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1 Introduction O n September 13-14, 2016, a planning committee for the Food Forum of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine1 convened a workshop in Washington, DC, to (1) exam- ine trends and patterns in aging and factors related to healthy aging in the United States, with a focus on nutrition; (2) examine how nutrition can sus- tain and promote healthy aging, not just in late adulthood, but beginning in pregnancy and early childhood and extending throughout the lifespan; (3) highlight the role of nutrition in the aging process at various stages in life; (4) discuss changes in organ systems, including the skeletal, muscular, and cardiovascular systems, over the lifespan, and changes that occur with age related to cognitive, brain, and mental health and to diet-related sensory preferences, oral health, and the microbiome; and (5)Â explore opportuni- ties to move forward in promoting healthy aging in the United States. See Box 1-1 for the full statement of task for the workshop. It is important to note that this Proceedings of a Workshop summarizes information presented and discussed at the workshop and is not intended to serve as a comprehensive overview of the subject. Nor are the citations herein intended to serve as a comprehensive set of references for any topic; 1â The planning committeeâs role was limited to planning the workshop. This Proceedings of a Workshop was prepared by the rapporteur as a factual account of what occurred at the workshop. Statements, recommendations, and opinions expressed are those of individual presenters and participants and have not been endorsed or verified by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. They should not be construed as reflecting any group consensus. 1
2 NUTRITION ACROSS THE LIFESPAN FOR HEALTHY AGING BOX 1-1 Statement of Task An ad hoc committee will plan and conduct a 2-day public workshop that will explore the current state of knowledge regarding the role of communications and marketing on consumer knowledge and behavior, specifically related to how commercial and public health messaging concerning food, nutrition, and food safety inform, influence, and impact the population at the individual, family, and community levels regarding food choices and behavior. The workshop agenda will include presentations and discussion that will address scientific credibility, the role of scientific communications in consumer knowledge and behavior related to food and nutrition, and the impact of marketing on consumer decision making. The committee will develop the workshop agenda, select and invite speakers and discussants, and moderate the discussions. After the workshop, a brief workshop summary and full workshop summary of the event will be prepared by a designated rapporteur in accordance with institutional guidelines. only references cited on speaker slides or in the workshop briefing notebook are included. The organization of this Proceedings of a Workshop parallels the or- ganization of the workshop (see Appendix A for the workshop agenda). Chapter 2, âChanging Landscape: Demographics, Health Status, and Nu- tritional Needs,â summarizes the Session 1 presentations and discussion. Speakers provided an overview of the demographics, health status, and nutritional needs of the older U.S. population. Chapter 3, âThe Spectrum of Aging and Health Over the Lifespan,â summarizes the Session 2 presen- tations and discussion, with a focus on aging over the lifespan (e.g., how risk factors early in life predict health outcomes later in life). ChapterÂ 4, âChanges in Organ Systems Over the Lifespan,â summarizes the Session 3 presentations and discussion. Speakers covered a range of organ systems, including the cardiovascular system, skeletal and muscular systems, sen- sory and oral health, and the gut and gut microbiome. ChapterÂ 5, âMov- ing Forward,â summarizes the Session 4 presentations and discussion, in which the focus of the workshop shifted to the future and ways to promote healthy aging. Finally, ChapterÂ 6, âHealthy Aging: What Is It? Are There Acceptable Markers to Utilize in Developing Strategies to Promote It?,â is a summary of the workshopâs closing moderated discussion.