq/wk)

15 0.13 0.42 1.07 (NA) 1.24 (0.29) 1.91 2.64
Total Dairy (c-eq/d) 92 1.36 1.75 2.26 (0.14) 2.33 (0.11) 2.83 3.41
Oils (g-eq/d) 86 5.54 6.87 8.58 (0.60) 8.89 (0.48) 10.57 12.61
Solid Fats (g-eq/d) 92 14.41 18.59 24.14 (1.92) 25.30 (1.53) 30.75 37.68
Added Sugars (tsp-eq/d) 92 4.22 5.89 8.26 (2.82) 8.98 (2.25) 11.29 14.65

NOTES: N = 93. See additional notes following Table Q-15.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix Q: Food Intake of WIC and WIC-Eligible Populations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
×

TABLE Q-11 Food Group Intake Distributions of Children 1 to Less Than 2 Years, WIC, NHANES 2005–2008

Food Group N Percentiles and Mean (SE)
10th 25th Median Mean 75th 90th
Total Fruit (c-eq/d) 231 0.55 0.84 1.26 (0.08) 1.39 (0.06) 1.79 2.37
Total Vegetables (c-eq/d) 229 0.27 0.36 0.49 (0.03) 0.52 (0.02) 0.64 0.80

Dark Green Vegetables (c-eq/wk)

7 0.00 0.00 0.03 (NA) 0.13 (0.02) 0.13 0.35

Red and Orange Vegetables (c-eq/wk)

142 0.38 0.63 1.06 (0.14) 1.33 (0.11) 1.73 2.61

Beans and Peas Computed as Vegetables (c-eq/wk)

21 0.00 0.03 0.18 (NA) 0.35 (0.04) 0.53 0.97

Starchy Vegetables (c-eq/wk)

118 0.62 0.93 1.39 (0.25) 1.53 (0.20) 1.97 2.63

Other Vegetables (c-eq/wk)

108 0.26 0.48 0.92 (0.31) 1.37 (0.25) 1.72 2.97
Total Grains (oz-eq/d) 259 1.68 2.21 2.89 (0.13) 3.02 (0.10) 3.69 4.51

Whole Grains (oz-eq/d)

122 0.13 0.21 0.34 (0.04) 0.39 (0.03) 0.51 0.72

Refined Grains (oz-eq/d)

257 1.41 1.88 2.50 (0.11) 2.62 (0.09) 3.23 4.00
Total Protein Foods (oz-eq/d) 240 0.83 1.27 1.93 (0.10) 2.13 (0.08) 2.77 3.70

Meat, Poultry, and Eggs (not Seafood) (oz-eq/wk)

236 5.31 8.18 12.40 (0.66) 13.72 (0.53) 17.80 23.75

Seafood (oz-eq/wk)

1 NA NA NA NA NA NA

Nuts, Seeds, and Soy (oz-eq/wk)

31 0.03 0.15 0.49 (0.19) 0.84 (0.15) 1.15 2.06
Total Dairy (c-eq/d) 259 1.32 1.85 2.55 (0.10) 2.67 (0.08) 3.35 4.16
Oils (g-eq/d) 236 3.03 4.73 7.32 (0.51) 8.27 (0.41) 10.78 14.74
Solid Fats (g-eq/d) 262 15.62 20.29 26.29 (0.96) 27.25 (0.77) 33.17 40.11
Added Sugars (tsp-eq/d) 254 2.92 4.66 7.33 (1.85) 8.30 (1.48) 10.87 14.91

NOTES: N = 263. See additional notes following Table Q-15.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix Q: Food Intake of WIC and WIC-Eligible Populations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
×

TABLE Q-12 Food Group Intake Distributions of Children 1 to Less Than 2 Years, Eligible Non-WIC, NHANES 2005–2008

