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Alternative Fuels in Airport Fleets AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMACRP SYNTHESIS 85 A Synthesis of Airport Practice Sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration
ACRP OVERSIGHT COMMITTEE* CHAIR KITTY FREIDHEIM Freidheim Consulting VICE CHAIR KELLY JOHNSON Northwest Arkansas Regional Airport Authority MEMBERS GLORIA G. BENDER TransSolutions THELLA F. BOWENS San Diego County Regional Airport Authority BENITO de LEON Federal Aviation Administration DEBORAH FLINT Los Angeles World Airports RHONDA HAMM-NIEBRUEGGE Lambert-St. Louis International Airport MARGARET McKEOUGH Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority SCOTT McMAHON Morristown Municipal Airport FRANK MILLER Hollywood Burbank Airport BOB MONTGOMERY Southwest Airlines ERIC POTTS Freese and Nichols, Inc. MEGAN S. RYERSON University of Pennsylvania EX OFFICIO MEMBERS SABRINA JOHNSON U.S. Environmental Protection Agency MARK KIMBERLING National Association of State Aviation Officials LAURA McKEE Airlines for America CHRISTOPHER OSWALD Airports Council InternationalâNorth America NEIL J. PEDERSEN Transportation Research Board MELISSA SABATINE American Association of Airport Executives T.J. SCHULZ Airport Consultants Council SECRETARY CHRISTOPHER J. HEDGES Transportation Research Board TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2017 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* OFFICERS Chair: MALCOLM DOUGHERTY, Director, California Department of Transportation, Sacramento Vice Chair: KATHERINE F. TURNBULL, Executive Associate Director and Research Scientist, Texas A&M Transportation Institute, College Station Executive Director: NEIL J. PEDERSEN, Transportation Research Board MEMBERS VICTORIA A. ARROYO, Executive Director, Georgetown Climate Center; Assistant Dean, Centers and Institutes; and Professor and Director, Environmental Law Program, Georgetown University Law Center, Washington, DC SCOTT E. BENNETT, Director, Arkansas State Highway and Transportation Department, Little Rock JENNIFER COHAN, Secretary, Delaware DOT, Dover JAMES M. CRITES, Executive Vice President of Operations, DallasâFort Worth International Airport, TX NATHANIEL P. FORD, SR., Executive DirectorâCEO, Jacksonville Transportation Authority, Jacksonville, FL A. STEWART FOTHERINGHAM, Professor, School of Geographical Sciences and Urban Planning, Arizona State University, Tempe JOHN S. HALIKOWSKI, Director, Arizona DOT, Phoenix SUSAN HANSON, Distinguished University Professor Emerita, Graduate School of Geography, Clark University, Worcester, MA STEVE HEMINGER, Executive Director, Metropolitan Transportation Commission, Oakland, CA CHRIS T. HENDRICKSON, Hamerschlag Professor of Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA JEFFREY D. HOLT, Managing Director, Power, Energy, and Infrastructure Group, BMO Capital Markets Corporation, New York S. JACK HU, Vice President for Research and J. Reid and Polly Anderson Professor of Manufacturing, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor ROGER B. HUFF, President, HGLC, LLC, Farmington Hills, MI GERALDINE KNATZ, Professor, Sol Price School of Public Policy, Viterbi School of Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles MELINDA McGRATH, Executive Director, Mississippi DOT, Jackson PATRICK K. McKENNA, Director, Missouri DOT, Jefferson City JAMES P. REDEKER, Commissioner, Connecticut DOT, Newington MARK L. ROSENBERG, Executive Director, The Task Force for Global Health, Inc., Decatur, GA DANIEL SPERLING, Professor of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science and Policy; Director, Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California, Davis GARY C. THOMAS, President and Executive Director, Dallas Area Rapid Transit, Dallas, TX PAT THOMAS, Senior Vice President of State Government Affairs, United Parcel Service, Washington, DC JAMES M. TIEN, Distinguished Professor and Dean Emeritus, College of Engineering, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL DEAN H. WISE, Vice President of Network Strategy, Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railway, Fort Worth, TX CHARLES A. ZELLE, Commissioner, Minnesota DOT, Saint Paul EX OFFICIO MEMBERS ALBERTO AYALA, Deputy Executive Officer, California Air Resources Board, Sacramento MARY R. BROOKS, Professor Emerita, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, and Chair, TRB Marine Board JACK DANIELSON, Executive Director, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S. DOT AUDREY FARLEY, Executive Director, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology, U.S. DOT LeROY GISHI, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC JOHN T. GRAY II, Senior Vice President, Policy and Economics, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC MICHAEL P. HUERTA, Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S. DOT DAPHNE Y. JEFFERSON, Deputy Administrator, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S. DOT BEVAN B. KIRLEY, Research Associate, University of North Carolina Highway Safety Research Center, Chapel Hill, and Chair, TRB Young Members Council HOWARD McMILLAN, Acting Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, U.S. DOT WAYNE NASTRI, Acting Executive Officer, South Coast Air Quality Management District, Diamond Bar, CA CRAIG A. RUTLAND, U.S. Air Force Pavement Engineer, U.S. Air Force Civil Engineer Center, Tyndall Air Force Base, FL REUBEN