National Academies Press: OpenBook
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Review of DOD's Approach to Deriving an Occupational Exposure Level for Trichloroethylene. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25610.
×

Review of DOD’s
Approach to Deriving an
Occupational Exposure
Level for Trichloroethylene

Committee to Review DOD’s Approach to Deriving an
Occupational Exposure Limit for TCE

Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology

Division on Earth and Life Studies

A Consensus Study Report of

images

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, DC
www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Review of DOD's Approach to Deriving an Occupational Exposure Level for Trichloroethylene. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25610.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001

This activity was supported by a contract (W81K04-16-D-0036/W81K0418F0055) between the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S. Department of Defense. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-49924-8
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-49924-0
Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/25610

Additional copies of this publication are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu.

Copyright 2019 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America

Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Review of DOD’s Approach to Deriving an Occupational Exposure Level for Trichloroethylene. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/25610.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Review of DOD's Approach to Deriving an Occupational Exposure Level for Trichloroethylene. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25610.
×

Image

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president.

The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president.

The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine.

Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Review of DOD's Approach to Deriving an Occupational Exposure Level for Trichloroethylene. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25610.
×

Image

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task.

Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies.

For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Review of DOD's Approach to Deriving an Occupational Exposure Level for Trichloroethylene. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25610.
×

COMMITTEE TO REVIEW DOD’S APPROACH TO DERIVING AN OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE LIMIT FOR TCE

Members

Edward C. Bishop (Chair), HDR, Inc. (retired), Council Bluffs, IA

Richard A. Corley, Greek Creek Toxicokinetics, LLC, Boise, ID

Anneclaire J. De Roos, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA

David C. Dorman, North Carolina State University, Raleigh

Theodore J. Hogan, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb

Juleen Lam, California State University, East Bay, Hayward

Karen A. Robinson, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD

Elizabeth P. Ryan, Colorado State University, Fort Collins

Kary E. Thompson, Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, New Brunswick, NJ

Carol S. Wood, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN

Staff

Susan N.J. Martel, Senior Program Officer

Tamara Dawson, Program Associate

Sponsor

U.S. Department of Defense

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Review of DOD's Approach to Deriving an Occupational Exposure Level for Trichloroethylene. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25610.
×

BOARD ON ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AND TOXICOLOGY

Members

William H. Farland (Chair), Colorado State University, Fort Collins

Lesa Aylward, Summit Toxicology, LLP, Falls Church, VA

Ann M. Bartuska, Resources for the Future, Washington, DC

Richard A. Becker, American Chemistry Council, Washington, DC

E. William Colglazier, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, DC

Dominic M. DiToro, University of Delaware, Newark

David C. Dorman, North Carolina State University, Raleigh

George Gray, The George Washington University, Washington, DC

R. Jeffrey Lewis, ExxonMobil Biomedical Sciences, Inc., Annandale, NJ

Germaine M. Buck Louis, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA

Reza J. Rasoulpour, Dow AgroSciences, Indianapolis, IN

Joan B. Rose, Michigan State University, East Lansing

Gina M. Solomon, Public Health Institute, Oakland, CA

Deborah L. Swackhamer, University of Minnesota, St. Paul

Joshua Tewksbury, Future Earth, Boulder, CO

Peter S. Thorne, The University of Iowa, Iowa City

Staff

Clifford Duke, Director

Raymond A. Wassel, Scholar and Director of Environmental Studies

Susan N.J. Martel, Senior Program Officer for Toxicology

Laura Llanos, Financial Associate

Tamara Dawson, Program Associate

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Review of DOD's Approach to Deriving an Occupational Exposure Level for Trichloroethylene. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25610.
×

Acknowledgments

This Consensus Study Report was reviewed in draft form by persons chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets institutional standards of quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process.

We thank the following for their review of this report:

Weihsueh Chiu, Texas A&M University

Kathleen Gilbert, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (retired)

Tee Guidotti, Consultant

Charles Poole, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Vicki Sutherland, National Toxicology Program

Katya Tsaioun, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations of this report, nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of the report was overseen by Joseph Rodricks, Ramboll Environ, and Martin Philbert, University of Michigan, who were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of the report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies.

The committee gratefully acknowledges the staff of the U.S. Department of Defense for their presentations to the committee during the public meeting.

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Review of DOD's Approach to Deriving an Occupational Exposure Level for Trichloroethylene. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25610.
×

This page intentionally left blank.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Review of DOD's Approach to Deriving an Occupational Exposure Level for Trichloroethylene. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25610.
×
Page R1
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Review of DOD's Approach to Deriving an Occupational Exposure Level for Trichloroethylene. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25610.
×
Page R2
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Review of DOD's Approach to Deriving an Occupational Exposure Level for Trichloroethylene. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25610.
×
Page R3
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Review of DOD's Approach to Deriving an Occupational Exposure Level for Trichloroethylene. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25610.
×
Page R4
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Review of DOD's Approach to Deriving an Occupational Exposure Level for Trichloroethylene. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25610.
×
Page R5
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Review of DOD's Approach to Deriving an Occupational Exposure Level for Trichloroethylene. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25610.
×
Page R6
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Review of DOD's Approach to Deriving an Occupational Exposure Level for Trichloroethylene. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25610.
×
Page R7
Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Review of DOD's Approach to Deriving an Occupational Exposure Level for Trichloroethylene. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25610.
×
Page R8
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Review of DOD's Approach to Deriving an Occupational Exposure Level for Trichloroethylene. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25610.
×
Page R9
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Review of DOD's Approach to Deriving an Occupational Exposure Level for Trichloroethylene. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25610.
×
Page R10
Next: Summary »
Review of DOD's Approach to Deriving an Occupational Exposure Level for Trichloroethylene Get This Book
×
Buy Paperback | $50.00 Buy Ebook | $40.99
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a solvent that is used as a degreasing agent, a chemical intermediate in refrigerant manufacture, and a component of spot removers and adhesives. It is produced in mass quantities but creates dangerous vapors and is an environmental contaminant at many industrial and government facilities, including facilities run by the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD). It is important to determine the safe occupational exposure level (OEL) for the solvent in order to protect the health of workers who are exposed to its vapors. However, there are concerns that the current occupational standards insufficiently protect workers from these health threats.

Review of DOD’s Approach to Deriving an Occupational Exposure Level for Trichloroethylene makes recommendations to improve the DoD’s approach to developing an OEL for TCE, strengthen transparency of the process, and improve confidence in the final OEL value. This report reviews the DoD’s approach using a literature review, evidence synthesis based on weight of evidence [WOE], point-of-departure derivation, physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling, extrapolation tools, and explores other elements of the process of deriving an OEL for TCE. It examines scientific approaches to developing exposure values and cancer risk levels, defining the scope of the problem, and improving hazard identification.

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    Switch between the Original Pages, where you can read the report as it appeared in print, and Text Pages for the web version, where you can highlight and search the text.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  9. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!