Food Group N Percentiles and Mean (SE)
10th 25th Median Mean 75th 90th
Total Fruit (c-eq/d) 73 0.40 0.71 1.22 (0.13) 1.43 (0.10) 1.91 2.72
Total Vegetables (c-eq/d) 73 0.21 0.35 0.54 (0.06) 0.61 (0.05) 0.80 1.10

Dark Green Vegetables (c-eq/wk)

4 0 0 0.03 (NA) 0.27 (NA) 0.23 0.77

Red and Orange Vegetables (c-eq/wk)

55 0.29 0.55 1.03 (0.18) 1.38 (0.14) 1.82 2.88

Beans and Peas Computed as Vegetables (c-eq/wk)

2 0.14 0.22 0.34 (NA) 0.37 (NA) 0.49 0.66

Starchy Vegetables (c-eq/wk)

38 1.04 1.49 2.20 (0.49) 2.57 (0.39) 3.24 4.54

Other Vegetables (c-eq/wk)

34 0.25 0.39 0.60 (0.74) 0.71 (0.59) 0.91 1.30
Total Grains (oz-eq/d) 79 1.39 2.12 3.14 (0.26) 3.38 (0.21) 4.38 5.69

Whole Grains (oz-eq/d)

34 0.10 0.18 0.33 (0.09) 0.41 (0.07) 0.55 0.83

Refined Grains (oz-eq/d)

78 1.05 1.71 2.66 (0.23) 2.95 (0.18) 3.88 5.21
Total Protein Foods (oz-eq/d) 76 0.84 1.30 1.96 (0.18) 2.15 (0.14) 2.80 3.71

Meat, Poultry, and Eggs (not Seafood) (oz-eq/wk)

72 5.44 8.17 12.14 (0.96) 13.31 (0.77) 17.15 22.62

Seafood (oz-eq/wk)

1 NA NA NA NA NA NA

Nuts, Seeds, and Soy (oz-eq/wk)

8 0.27 0.52 0.98 (NA) 1.29 (0.30) 1.72 2.69
Total Dairy (c-eq/d) 79 1.08 1.64 2.38 (0.18) 2.53 (0.14) 3.26 4.16
Oils (g-eq/d) 72 4.22 5.97 8.47 (1.03) 9.20 (0.82) 11.63 15.09
Solid Fats (g-eq/d) 80 14.08 19.59 26.64 (1.60) 27.63 (1.28) 34.58 42.44
Added Sugars (tsp-eq/d) 80 2.89 5.05 8.60 (3.98) 10.25 (3.18) 13.65 19.71

NOTES: N = 82. See additional notes following Table Q-15.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix Q: Food Intake of WIC and WIC-Eligible Populations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
×

TABLE Q-13 starts on the next page.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix Q: Food Intake of WIC and WIC-Eligible Populations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
×

TABLE Q-13 Food Group Intake Distributions of Children 2 to Less Than 5 Years, All Low-Income, NHANES 2011–2012

Food Group N Percentiles and Mean (SE)
10th 25th Median
Total Fruit (c-eq/d) 299 0.53 0.83 1.27 (0.06)
Total Vegetables (c-eq/d) 287 0.32 0.45 0.62 (0.04)

Dark Green Vegetables (c-eq/wk)

10 0.00 0.01 0.07 (NA)

Red and Orange Vegetables (c-eq/wk)

189 0.36 0.61 1.07 (0.11)

Beans and Peas Computed as Vegetables (c-eq/wk)

34 0.01 0.06 0.27 (0.08)

Starchy Vegetables (c-eq/wk)

123 0.72 1.22 2.18 (0.46)

Other Vegetables (c-eq/wk)

146 0.80 1.26 2.07 (0.54)
Total Grains (oz-eq/d) 338 3.29 3.94 4.74 (0.18)

Whole Grains (oz-eq/d)

170 0.14 0.27 0.53 (0.08)

Refined Grains (oz-eq/d)

337 2.66 3.27 4.03 (0.15)
Total Protein Foods (oz-eq/d) 328 1.69 2.26 3.01 (0.11)