SARKAR, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Transportation, U.S. Department of Energy TODD T. SEMONITE (Lieutenant General, U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC KARL SIMON, Director, Transportation and Climate Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency JOEL SZABAT, Executive Director, Maritime Administration, U.S. DOT WALTER C. WAIDELICH, JR., Acting Deputy Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S. DOT PATRICK T. WARREN, Executive Director, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S. DOT MATTHEW WELBES, Executive Director, Federal Transit Administration, U.S. DOT RICHARD A. WHITE, Acting President and CEO, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC FREDERICK G. (BUD) WRIGHT, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC PAUL F. ZUKUNFT (Admiral, U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, U.S. Department of Homeland Security * Membership as of April 2017.* Membership as of November 2016.
2017 A IRPORT COOPERAT IVE RESEARCH PROGRAM ACRP SYNTHESIS 85 SubScriber categorieS Aviation â¢ Energy â¢ Environment â¢ Maintenance and Preservation â¢ Vehicles and Equipment Alternative Fuels in Airport Fleets A Synthesis of Airport Practice conSultantS Geoff Morrison Damon Fordham and Cian Fields The Cadmus Group, Inc. Arlington, Virginia
AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in trans- portation of people and goods and in regional, national, and interna- tional commerce. They are where the nationâs aviation system connects with other modes of transportation and where federal responsibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most air- ports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Coopera- tive Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Air- port Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). ACRP carries out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating agencies and not being adequately addressed by existing federal research programs. ACRP is modeled after the suc- cessful National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) and Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP). ACRP undertakes research and other technical activities in various airport subject areas, including design, construction, legal, maintenance, operations, safety, policy, planning, human resources, and administration. ACRP provides a forum where airport operators can cooperatively address common operational problems. ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision 100âCentury of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary partici- pants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Transportation with representation from airport operat- ing agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations such as the Airports Council International-North America (ACI-NA), the American Association of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), Airlines for America (A4A), and the Airport Consultants Council (ACC) as vital links to the airport community; (2) TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a contract with the National Academy of Sci- ences formally initiating the program. ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of air- port professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research organizations. Each of these participants has different inter- ests and responsibilities, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the respon- sibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by identi- fying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel appointed by TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport professionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels prepare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooper- ative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the intended users of the research: airport operating agencies, service pro- viders, and academic institutions. ACRP produces a series of research reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties; industry associations may arrange for workshops, training aids, field visits, webinars, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by airport industry practitioners. ACRP SYNTHESIS 85 Project A11-03, Topic S02-15 ISSN 1935-9187 ISBN 978-0-309-39011-8 Library of Congress Control Number 2017942540 Â© 2017 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FRA, FTA, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology, PHMSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for edu- cational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publi- cation according to procedures established and overseen by the Trans- portation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who per- formed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the Airport Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufactur- ers. Trade or manufacturersâ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Published reports of the AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to http://www.national-academies.org and then searching for TRB Printed in the United States of America
The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to increase the benefits that transportation contributes to society by providing leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Boardâs varied committees, task forces, and panels annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.
