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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25643.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25643.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25643.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25643.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25643.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25643.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25643.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25643.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25643.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25643.
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Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges A Synthesis of Airport Practice C. Daniel Prather DPrather aviation SolutionS, llC Riverside, CA a n d California BaPtiSt univerSity Riverside, CA 2019 Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Subscriber Categories Aviation • Administration and Management • Education and Training A I R P O R T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M ACRP SYNTHESIS 103

ACRP SYNTHESIS 103 Project 11-03, Topic S06-05 ISSN 1935-9187 ISBN 978-0-309-48085-7 Library of Congress Control Number 2019952019 © 2019 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FRA, FTA, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology, PHMSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. Cover photo: Classroom at Raisbeck Aviation High School, Tukwila, Washington. Photo courtesy of Benjamin Benschneider, photographer. NOTICE The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the Airport Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Published reports of the AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to http://www.national-academies.org and then searching for TRB Printed in the United States of America AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in trans- portation of people and goods and in regional, national, and interna- tional commerce. They are where the nation’s aviation system connects with other modes of transportation and where federal responsibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study spon- sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). ACRP carries out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating agen- cies and not being adequately addressed by existing federal research programs. ACRP is modeled after the successful National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) and Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP). ACRP undertakes research and other technical activi- ties in various airport subject areas, including design, construction, legal, maintenance, operations, safety, policy, planning, human resources, and administration. ACRP provides a forum where airport operators can cooperatively address common operational problems. ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision 100— Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary participants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Transportation with representation from airport operating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations such as the Airports Council International-North America (ACI-NA), the American Associa- tion of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), Airlines for America (A4A), and the Airport Consultants Council (ACC) as vital links to the airport community; (2) TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a contract with the National Academy of Sciences formally initiating the program. ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research organi- zations. Each of these participants has different interests and responsibili- ties, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by identifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel appointed by TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport professionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels prepare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing coop- erative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the intended users of the research: airport operating agencies, service pro- viders, and academic institutions. ACRP produces a series of research reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties; industry associations may arrange for workshops, training aids, field visits, webinars, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by airport industry practitioners.

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation improvements and innovation through trusted, timely, impartial, and evidence-based information exchange, research, and advice regarding all modes of transportation. The Board’s varied activities annually engage about 8,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.

C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S CRP STAFF FOR ACRP SYNTHESIS 103 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lori L. Sundstrom, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Marci A. Greenberger, Manager, Airport Cooperative Research Program Thomas J. Helms, Jr., Senior Program Officer Stephanie L. Campbell, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Natalie Barnes, Associate Director of Publications ACRP PROJECT 11-03 PANEL Joshua D. Abramson, Easterwood Airport Management, College Station, TX (Chair) Debbie K. Alke, Montana DOT, Helena, MT (retired) Gloria G. Bender, TransSolutions, LLC, Fort Worth, TX David A. Byers, Quadrex Aviation, LLC, Melbourne, FL Traci Clark, Allegheny County Airport Authority, West Mifflin, PA David N. Edwards, Jr., Greenville–Spartanburg Airport District, Greer, SC Brenda L. Enos, Burns & McDonnell, Kansas City, MO Patrick W. Magnotta, FAA Liaison Matthew J. Griffin, Airports Consultants Council Liaison Liying Gu, Airports Council International–North America Liaison Adam Williams, Aircraft Owners & Pilots Association Liaison Christine Gerencher, TRB Liaison TOPIC S06-05 PANEL Jeffrey D. Borowiec, Texas A&M Transportation Institute, College Station, TX Traci Clark, Allegheny County Airport Authority, West Mifflin, PA Sam Fischer, Florida State College at Jacksonville, Jacksonville, FL Cindy Hasselbring, Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association, Frederick, MD Mandy Haverdink, Allegheny County Airport Authority – Pittsburgh International Airport, Pittsburgh, PA William Reinhardt, FAA Liaison Qinya Pang, Airport Industry Liaison AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Senior Associate Thomas Ortiz and Associate Natalie Sourbeck provided support to this project. Mr. Ortiz contributed to the literature review. Mr. Ortiz and Ms. Sourbeck contacted high schools and community colleges for data collection. Mr. Ortiz assisted with data analysis.

ABOUT THE ACRP SYNTHESIS PROGRAM Airport administrators, engineers, and researchers often face problems for which information already exists, either in documented form or as undocumented experience and practice. This infor- mation may be fragmented, scattered, and unevaluated. As a consequence, full knowledge of what has been learned about a problem may not be brought to bear on its solution. Costly research findings may go unused, valuable experience may be overlooked, and due consideration may not be given to recommended practices for solving or alleviating the problem. There is information on nearly every subject of concern to the airport industry. Much of it derives from research or from the work of practitioners faced with problems in their day-to-day work. To provide a systematic means for assembling and evaluating such useful information and to make it available to the entire airport community, the Airport Cooperative Research Program authorized the Transportation Research Board to undertake a continuing project. This project, ACRP Project 11-03, “Synthesis of Information Related to Airport Practices,” searches out and synthesizes useful knowl- edge from all available sources and prepares concise, documented reports on specific topics. Reports from this endeavor constitute an ACRP report series, Synthesis of Airport Practice. This synthesis series reports on current knowledge and practice, in a compact format, without the detailed directions usually found in handbooks or design manuals. Each report in the series provides a compendium of the best knowledge available on those measures found to be the most successful in resolving specific problems. FOREWORD By Thomas J. Helms, Jr. Staff Officer Transportation Research Board The focus of this report is on current practices for attracting high school and community college students to careers in aviation. Similar to what many industries are seeing, the aviation industry is experiencing a labor shortage due, in large part, to the increasing retirement rates of the baby boomer generation. To combat this decrease in the size of its workforce and to ensure that many critical positions are filled in the future, the aviation industry is pursuing partnerships to attract future workers to the many different types of jobs in the aviation industry. This study is based on information acquired through a literature review and survey results from 59 high schools and 61 community colleges from a range of geographic locations. Results of the literature review and survey are presented in this report. Case examples representing different types of existing aviation education programs and partnerships based on interviews are presented in Chapter 5 of the report. Dr. C. Daniel Prather, A.A.E., CAM, synthesized the information and wrote the report. The members of the topic panel are acknowledged on page iv. This synthesis is an immediately useful document that records the practices that were acceptable within the limitations of the knowl- edge available at the time of its preparation. As progress in research and practice continues, new knowledge will be added to that now at hand.