Meat, Poultry, and Eggs (not Seafood) (oz-eq/wk)

318 8.31 12.24 17.73 (0.81)

Seafood (oz-eq/wk)

10 0 0.03 0.27 (0.19)

Nuts, Seeds, and Soy (oz-eq/wk)

55 0.47 0.92 1.71 (0.34)
Total Dairy (c-eq/d) 333 1.01 1.41 1.95 (0.08)
Oils (g-eq/d) 332 8.30 10.88 14.30 (0.66)
Solid Fats (g-eq/d) 338 16.50 20.77 26.32 (0.95)
Added Sugars (tsp-eq/d) 337 6.92 9.50 13.05 (2.47)

NOTES: N = 340. For all children 1 to less than 5 years of age, recommended intakes were generated by weighting the 1,000 and 1,300 (averaged from 1,200 and 1,400 kcal patterns) kcal food patterns in a 1:3 ratio following the methodology applied by the Institute of Medicine (2011). See additional notes following Table Q-15.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix Q: Food Intake of WIC and WIC-Eligible Populations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
×
  Recommended Intake % Below Recommended Intake (SE)
Mean 75th 90th
1.41 (0.05) 1.84 2.46 1.19 45 (5.20)
0.67 (0.03) 0.83 1.06 1.38 98 (1.10)
0.26 (0.08) 0.27 0.71 0.88 92 (4.00)
1.38 (0.09) 1.78 2.76 2.88 91 (1.90)
0.47 (0.06) 0.71 1.25 0.50 65 (4.23)
3.04 (0.37) 3.83 6.30 3.13 67 (5.04)
2.62 (0.43) 3.35 5.08 2.25 55 (7.12)
4.84 (0.14) 5.63 6.51 4.13 31 (4.25)
0.81 (0.06) 1.03 1.79 2.06 93 (1.42)
4.14 (0.12) 4.89 5.76 2.06 2 (0.81)
3.14 (0.09) 3.87 4.74 3.13 54 (3.80)
19.05 (0.65) 24.41 31.46 14.88 37 (3.76)
0.90 (0.15) 1.12 2.68 4.50 96 (1.66)
2.13 (0.27) 2.86 4.30 2.38 66 (6.38)
2.04 (0.06) 2.57 3.21 2.38 68 (3.82)
14.99 (0.53) 18.34 22.54 16.50 65 (3.77)
% Above Recommended Intake (SE)
27.30 (0.76) 32.75 39.35 < 7.75 100 (0.09)
13.91 (1.97) 17.38 21.99 < 3.24 99 (0.002)
Suggested Citation:"Appendix Q: Food Intake of WIC and WIC-Eligible Populations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
×

TABLE Q-14 Food Group Intake Distributions of Children 2 to Less Than 5 Years, WIC, NHANES 2005–2008

Food Group N Percentiles and Mean (SE)
10th 25th Median
Total Fruit (c-eq/d) 335 0.48 0.81 1.35 (0.06)
Total Vegetables (c-eq/d) 347 0.28 0.43 0.64 (0.04)

Dark Green Vegetables (c-eq/wk)

12 0.02 0.05 0.12 (NA)

Red and Orange Vegetables (c-eq/wk)

218 0.40 0.69 1.24 (0.11)

Beans and Peas Computed as Vegetables (c-eq/wk)

26 0.05 0.13 0.33 (NA)

Starchy Vegetables (c-eq/wk)

149 0.93 1.38 2.02 (0.50)

Other Vegetables (c-eq/wk)

191 0.30 0.59 1.21 (0.23)
Total Grains (oz-eq/d) 398 2.52 3.25 4.18 (0.11)

Whole Grains (oz-eq/d)

160 0.16 0.25 0.38 (0.04)

Refined Grains (oz-eq/d)

393 2.20 2.89 3.77 (0.11)
Total Protein Foods (oz-eq/d) 378 1.69 2.23 2.93 (0.10)