TOPIC PANEL S02-15 ABUBAKER AZAM, San Francisco International Airport, San Francisco, California DANIELLE BOWER, Philadelphia International Airport, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania SUSAN FIZZELL, Oakland International Airport, Oakland, California DOROTHY HARRIS, Denver International Airport, Denver, Colorado PREM LOBO, Center of Excellence for Aerospace Particulate Emissions Reduction Research, Rolla, Missouri MELINDA McCOY, John Wayne Airport, Orange County, California STEPHANIE MEYN, Seattle Tacoma International Airport, Seattle, Washington SANDY WEBB, ECG Inc., Crownsville, Maryland PATRICK MAGNOTTA, Airports Council InternationalâNorth America (Liaison) SYNTHESIS STUDIES STAFF STEPHEN R. GODWIN, Director for Studies and Special Programs JON M. WILLIAMS, Program Director, IDEA and Synthesis Studies MARIELA GARCIA-COLBERG, Senior Program Officer JO ALLEN GAUSE, Senior Program Officer THOMAS HELMS, Consultant GAIL R. STABA, Senior Program Officer TANYA M. ZWAHLEN, Consultant DON TIPPMAN, Senior Editor CHERYL KEITH, Senior Program Assistant DEMISHA WILLIAMS, Senior Program Assistant DEBBIE IRVIN, Program Associate COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS STAFF CHRISTOPHER J. HEDGES, Director, Cooperative Research Programs LORI L. SUNDSTROM, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs MICHAEL R. SALAMONE, Manager, Airport Cooperative Research Program EILEEN P. DELANEY, Director of Publications ACRP COMMITTEE FOR PROJECT 11-03 CHAIR JOSHUA D. ABRAMSON, Easterwood Airport, College Station, Texas MEMBERS DEBBIE K. ALKE, Montana Department of Transportation, Helena, Montana GLORIA G. BENDER, TransSolutions, Fort Worth, Texas DAVID A. BYERS, Quadrex Aviation, LLC, Melbourne, Florida DAVID N. EDWARDS, JR., GreenvilleâSpartanburg Airport District, Greer, South Carolina BRENDA L. ENOS, Burns & McDonnell, Kansas City, Missouri LINDA HOWARD, Independent Aviation Consultant, Bastrop, Texas FAA LIAISON PATRICK W. MAGNOTTA AIRCRAFT OWNERS AND PILOTS ASSOCIATION ADAM WILLIAMS AIRPORTS CONSULTANTS COUNCIL MATTHEW J. GRIFFIN AIRPORTS COUNCIL INTERNATIONALâNORTH AMERICA LIYING GU TRB LIAISON CHRISTINE GERENCHER Cover figure: Alternative fuel refueling station, San Francisco International Airport. Courtesy: Abubaker Azam.
