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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Health Risks of Indoor Exposure to Particulate Matter: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23531.
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Health Risks of Indoor Exposure to
Particulate Matter

WORKSHOP SUMMARY

David A. Butler, Guru Madhavan, and Joe Alper, Rapporteurs
Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice
Health and Medicine Division

images

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, DC
www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Health Risks of Indoor Exposure to Particulate Matter: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23531.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001

This activity was supported by the Contract No. EP-C-14-005/0006 between the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-44362-3
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-44362-8
Digital Object Identifier: 10.17226/23531

Additional copies of this workshop summary are available for sale from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; 800-624-6242 or 202-334-3313; www.nap.edu.

Copyright 2016 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America

Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Health risks of indoor exposure to particulate matter: Workshop summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23531.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Health Risks of Indoor Exposure to Particulate Matter: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23531.
×
image

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president.

The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president.

The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine.

Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Health Risks of Indoor Exposure to Particulate Matter: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23531.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Health Risks of Indoor Exposure to Particulate Matter: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23531.
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PLANNING COMMITTEE ON THE HEALTH RISKS OF INDOOR
EXPOSURE TO PARTICULATE MATTER WORKSHOP1

WILLIAM NAZAROFF (Chair), Daniel Tellep Distinguished Professor, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Berkeley

TERRY BRENNAN, President, Camroden Associates, Inc.

RICHARD CORSI, Chair and Professor, Civil, Architectural, and Environmental Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin

HOWARD KIPEN, Professor and Director of Clinical Research and Occupational Medicine, Department of Environmental & Occupational Health, Rutgers School of Public Health, Piscataway, New Jersey

TIINA REPONEN, Professor, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine and Visiting Professor, Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Kuopio, Finland

Staff

DAVID A. BUTLER, Scholar

GURU MADHAVAN, Senior Program Officer

ANNA MARTIN, Senior Program Assistant

HOPE HARE, Administrative Assistant

DORIS ROMERO, Financial Associate

ROSE MARIE MARTINEZ, Senior Director, Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice

REBECCA G. MORGAN, Senior Research Librarian

Consultant

JOE ALPER, Science Writer

__________________

1 The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine’s planning committees are solely responsible for organizing the workshop, identifying topics, and selecting speakers. The responsibility for the published workshop summary rests with the workshop rapporteurs and the institution.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Health Risks of Indoor Exposure to Particulate Matter: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23531.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Health Risks of Indoor Exposure to Particulate Matter: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23531.
×

Reviewers

This workshop summary has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published workshop summary as sound as possible and to ensure that the workshop summary meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this workshop summary:

George Gray, George Washington University

Petros Koutrakis, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health

Barbara Turpin, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Mark J. Utell, University of Rochester Medical Center

Lance Wallace, formerly U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and National Institute of Standards and Technology

Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they did not see the final draft of the workshop summary before its release. The review of this workshop summary was overseen by Linda McCauley, Emory University. She was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this workshop summary was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this workshop summary rests entirely with the rapporteurs and the institution.

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Health Risks of Indoor Exposure to Particulate Matter: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23531.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Health Risks of Indoor Exposure to Particulate Matter: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23531.
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3-3 Decreasing efficiency of an air filter over time

3-4 Typical chemical composition of indoor air by weight percent of PM2.5

3-5 Aerosol mass spectrometry data showing the composition of indoor and outdoor PM

4-1 Indoor and outdoor PM2.5 concentrations and compositions from homes in Elizabeth, New Jersey

4-2 Indoor-generated sources contributed the majority of PM2.5 in households in New Jersey and in California

4-3 Comparison of the cumulative probability of indoor concentrations of indoor sulfate, elemental carbon, and organic carbon between a mass-balance model assuming no indoor sources and RIOPA measurements

4-4 Infiltration factors representing the indoor proportion of outdoor particles, effectively determining the indoor PM concentration in the absence of indoor sources

4-5 Indoor and outdoor PM10 and PM1 mass concentration measurements at the roadside and inside a house as a function of time

4-6 Indoor-to-outdoor particle concentration ratios in Birmingham City Centre offices by particle size, as characterized by Nano-DMA, SMPS, and Lasair measuring systems