Meat, Poultry, and Eggs (not Seafood) (oz-eq/wk)

365 10.22 13.56 17.95 (0.66)

Seafood (oz-eq/wk)

6 0.14 0.32 0.68 (NA)

Nuts, Seeds, and Soy (oz-eq/wk)

59 0.18 0.44 1.06 (0.36)
Total Dairy (c-eq/d) 394 1.09 1.49 2.00 (0.06)
Oils (g-eq/d) 382 5.44 7.88 11.37 (0.65)
Solid Fats (g-eq/d) 401 18.38 22.61 27.90 (0.90)
Added Sugars (tsp-eq/d) 398 6.85 9.51 13.18 (2.48)

NOTES: N = 402. For all children 1 to less than 5 years of age, recommended intakes were generated by weighting the 1,000 and 1,300 (averaged from 1,200 and 1,400 kcal patterns) kcal food patterns in a 1:3 ratio following the methodology applied by the Institute of Medicine (2011). See additional notes following Table Q-15.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix Q: Food Intake of WIC and WIC-Eligible Populations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
×
  Recommended Intake % Below Recommended Intake (SE)
Mean 75th 90th
1.57 (0.05) 2.09 2.94 1.19 43 (5.59)
0.71 (0.03) 0.91 1.22 1.38 94 (1.41)
0.19 (0.03) 0.25 0.45 0.88 98 (1.85)
1.63 (0.09) 2.12 3.33 2.88 86 (2.83)
0.50 (0.04) 0.68 1.18 0.50 65 (3.55)
2.23 (0.40) 2.85 3.78 3.13 81 (5.47)
1.90 (0.18) 2.37 4.21 2.25 73 (3.65)
4.32 (0.09) 5.24 6.30 4.13 48 (4.36)
0.43 (0.03) 0.55 0.75 2.06 100 (0.02)
3.91 (0.09) 4.78 5.80 2.06 8 (1.03)
3.05 (0.08) 3.75 4.57 3.13 57 (4.87)
18.76 (0.53) 23.08 28.33 14.88 32 (6.19)
0.90 (0.09) 1.24 1.96 4.50 100 (1.06)
1.83 (0.29) 2.30 4.31 2.38 76 (5.13)
2.10 (0.05) 2.61 3.24 2.38 66 (10.84)
12.41 (0.52) 15.80 20.67 16.50 78 (5.53)
% Above Recommended Intake (SE)
28.61 (0.72) 33.84 39.75 < 7.75 100 (0.003)
14.07 (1.98) 17.65 22.42 < 3.24 99 (0.04)
Suggested Citation:"Appendix Q: Food Intake of WIC and WIC-Eligible Populations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
×

TABLE Q-15 Food Group Intake Distributions of Children 2 to Less Than 5 Years, Eligible Non-WIC, NHANES 2005–2008

Food Group N Percentiles and Mean (SE)
10th 25th Median
Total Fruit (c-eq/d) 250 0.39 0.67 1.12 (0.08)
Total Vegetables (c-eq/d) 291 0.32 0.45 0.64 (0.03)

Dark Green Vegetables (c-eq/wk)

6 0.01 0.04 0.11 (NA)

Red and Orange Vegetables (c-eq/wk)

202 0.58 0.91 1.44 (0.11)

Beans and Peas Computed as Vegetables (c-eq/wk)

13 0.04 0.10 0.24 (NA)

Starchy Vegetables (c-eq/wk)

122 0.84 1.28 1.89 (0.19)

Other Vegetables (c-eq/wk)

150 0.30 0.50 0.81 (0.38)
Total Grains (oz-eq/d) 324 2.74 3.53 4.53 (0.15)

Whole Grains (oz-eq/d)

133 0.13 0.22 0.38 (0.10)

Refined Grains (oz-eq/d)

