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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Glossary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Harmonization of Approaches to Nutrient Reference Values: Applications to Young Children and Women of Reproductive Age. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25148.
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Appendix A

Glossary

acceptable macronutrient distribution range (AMDR) – In this report, this term refers to the range of intake for a particular energy source that is associated with reduced risk of chronic disease while providing intakes of essential nutrients.

adequate intake (AI) – In this report, this term is used to describe the value estimated when neither an average requirement or recommended dietary allowance are able to be set. It is the observed median intake of a nutrient by a group of healthy people with apparently adequate status of that nutrient. This term is used by the United States and Canada and the European Food Safety Authority.

average nutrient requirement (ANR) – In this report, this refers to a term that was proposed by King and Garza (2007). It is a median value that is estimated from a distribution of requirements based on a specific criterion in healthy individuals.

average requirement (AR) – This term can be defined as the intake needed by 50 percent of a population subgroup to meet a specific criterion of adequacy. It is used by the European Food Safety Authority.

Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) – In this report, this term refers to the values produced jointly by the United States and Canada. The values under this umbrella term are the estimated average requirement (EAR), recom-

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Glossary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Harmonization of Approaches to Nutrient Reference Values: Applications to Young Children and Women of Reproductive Age. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25148.
×

mended dietary allowance (RDA), adequate intake (AI), and tolerable upper intake level (UL).

dietary reference value (DRV) – In this report, this term refers to a series of estimates of energy and nutritional requirements of different groups of healthy people. These were set by the United Kingdom Committee on Medical Aspects of Food and Nutrition Policy (COMA) in 1991, and they include the estimated average requirement (EAR), reference nutrient intake (RNI), lower reference nutrient intake (LRNI), safe upper levels (SULs), and the adequate macronutrient distribution range (AMDR).

estimated average requirement (EAR) – This term, used by the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom, estimates the average requirement of energy or of a nutrient needed to meet the needs of 50 percent of the population. It is similar in meaning to the European Food Safety Authority’s average requirement.

individual nutrient level (INL) – This harmonized term was proposed by King et al. (2007). It represents a value that is derived from the average nutrient requirement plus an identified percentile of a calculated mean. It is used for guiding individual intake.

lower reference nutrient intake (LRNI) – The amount of a nutrient that is enough for only a small number of individuals in a group who have low requirements for that specific nutrient. A majority of the population will require more than this amount. This term is used by the United Kingdom.

lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL) – In this report, this term refers to a factor that is used in conjunction with an uncertainty factor to derive an upper level. It is derived in a toxicological context, and it is the lowest level at which an adverse effect is recorded.

no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) – In this report, this term refers to a factor that is used in conjunction with an uncertainty factor to derive an upper level. It is derived in a toxicological context, and it is the level at which no adverse effect is recorded.

nutrient intake value (NIV) – This harmonized term was proposed by King et al. (2007), and in this report it refers to the set of values composed of the average nutrient requirement (ANR), individual nutrient level (INLx), and upper nutrient level (UNL).

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Glossary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Harmonization of Approaches to Nutrient Reference Values: Applications to Young Children and Women of Reproductive Age. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25148.
×

nutrient reference value (NRV) – In this report, this is used as a broad term to describe a specific nutrient value that is calculated for a generally healthy population. Examples of nutrient reference values are average requirements and upper intake levels.

population reference intake (PRI) – In this report, this term refers to the amount of an individual nutrient that a majority of people in a population need for good health depending on their age and sex. This term is used by the European Food Safety Authority, and it is considered to be similar to the United States and Canada’s recommended dietary allowance (RDA) and the United Kingdom’s reference nutrient intake (RNI).

recommended dietary allowance (RDA) – This is the average daily level of intake sufficient to meet the nutrient requirements of nearly all (97–98 percent) healthy people. This term is used by the United States and Canada.

reference nutrient intake (RNI) – This is defined as the amount of a nutrient that is enough to ensure that the needs of nearly all of a group (97.5 percent) are being met. This term is used by the United Kingdom.

safe intake – This is an amount of a nutrient deemed sufficient for everyone in a population subgroup, but it is below a level that would produce undesirable effects. This term is used by the United Kingdom.

tolerable upper intake level (UL) – In this report, this term refers to the highest level of nutrient intake that is likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects for almost all individuals in the general population. This term is used by the European Food Safety Authority, the United States, and Canada.

upper nutrient level (UNL) – This harmonized term was proposed by King et al. (2007). These values represent intakes that, if chronically consumed, will have a very low risk of causing adverse effect.

REFERENCES

King, J. C., H. H. Vorster, and D. G. Tome. 2007. Nutrient intake values (NRVs): A recommended terminology and framework for the derivation of values. Food and Nutrition Bulletin 28(1):S16-S26.

King, J. C., and C. Garza. 2007. Harmonization of nutrient intake values. Food and Nutrition Bulletin 28(1):S3-S12.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Glossary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Harmonization of Approaches to Nutrient Reference Values: Applications to Young Children and Women of Reproductive Age. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25148.
×

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Glossary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Harmonization of Approaches to Nutrient Reference Values: Applications to Young Children and Women of Reproductive Age. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25148.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Glossary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Harmonization of Approaches to Nutrient Reference Values: Applications to Young Children and Women of Reproductive Age. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25148.
×
Page 128
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Glossary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Harmonization of Approaches to Nutrient Reference Values: Applications to Young Children and Women of Reproductive Age. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25148.
×
Page 129
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Glossary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Harmonization of Approaches to Nutrient Reference Values: Applications to Young Children and Women of Reproductive Age. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25148.
×
Page 130
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Recommended intake levels for nutrients and other dietary components were designed initially to prevent nutrient deficiency diseases in a given population, and the original methodological approach used to derive intake values did not include consideration for other applications. However, with the increasing globalization of information and the identification of a variety of factors specific to different population subgroups (e.g., young children and women of reproductive age) that influence their nutritional needs, there has been increasing recognition of the need to consider methodological approaches to deriving nutrient reference values (NRVs) that are applicable across countries and that take into account the varying needs of different population subgroups.

There is a need for guidance and recommendations about methodological approaches, as well as their potential for application to an international process for the development of NRVs, and particularly for young children and women of reproductive age. Harmonization of Approaches to Nutrient Reference Values: Applications to Young Children and Women of Reproductive Age examines these issues and makes recommendations for a unified approach to developing NRVs that would be acceptable globally.

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