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Reproducibility and Replicability in Science (2019)

Chapter: Appendix A: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members and Staff

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members and Staff." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Reproducibility and Replicability in Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25303.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members and Staff." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Reproducibility and Replicability in Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25303.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members and Staff." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Reproducibility and Replicability in Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25303.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members and Staff." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Reproducibility and Replicability in Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25303.
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Page 162
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members and Staff." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Reproducibility and Replicability in Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25303.
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Page 163
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members and Staff." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Reproducibility and Replicability in Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25303.
×
Page 164
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members and Staff." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Reproducibility and Replicability in Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25303.
×
Page 165
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members and Staff." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Reproducibility and Replicability in Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25303.
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Page 166

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Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs. APPENDIX A: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members and Staff COMMITTEE HARVEY V. FINEBERG (Chair) (NAM) is president of the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation. He previously served in the Presidential Chair of the University of California, San Francisco; as president of the Institute of Medicine (now National Academy of Medicine); provost of Harvard University; and dean of the Harvard Chan School of Public Health. In the fields of health policy and medical decision-making, his past research has focused on the process of policy development and implementation, assessment of medical technology, evaluation and use of vaccines, and dissemination of medical innovations. Dr. Fineberg serves on the boards of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace and the China Medical Board. He helped found and served as president of the Society for Medical Decision Making and also served as consultant to the World Health Organization. Dr. Fineberg is the recipient of several honorary degrees, the Frank A. Calderone Prize in Public Health, the Henry G. Friesen International Prize in Health Research and the Harvard Medal. Dr. Fineberg is a member of the National Academy of Medicine. He earned his M.D., M.P.P. and Ph.D. degrees from Harvard University. DAVID B. ALLISON (NAM) is dean of the School of Public Health and distinguished professor and provost professor at Indiana University, Bloomington. Previously he was associate dean for research and science in the School of Health Professions at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. Dr. Allison's research interests include obesity and nutrition, quantitative genetics, clinical trials, statistical and research methodology, and research rigor and integrity. He has authored over 500 scientific publications and edited five books. A member of the National Academy of Medicine of the National Academies, he is also an elected Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the American Statistical Association, the American Psychological Association, the NY Academy of Medicine, the Gerontological Society of America, the Academy of Behavioral Medicine Research, and other academic societies. He was inducted into the Johns Hopkins Society of Scholars in 2013 and has received many awards, including the National Science Foundation Administered 2006 Presidential Award for Excellence in Science, Mathematics, and Engineering Mentoring (PAESMEM), the Centrum Award from the American Society of Nutrition, the TOPS research achievement award from the Obesity Society, the Alabama Academy of Science's "Wright A. Gardner" award, the USDA’s W. O. Atwater award and lectureship, and the 2018 American Statistical Association’s Statistical Advocate of the Year award. Professor Allison is known for his commitments to mentoring and diversity in science and rigorous research and unvarnished reporting of research findings. LORENA A. BARBA is associate professor of mechanical and aerospace engineering at George Washington University. Prior to joining GW, she was an assistant professor of mechanical engineering at Boston University and a lecturer/senior lecturer of applied mathematics at University of Bristol, UK. Dr. Barba leads a research group in computational science and fluid dynamics, often crossing disciplinary borders into applied mathematics and aspects of computer science. With a central interest in computational fluid dynamics, she extends her research program into other areas, driven by the motivation of using computational methods and high-performance computing in new fields. One of these is biomolecular physics, where she is developing computer methods for problems in protein electrostatics. Her team works using GPU accelerators and 159

Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs. develops parallel algorithms for large-scale computing. Dr. Barba is an Amelia Earhart Fellow of the Zonta Foundation (1999), a recipient of the EPSRC First Grant program (UK, 2007), an NVIDIA Academic Partner award recipient (2011), and a recipient of the NSF Faculty Early CAREER award (2012). She was appointed CUDA Fellow by NVIDIA Corporation (2012) and is an internationally recognized leader in computational science and engineering. She received M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees in aeronautics from the California Institute of Technology. DIANNE CHONG (NAE) is a former Vice President in Engineering, Operations, and Technology and Boeing Research & Technology, part of the company’s Engineering, Operations and Technology Unit. She began working as a Boeing employee in 1986. Chong’s team provided materials and processes engineering and manufacturing support for Boeing, including the company’s two major business units: Boeing Commercial Airplanes and Boeing Defense, Space & Security. Her team was responsible for providing materials and manufacturing for multiple production programs. In addition, her organization researched and developed advanced materials and assembly and integration concepts. Chong supports many professional societies and serves on several university boards and industry committees. She has served on the National Academy of Sciences’ Board on Global Science and Technology, and DMMI. She is on the Board of Directors of the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) and the Society for Manufacturing Engineers (SME). In 2010, she was presented with the Asian-American Executive of the Year Award by the Chinese Institute of Engineers, USA. An expert in metallurgical engineering, she holds Ph.D., Master’s and Bachelor’s degrees from the University of Illinois. She also holds an executive Masters degree in Manufacturing Management from Washington University. JULIANA FREIRE is a Professor of Computer Science and Data Science at New York University. She is the lead investigator and executive director of the NYU Moore-Sloan Data Science Environment, the elected chair of the ACM Special Interest Group on Management of Data (SIGMOD), and a council member of the Computing Research Association’s Computing Community Consortium (CCC). Her research interests are in large-scale data analysis and integration, visualization, provenance management, and web information discovery. She has made fundamental contributions to data management methods and tools that address problems introduced by emerging applications including urban analytics and computational reproducibility. Freire has published over 180 technical papers, several open-source systems, and is an inventor of 12 U.S. patents. She has co-authored 5 award-winning papers, including one that received the ACM SIGMOD Most Reproducible Paper Award. She is an ACM Fellow and a recipient of an NSF CAREER, two IBM Faculty awards, and a Google Faculty Research award. Her research has been funded by the National Science Foundation, DARPA, Department of Energy, National Institutes of Health, Sloan Foundation, Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, W. M. Keck Foundation, Google, Amazon, AT&T Research, Microsoft Research, Yahoo! and IBM. She received M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees in computer science from the State University of New York at Stony Brook. GERALD GABRIELSE (NAS) is the Board of Trustees Professor at Northwestern University. Dr. Gabrielse, one of the world's leading practitioners of fundamental, low energy physics and a member of the National Academy of Sciences, has just relocated from Harvard to Northwestern to be the founding director of the Center for Fundaemental Physics (CFP). An award-winning 160

Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs. researcher and teacher, Dr. Gabrielse has chaired both the Harvard Physics Department and the Division of Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics (DAMOP) of the American Physical Society. He leads the international ATRAP Collaboration at CERN. The Gabrielse research group tested the most precise prediction of the Standard Model of Particle Physics using the most precisely measured property of an elementary particle, tested the Standard Model's most fundamental symmetry to an exquisite precision, made one of the most stringent tests of Supersymmetry and other proposed improvements to the Standard Model, and started low energy antiproton and antihydrogen physics. His many awards and prizes include fellow of the American Physical Society (APS), the Davisson-Germer Prize of the APS, the Humboldt Research Award (Germany, 2005), and the Tomassoni Award (Italy, 2008). Harvard University awarded Professor Gabrielse both its George Ledlie Research Prize and its Levenson Teaching Prize. Hundreds of outside lectures include a Källén Lecture (Sweden), a Poincaré Lecture (France), a Faraday Lecture (Cambridge, U.K.), a Schrödinger lecture (Austria), a Zachariasen Lecture (University of Chicago), and a Rosenthal Lecture (Yale University). He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences. He has a B.S. from Calvin College and an M.S. and a Ph.D. in physics from the University of Chicago. CONSTANTINE GATSONIS the Henry Ledyard Goddard University professor of biostatistics, is the founding chair of the Department of Biostatistics, and director of the Center for Statistical Sciences at Brown University School of Public Health. He is a leading authority on the evaluation of diagnostic and screening tests, and has made major contributions to the development of statistical methods for diagnosis and prediction and health services and outcomes research. Dr Gatsonis chaired the Committee on Applied and Theoretical Statistics of the National Academies and was a member of the Committee on National Statistics and the Committee to Evaluate the Department of Veterans Affairs Mental Health Services. Previously, he co-chaired the Committee on the Needs of the Forensic Sciences Community and served on the Board of Mathematical Sciences and Applications and several committees of the National Academy of Medicine. He was the Founding Editor-in-Chief of Health Services and Outcomes Research Methods, and currently serves as statistical consultant for the New England Journal of Medicine and Associate Editor of the Annals of Applied Statistics. Dr. Gatsonis was elected fellow of the American Statistical Association and received the 2015 Long-term Excellence Award from the Health Policy Statistics section of the ASA. He received his Ph.D. in Mathematical Statistics from Cornell University. EDWARD (NED) HALL received his undergraduate degree from Reed College, where he majored in chemistry and philosophy. He earned his Ph.D. in philosophy from Princeton University in 1996; his dissertation focused on conceptual problems in the foundations of quantum mechanics, having to do with the quantum mechanical treatment of the measurement process, and of identical particles. After graduate school, he taught for 11 years in Massachusetts Institute of Technology’s Department of Linguistics and Philosophy, before moving to Harvard in 2005, where he is now the Norman E. Vuilleumier Professor of Philosophy and the Chair of the Philosophy Department. Professor Hall’s philosophical research focuses on the analysis, clarification, and logical interrelationships between a cluster of concepts of central importance across the sciences: causation, probability, laws of nature, counterfactual dependence, confirmation and disconfirmation, statistical inference, realism about unobservable structure, and the nature, formation, and justification of scientific consensus. He has a long-standing ‘semi- professional’ interest in the history of science, and in particular on the conceptual advances that 161

Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs. underpinned the scientific revolution of the 17th century, culminating in Newton. Some of his research has focused on conceptual problems in the foundations of so-called “interventionist” approaches to causation and causal inference in statistics; on distinguishing concepts of causation that treat causation as a species of counterfactual dependence from those that treat it as a relation mediated by spatiotemporally continuous processes; on challenges for popular “Humean” accounts of laws of nature, that see such laws as nothing more than pervasive patterns in the physical phenomena; on clarifying the connection between rational degrees of confidence (or “subjective” probabilities) and the kinds of objective probabilities that figure in fundamentally stochastic physical theories; and on articulating basic presuppositions about the natural world that underwrite the possibility of any kind of scientific investigation of that world. Professor Hall’s interest in and approaches to these topics is driven by the conviction that the kind of conceptual clarity that careful philosophical investigation can yield itself constitutes a central and critical kind of scientific progress. THOMAS H. JORDAN (NAS) is a University Professor and the W. M. Keck Foundation Professor of Earth Sciences at the University of Southern California. As the director of the Southern California Earthquake Center from 2002 to 2017, Jordan coordinated an international research program in earthquake system science that involves over 1000 scientists at more than 70 universities and research organizations. In 2006, he established the international Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability and, since 2006, has been the lead SCEC investigator on projects to create and improve a time-dependent Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast. He has served as a member of the Council of the National Academy of Sciences (2006–2009) and the Governing Board of the National Research Council (2008–2011). Jordan received his Ph.D. from the California Institute of Technology in 1972. He was head of MIT’s Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences from 1988 to 1998. In 2000, he moved from MIT to USC, and in 2004, he was appointed as a USC University Professor. He has been awarded the Macelwane and Lehmann Medals of the American Geophysical Union, the President's Medal and Woollard Award of the Geological Society of America, and the 2012 Award for Outstanding Contribution to Public Understanding of the Geosciences by the American Geosciences Institute. He is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and the American Geophysical Union and has been elected to the National Academy of Sciences, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the American Philosophical Society. DIETRAM A. SCHEUFELE is the John E. Ross Professor in Science Communication and Vilas Distinguished Achievement Professor at the University of Wisconsin-Madison and in the Morgridge Institute for Research. His research focuses on public attitudes and policy dynamics surrounding emerging science. He is an elected member of the German National Academy of Science and Engineering, and a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the International Communication Association, and the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts & Letters. Scheufele has been a tenured faculty member at Cornell University, and held visiting positions at Harvard University, the University of Pennsylvania, and the Ludwig Maximilian University Munich. His consulting experience includes work for the Public Broadcasting System, Porter Novelli, the World Health Organization, and the World Bank. He currently serves on the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine’s Board on Health Sciences Policy, the Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education (DBASSE) Advisory Committee, and the Division on Earth and Life Studies (DELS) Advisory Committee. 162

Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs. He earned a Ph.D. in mass communications with a minor in political science from the University of Wisconsin-Madison. VICTORIA STODDEN is associate professor in the School of Information Sciences at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. Previously she was assistant professor of statistics at Columbia University where she taught courses in data science, reproducible research, and statistical theory and was affiliated with the Institute for Data Sciences and Engineering. Dr. Stodden is a leading figure in the area of reproducibility in computational science, exploring how we can better ensure the reliability and usefulness of scientific results in the face of increasingly sophisticated computational approaches to research. Her work addresses a wide range of topics, including standards of openness for data and code sharing, legal and policy barriers to disseminating reproducible research, robustness in replicated findings, cyberinfrastructure to enable reproducibility, and scientific publishing practices. She co-chairs the NSF Advisory Committee for CyberInfrastructure and is a member of the NSF Directorate for Computer and Information Science and Engineering (CISE) Advisory Committee. She also served on the National Academies Committee on Responsible Science: Ensuring the Integrity of the Research Process. She co-edited two books released in 2014—Privacy, Big Data, and the Public Good: Frameworks for Engagement published by Cambridge University Press and Implementing Reproducible Research published by Taylor & Francis. She earned a Ph.D. in statistics and a law degree from Stanford University. TIMOTHY D. WILSON is Sherrell J. Aston Professor of Psychology at the University of Virginia, where he served as Chair of the Psychology Department from 2001 – 2004. Wilson has published over 125 articles in scholarly journals and edited books, primarily on the topics of self- knowledge, unconscious processing, affective forecasting, and the applications of social psychology to addressing social problems. His research has been funded by the National Science Foundation, the National Institute of Mental Health, and the Russell Sage Foundation. He has served on numerous editorial boards, including the Board of Reviewing Editors at Science from 2010–2018. Wilson was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 2009. In 2013 he received the Donald T. Campbell Award from the Society of Personality and Social Psychology, which recognizes “distinguished scholarly achievement and ongoing sustained excellence in research in social psychology.” In 2015 the Association for Psychological Science awarded Wilson the William James Fellow Award, to honor a “lifetime of significant intellectual contributions to the basic science of psychology.” WENDY WOOD is Provost Professor of Psychology and Business at the University of Southern California. Her research addresses the ways that habits guide behavior—and why they are so difficult to break, as well as evolutionary models of gender differences. From 1982 until 2003, Wood was at Texas A&M University, where she was the Ella C. McFadden Professor of Liberal Arts, the Associate Vice President for Research, and Director of the Women’s Faculty Mentoring Program. In 2004, she moved to Duke University as the James B. Duke Professor of Psychology and Neuroscience and Professor of Marketing. At Duke, Dr. Wood served as Co-Director of the Social Science Research Institute. In 2009, Dr. Wood joined the University of Southern California, where she was Vice Dean of Social Sciences from 2012 to 2016. Dr. Wood is a fellow of numerous scientific societies and served as President of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology. In the past, she edited the journals, Behavioral Science and Policy, Psychological Review, Journal 163

Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs. of Personality and Social Psychology, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, and Personality and Social Psychology Review. Her research has been recognized through awards and funding from the National Science Foundation, the National Institute of Mental Health, the Rockefeller Foundation, the Templeton Foundation, the Radcliffe Institute of Advanced Study, and by a Distinguished Visiting Chair at INSEAD/Sorbonne. She is author of the forthcoming book, Good Habits/Bad Habits. STAFF JENNIFER HEIMBERG (Study Director) has been a senior program officer at the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine since 2011. She has directed studies within the Divisions of Earth and Life Studies and Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education (DELS and DBASSE). Her work within DELS’ Nuclear and Radiation Studies Board (NRSB) focuses on nuclear security, nonproliferation, and nuclear environmental cleanup. Within DBASSE, she has worked with the Boards on Environmental Change and Society (BECS) and Behavioral, Cognitive, and Sensory Sciences (BBCSS). Prior to coming to the National Academies, she worked as a program manager at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) for nearly 10 years. While at APL she established and grew its nuclear security program with the Department of Homeland Security’s Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO). She received a B.S. in physics from Georgetown University, a B.S.E.E. from Catholic University of America, and a Ph.D. in physics from Northwestern University. THOMAS ARRISON is a program director in the Policy and Global Affairs Division of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Since joining the National Academies in 1990, he has directed a range of studies and activities in areas such as research integrity, open science, international science and technology relations, innovation, information technology, higher education, and strengthening the U.S. research enterprise. Arrison earned M.A.s in public policy and Asian studies from the University of Michigan. MICHAEL COHEN is a senior program officer for the Committee on National Statistics at the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. He is currently serving as study director for the Standing Committee for Improving Motor Carrier Safety Measurement and for the Workshop on Transparency and Reproducibility in Federal Statistics. He is also assisting on the study on Reproducibility and Replicability in Science. He was a mathematical statistician at the Energy Information Administration, an assistant professor at the School of Public Affairs at the University of Maryland, and a visiting lecturer in statistics at Princeton University. His general area of interest is the use of statistics in public policy, with particular focus in census undercount, model validation, and robust estimation. He is a fellow of the American Statistical Association and an elected member of the International Statistical Institute. He received a B.S. in mathematics from the University of Michigan and an M.S. and Ph.D. in statistics from Stanford University. MICHELLE SCHWALBE is the Director of the Board on Mathematical Sciences and Analytics (BMSA). She joined the National Academies in 2010 and directed BMSA’s standing Committee on Theoretical and Applied Statistics (CATS) from 2011–2017, including a wide range of studies and workshops related to big data, reproducibility of scientific results, and related topics. She has 164

Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs. been involved in a variety of activities focused on the mathematical sciences, machine learning, automotive fuel economy, electric vehicles, and additive manufacturing. Prior to joining the National Academies, she held positions at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Her interests lie broadly in mathematics, statistics, and their many applications. Dr. Schwalbe has a Ph.D. in Mechanical Engineering and an M.S. in Engineering Science and Applied Mathematics from Northwestern University, and a B.S. in Applied Mathematics from the University of California, Los Angeles. ADRIENNE STITH BUTLER is associate director of the Board on Behavioral, Cognitive, and Sensory Sciences (BBCSS). Previously, she was a senior program officer in BBCSS directing a project aimed at developing pilot media campaign materials based on recommendations from the report Ending Discrimination Against People with Mental and Substance Use Disorders. Prior to her work in BBCSS, she worked in the Health and Medicine Division and served as the staff officer for reports pertaining to the nursing workforce, interventions for mental and substance use disorders, end of life care, pain management and research, regenerative medicine, family planning, preterm birth, psychological consequences of terrorism, diversity in the health care workforce, and racial and ethnic disparities in health care. Prior to her work at the Academies, Adrienne was the James Marshall Public Policy Scholar, a fellowship sponsored by the American Psychological Association and the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues. Adrienne is a clinical psychologist and received her Ph.D. from the University of Vermont. She completed postdoctoral fellowships in adolescent medicine and pediatric psychology at the University of Rochester Medical Center. BARBARA A. WANCHISEN is a senior board director with the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicines where she directs the Board on Behavioral, Cognitive, and Sensory Sciences. She received a B.A. in English and Philosophy from Bloomsburg University in Pennsylvania, an M.A. in English from Villanova University, and her Ph.D. in Experimental Psychology from Temple University. She is a long-standing member of the Psychonomic Society, American Psychological Association (Fellow, Division 25), Association for Behavior Analysis - International, and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. She has served on the editorial boards of the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior and The Behavior Analyst while also serving as a guest reviewer of a number of other journals in experimental psychology. From November 2001 until April 2008, employed by the American Psychological Association, Wanchisen was the executive director of the Federation of Behavioral, Psychological, & Cognitive Sciences in Washington, DC, a non-profit advocacy organization. Previous to that role, Wanchisen was Professor in the Department of Psychology and Director of the college-wide Honors Program at Baldwin-Wallace University near Cleveland, Ohio. TINA WINTERS is an Associate Program Officer with the Board on Behavioral, Cognitive, and Sensory Sciences (BBCSS) at the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. She has worked on a variety of activities within BBCSS on topics including reproducibility and replicability in science, healthy aging, factors that influence the success of collaborative scientific research endeavors, program evaluation, learning across the lifespan, and contextual factors that bear on military units. Prior to joining BBCSS, her work at the National Academies centered on studies and other activities related to K–16 science and mathematics education, as well as education research. She co-edited the National Academies consensus report Advancing Scientific 165

Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs. Research in Education, authored Understanding Pathways to Successful Aging: Behavioral and Social Factors Related to Alzheimer's Disease, Proceedings of a Workshop–in Brief, and has worked on many other Academies reports, including Enhancing the Effectiveness of Team Science, Measuring Human Capabilities: An Agenda for Basic Research on the Assessment of Individual and Group Performance Potential for Military Accession, The Context of Military Environments: An Agenda for Basic Research on Social and Organizational Factors Relevant to Small Units, Using Science as Evidence in Public Policy, Strengthening Peer Review in Federal Agencies That Support Education Research, Scientific Research in Education, and Knowing What Students Know: The Science and Design of Educational Assessment. 166

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One of the pathways by which the scientific community confirms the validity of a new scientific discovery is by repeating the research that produced it. When a scientific effort fails to independently confirm the computations or results of a previous study, some fear that it may be a symptom of a lack of rigor in science, while others argue that such an observed inconsistency can be an important precursor to new discovery.

Concerns about reproducibility and replicability have been expressed in both scientific and popular media. As these concerns came to light, Congress requested that the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine conduct a study to assess the extent of issues related to reproducibility and replicability and to offer recommendations for improving rigor and transparency in scientific research.

Reproducibility and Replicability in Science defines reproducibility and replicability and examines the factors that may lead to non-reproducibility and non-replicability in research. Unlike the typical expectation of reproducibility between two computations, expectations about replicability are more nuanced, and in some cases a lack of replicability can aid the process of scientific discovery. This report provides recommendations to researchers, academic institutions, journals, and funders on steps they can take to improve reproducibility and replicability in science.

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