322 2.47 3.18 4.08 (0.14)
Total Protein Foods (oz-eq/d) 315 1.84 2.32 2.92 (0.11)

Meat, Poultry, and Eggs (not Seafood) (oz-eq/wk)

306 10.36 13.43 17.41 (0.71)

Seafood (oz-eq/wk)

8 0 0.05 0.35 (NA)

Nuts, Seeds, and Soy (oz-eq/wk)

50 0.57 0.94 1.58 (0.39)
Total Dairy (c-eq/d) 323 1.01 1.41 1.95 (0.06)
Oils (g-eq/d) 312 7.29 9.28 11.88 (0.55)
Solid Fats (g-eq/d) 327 18.17 22.95 28.90 (1.01)
Added Sugars (tsp-eq/d) 328 8.20 11.03 14.86 (2.18)

NOTES: N = 329. For all children 1 to less than 5 years of age, recommended intakes were generated by weighting the 1,000 and 1,300 (averaged from 1,200 and 1,400 kcal patterns) kcal food patterns in a 1:3 ratio following the methodology applied by the Institute of Medicine (2011). See additional notes following this table.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix Q: Food Intake of WIC and WIC-Eligible Populations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
×
  Recommended Intake % Below Recommended Intake (SE)
Mean 75th 90th
1.32 (0.06) 1.75 2.50 1.19 53 (3.59)
0.69 (0.02) 0.87 1.12 1.38 97 (0.45)
0.21 (NA) 0.27 0.52 0.88 96 (NA)
1.71 (0.09) 2.21 3.15 2.88 87 (2.33)
0.31 (0.04) 0.45 0.70 0.50 79 (6.30)
2.06 (0.15) 2.65 3.49 3.13 85 (4.50)
0.98 (0.30) 1.27 1.85 2.25 95 (4.78)
4.67 (0.12) 5.66 6.79 4.13 40 (5.04)
0.46 (0.08) 0.60 0.89 2.06 100 (1.60)
4.22 (0.11) 5.11 6.14 2.06 5 (0.64)
3.00 (0.09) 3.60 4.27 3.13 58 (6.49)
18.08 (0.57) 21.99 26.65 14.88 34 (5.26)
0.94 (0.21) 1.30 2.81 4.50 97 (3.08)
2.04 (0.31) 2.62 4.04 2.38 71 (6.93)
2.05 (0.05) 2.57 3.21 2.38 68 (3.46)
12.36 (0.44) 14.91 18.03 16.50 84 (9.53)
% Above Recommended Intake (SE)
29.63 (0.81) 35.51 42.02 < 7.75 100 (0.01)
15.72 (1.74) 19.47 24.34 < 3.24 100 (0.002)
Suggested Citation:"Appendix Q: Food Intake of WIC and WIC-Eligible Populations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
×

NOTES FOR TABLES Q-1 to Q-15: c-eq = cup-equivalents; d = day; EER = Estimated Energy Requirement; g-eq = gram-equivalents; N = sample size; NA = data not available; NHANES = National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey; oz-eq = ounce-equivalents; SE = standard error; wk = week. NA = estimate could not be obtained because the Statistical Program for Age-adjusted Dietary Assessment (SPADE) requires more than two observations per group with two non-zero intakes in order to estimate a within-person variance, or, for median standard errors, a sample size of 30 is required to estimate this value from mean standard error.

Population subgroup definitions are as follows:

All individuals reporting participation in WIC regardless of income level.

Eligible Non-WIC = Low-income individuals who did not report participation in WIC.

All Low-Income = All individuals at 185 percent of poverty. At the time of analysis, the WIC indicator was not available for NHANES 2011–2012. Thus, the “All Low-Income 2011–2012” group serves as a proxy for current intakes of this population.

Note on Red and Orange Vegetables: Although all data are compared to values presented in the 2015 DGAC report, the DGA in place at the time of the 2005–2008 NHANES survey (the 2005 DGA) did not include a red and orange vegetables subgroup.