4-7 Average value and standard error indoor and outdoor PM2.5 and UFP levels in Bologna, Italy, during three monitoring periods

4-8 Estimated contribution of indoor PM2.5 between the lowest and highest quartile for categories of AER, smoking, and outdoor air pollution

4-9 Time spent in various microenvironments as a function of age and home location

4-10 Real-time PM2.5 levels in a smoker’s housing unit and adjacent unoccupied unit

5-1 Particle removal effectiveness as a function of filter efficiency

5-2 Particle removal efficiency by filters of different MERV ratings

5-3 Size ranges for different types of bioaerosol particles

5-4 The effect of air sealing on PM2.5 infiltration

7-1 Global public health burdens attributable to 20 leading risk factors in 2010

7-2 Biological pathways linking PM exposure with cardiovascular diseases

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Health Risks of Indoor Exposure to Particulate Matter: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23531.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Health Risks of Indoor Exposure to Particulate Matter: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23531.
×

Acronyms and Abbreviations

3D three-dimensional
AER air exchange rate
ASHRAE American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers
EPA U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Finf infiltration factor
FPR filter performance rating
HEPA high-efficiency particulate air/arrestor
HVAC heating, ventilating, and air conditioning
IAQ indoor air quality
MERV minimum efficiency reporting value
MPR micro-particle performance rating
NAAQS National Ambient Air Quality Standards
P penetration factor
PM particulate matter
PM2.5 particles less than 2.5 micrometers in diameter (fine particles)
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Health Risks of Indoor Exposure to Particulate Matter: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23531.
×
PM10 particles 2.5 to 10 micrometers in diameter (coarse particles)
qPCR qualitative polymerase chain reaction
RIOPA Relationship of Indoor, Outdoor, and Personal Air (study)
SOA secondary organic aerosol
SVOC semivolatile organic compound
UFP ultrafine particle, particle less than 0.1 micrometers in diameter
UV ultraviolet
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Health Risks of Indoor Exposure to Particulate Matter: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23531.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Health Risks of Indoor Exposure to Particulate Matter: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23531.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Health Risks of Indoor Exposure to Particulate Matter: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23531.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Health Risks of Indoor Exposure to Particulate Matter: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23531.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Health Risks of Indoor Exposure to Particulate Matter: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23531.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Health Risks of Indoor Exposure to Particulate Matter: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23531.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Health Risks of Indoor Exposure to Particulate Matter: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23531.
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Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Health Risks of Indoor Exposure to Particulate Matter: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23531.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Health Risks of Indoor Exposure to Particulate Matter: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23531.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Health Risks of Indoor Exposure to Particulate Matter: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23531.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Health Risks of Indoor Exposure to Particulate Matter: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23531.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Health Risks of Indoor Exposure to Particulate Matter: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23531.
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Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Health Risks of Indoor Exposure to Particulate Matter: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23531.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Health Risks of Indoor Exposure to Particulate Matter: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23531.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Health Risks of Indoor Exposure to Particulate Matter: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23531.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Health Risks of Indoor Exposure to Particulate Matter: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23531.
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The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) defines PM as a mixture of extremely small particles and liquid droplets comprising a number of components, including “acids (such as nitrates and sulfates), organic chemicals, metals, soil or dust particles, and allergens (such as fragments of pollen and mold spores)”. The health effects of outdoor exposure to particulate matter (PM) are the subject of both research attention and regulatory action. Although much less studied to date, indoor exposure to PM is gaining attention as a potential source of adverse health effects. Indoor PM can originate from outdoor particles and also from various indoor sources, including heating, cooking, and smoking. Levels of indoor PM have the potential to exceed outdoor PM levels.

Understanding the major features and subtleties of indoor exposures to particles of outdoor origin can improve our understanding of the exposure–response relationship on which ambient air pollutant standards are based. The EPA’s Indoor Environments Division commissioned the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to hold a workshop examining the issue of indoor exposure to PM more comprehensively and considering both the health risks and possible intervention strategies. Participants discussed the ailments that are most affected by particulate matter and the attributes of the exposures that are of greatest concern, exposure modifiers, vulnerable populations, exposure assessment, risk management, and gaps in the science. This report summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop.

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