Airport administrators, engineers, and researchers often face problems for which infor- mation already exists, either in documented form or as undocumented experience and prac- tice. This information may be fragmented, scattered, and unevaluated. As a consequence, full knowledge of what has been learned about a problem may not be brought to bear on its solution. Costly research findings may go unused, valuable experience may be overlooked, and due consideration may not be given to recommended practices for solving or alleviating the problem. There is information on nearly every subject of concern to the airport industry. Much of it derives from research or from the work of practitioners faced with problems in their day-to- day work. To provide a systematic means for assembling and evaluating such useful infor- mation and to make it available to the entire airport community, the Airport Cooperative Research Program authorized the Transportation Research Board to undertake a continuing project. This project, ACRP Project 11-03, âSynthesis of Information Related to Airport Practices,â searches out and synthesizes useful knowledge from all available sources and prepares concise, documented reports on specific topics. Reports from this endeavor consti- tute an ACRP report series, Synthesis of Airport Practice. This synthesis series reports on current knowledge and practice, in a compact format, without the detailed directions usually found in handbooks or design manuals. Each report in the series provides a compendium of the best knowledge available on those measures found to be the most successful in resolving specific problems. Airports own and contract fleets to transport passengers, staff, and goods by on- and off-road vehicles. Although most transportation fuels are consumed by aircraft, using alter- native fuels in airport fleets is one opportunity airports have to control emissions and fuel costs and potentially reduce maintenance. Because of complex procurement, operational, and environmental decision making associated with alternative fuels, airport operators can be challenged when analyzing the options. This synthesis of current airport practice compiles information on eight alternative fuels: biodiesel, renewable diesel, compressed natural gas (CNG), renewable natural gas, liquefied natural gas (LNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), hydrogen, and electricity. Notably, etha- nol and hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) are not included in this report because the driving experience and refueling operations associated with ethanol and HEVs are well understood and documented elsewhere. Information used in this study was acquired through a review of the literature, an online survey completed by 33 airports (80% response), and 16 follow-up interviews with respon- dent airport operators. Dr. Geoff Morrison, Damon Fordham, and Cian Fields, The Cadmus Group, Inc., col- lected and synthesized the information and wrote the report. The members of the topic panel are acknowledged on page iv. This synthesis is an immediately useful document that records the practices that were acceptable within the limitations of the knowledge available at the time of its preparation. As progress in research and practice continues, new knowledge will be added to that now at hand. FOREWORD PREFACE By Gail R. Staba Senior Program Officer, Transportation Research Board
CONTENTS 1 SUMMARY 5 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Background, 5 Fuels, 5 Vehicles, 6 Literature Review, 8 Organization of the Report, 8 10 CHAPTER TWO METHODS Selection of Airports, 10 Development and Implementation of Full Online Survey, 10 Development of Follow-Up Interview, 10 12 CHAPTER THREE OVERVIEW OF ALTERNATIVE FUEL USE IN AIRPORT FLEETS Historical Use of Alternative Fuels at Airports, 12 Drivers of Alternative Fuel Use at Airports, 12 Role of Airport Decision-Making Process, 13 Procurement of Alternative Fuel Vehicles, 15 Vehicle Availability, 16 Fuel and Infrastructure Cost, 16 19 CHAPTER FOUR AIRPORT EXPERIENCE WITH ALTERNATIVE FUELSâBY FUEL TYPE Biodiesel, 19 Renewable Diesel, 20 Compressed Natural Gas, 20 Renewable Natural Gas, 21 Liquefied Natural Gas, 22 Liquefied Petroleum Gas, 22 Hydrogen, 22 Electricity, 22 Future Interest in Alternative Fuels, 23 25 CHAPTER FIVE AIRPORT EXPERIENCE WITH ALTERNATIVE FUELSâBY VEHICLE TYPE Introduction, 25 Shuttles, 25 Emergency Response and Security Vehicles, 26 Facility and Maintenance Vehicles, 27 28 CHAPTER SIX CONCLUSIONS AND FURTHER RESEARCH General Observations, 28 Observations by Fuel Type, 28 Observations by Vehicle Type, 29 Key Considerations, 29 Future Research Needs, 29 Note: Many of the photographs, figures, and tables in this report have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.
viii 30 REFERENCES 32 BIBLIOGRAPHY 33 ACRONYMS 34 APPENDIX A SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE 40 APPENDIX B LIST OF SURVEY RESPONDENTS 41 APPENDIX C FUEL PROPERTIES 42 APPENDIX D FUEL USE BY AIRPORT IN ONLINE SURVEY