SOURCES: Intake data are from NHANES 2005–2008 and 2011–2012 (USDA/ARS, 2005–2008, 2011–2012). Reference values are the USDA food patterns from the report of the 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee (USDA/HHS, 2015).

REFERENCES

USDA/ARS (U.S Department of Agriculture/Agricultural Research Service). 2005–2008. What we eat in America, NHANES 2005–2008. Beltsville, MD: USDA/ARS (accessed December 15, 2014).

USDA/ARS. 2011–2012. What we eat in America, NHANES 2011–2012. Beltsville, MD: USDA/ARS (accessed December 15, 2014).

USDA/HHS (U.S. Department of Agriculture/U.S. Department of Health and Human Services). 2015. The report of the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee on the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2015, to the Secretary of Agriculture and the Secretary of Health and Human Services. Washington, DC: USDA/HHS. http://www.health.gov/dietaryguidelines/2015-scientific-report/PDFs/Scientific-Report-of-the-2015-DietaryGuidelines-Advisory-Committee.pdf (accessed May 24, 2015).

Suggested Citation:"Appendix Q: Food Intake of WIC and WIC-Eligible Populations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix Q: Food Intake of WIC and WIC-Eligible Populations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix Q: Food Intake of WIC and WIC-Eligible Populations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix Q: Food Intake of WIC and WIC-Eligible Populations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix Q: Food Intake of WIC and WIC-Eligible Populations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix Q: Food Intake of WIC and WIC-Eligible Populations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix Q: Food Intake of WIC and WIC-Eligible Populations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix Q: Food Intake of WIC and WIC-Eligible Populations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix Q: Food Intake of WIC and WIC-Eligible Populations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix Q: Food Intake of WIC and WIC-Eligible Populations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix Q: Food Intake of WIC and WIC-Eligible Populations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix Q: Food Intake of WIC and WIC-Eligible Populations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix Q: Food Intake of WIC and WIC-Eligible Populations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix Q: Food Intake of WIC and WIC-Eligible Populations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix Q: Food Intake of WIC and WIC-Eligible Populations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix Q: Food Intake of WIC and WIC-Eligible Populations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix Q: Food Intake of WIC and WIC-Eligible Populations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix Q: Food Intake of WIC and WIC-Eligible Populations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix Q: Food Intake of WIC and WIC-Eligible Populations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix Q: Food Intake of WIC and WIC-Eligible Populations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix Q: Food Intake of WIC and WIC-Eligible Populations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix Q: Food Intake of WIC and WIC-Eligible Populations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix Q: Food Intake of WIC and WIC-Eligible Populations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix Q: Food Intake of WIC and WIC-Eligible Populations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix Q: Food Intake of WIC and WIC-Eligible Populations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix Q: Food Intake of WIC and WIC-Eligible Populations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Review of WIC Food Packages: Proposed Framework for Revisions: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21832.
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Next: Appendix R: Summary of National Dataset Characteristics Applied in the Evaluation of Health Risks »
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The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) began 40 years ago as a pilot program and has since grown to serve over 8 million pregnant women, and mothers of and their infants and young children. Today the program serves more than a quarter of the pregnant women and half of the infants in the United States, at an annual cost of about $6.2 billion. Through its contribution to the nutritional needs of pregnant, breastfeeding, and post-partum women; infants; and children under 5 years of age; this federally supported nutrition assistance program is integral to meeting national nutrition policy goals for a significant portion of the U.S. population.

To assure the continued success of the WIC, Congress mandated that the Food and Nutrition Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) reevaluate the program's food packages every 10 years. In 2014, the USDA asked the Institute of Medicine to undertake this reevaluation to ensure continued alignment with the goals of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. This, the second report of this series, provides a summary of the work of phase I of the study, and serves as the analytical underpinning for phase II in which the committee will report its final conclusions and recommendations.

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