1 Summary 3 Chapter 1 Introduction 3 Industry Labor Shortage Forecasts 10 Available Aviation Career Paths 11 Role of High Schools and Community Colleges in Preparing Next Generation of Aviation Professionals 13 Summary 14 Chapter 2 Study Methodology 14 Recipients/Participants 14 Survey Methodology 15 Response Rate 16 Chapter 3 Literature Review 16 STEM, STEAM, and AVSED 18 Career Technical Education 19 Evolution of Aviation Education at the High School and Community College Levels 20 Available Aviation Curricula 24 Career Opportunities and Promotion of These Opportunities 25 Increasing Enrollments and Attracting Minorities 28 State of Military Efforts 29 State of NASA Efforts 29 State of Airport Efforts 30 State of Airline Efforts 31 State of AOPA Efforts 31 State of AAAE Efforts 32 State of Experimental Aircraft Association Efforts 32 State of Business Aviation Efforts 34 State of Federal Government Efforts 35 State of FAA Efforts 37 Chapter 4 Survey Results 37 Current Aviation Courses/Programs/Pathways 37 Future Aviation Courses/Programs/Pathways 39 Total Aviation Offerings 41 Current Student Enrollment 42 Curriculum Development 44 Off-the-Shelf Curriculum 44 Airport Partnerships 45 Partnership Benefits 46 Non-airport Partnerships 46 ROTC Programs C O N T E N T S

46 Civil Air Patrol 47 Facilities 48 Future Facilities 48 Contracted Training 50 Funding 50 Outside Influences 51 Development Strategies 51 Political and Financial Support 52 Extra-Curricular Activities 53 Work-Based Learning 55 Manned Flight Training 55 Unmanned Flight Training 57 Student Awareness of Career Paths 57 Credentials, Professional Certifications, Credit 59 College Credits 61 Postgraduate Tracking 61 Aviation or College Path After Graduation 61 Program Promotion to Students 63 Program Promotion to Industry 64 Challenges 66 Advice to Other Programs 67 Advice to Industry 67 Airports with Partnerships 68 Chapter 5 Case Examples 68 Case Example 1: Atlantic County Schools, Atlantic City, NJ 68 Case Example 2: Aviation High School, Long Island, NY 70 Case Example 3: Clearwater High School Aeronautical Space Academy, Clearwater, FL 70 Case Example 4: Corona High School, Corona-Norco USD, CA 70 Case Example 5: Davis Aerospace and Maritime High School, Cleveland, OH 71 Case Example 6: Denbigh High School Aviation Academy, Newport News, VA 71 Case Example 7: McKinney ISD Aviation Program, McKinney, TX 72 Case Example 8: Raisbeck Aviation High School, Tukwila, WA 72 Case Example 9: Ross Shaw Sterling Aviation High School, Houston ISD, TX 73 Case Example 10: Seminole County Public Schools, Sanford, FL 73 Case Example 11: Sisters High School, Sisters, OR 73 Case Example 12: Tampa Bay Regional Aeronautics Academy, Tampa, FL 74 Case Example 13: Wichita Public Schools Aviation Pathway, Wichita, KS 74 Case Example 14: Aims Community College, Greeley, CO 75 Case Example 15: Colorado Northwestern Community College, Rangely, CO 75 Case Example 16: East Valley Institute of Technology, Mesa, AZ 76 Case Example 17: Aviation Community Foundation, Broomfield, CO 76 Case Example 18: North Texas Aviation Education Initiative, North Texas 76 Case Example 19: Atlanta Airport University, Atlanta, GA 77 Case Example 20: Clark County Department of Aviation Airport Internship, Las Vegas, NV 77 Case Example 21: Erie Regional Airport Authority Airport Internship, Erie, PA 77 Case Example 22: Glacier Park International Airport Internship, Kalispell, MT 78 Case Example 23: Jacksonville Aviation Authority Airport Internship, Jacksonville, FL 78 Case Example 24: Mini Maker Faire, Riverside Municipal Airport, Riverside, CA

79 Chapter 6 Conclusions and Further Research 79 Conclusion 1 79 Conclusion 2 79 Conclusion 3 79 Conclusion 4 80 Conclusion 5 80 Conclusion 6 80 Conclusion 7 80 Conclusion 8 80 Conclusion 9 80 Conclusion 10 81 Conclusion 11 81 Conclusion 12 81 Conclusion 13 81 Conclusion 14 81 Conclusion 15 81 Conclusion 16 81 Conclusion 17 81 Conclusion 18 82 Further Research 83 References 87 Appendix A Actual Survey Comments 107 Appendix B High School Survey Questionnaire 123 Appendix C Community College Survey Questionnaire 139 Appendix D Interview Protocol 140 Appendix E FAA Reauthorization Act of 2018, Title VI 151 Appendix F AOPA High School STEM Curriculum 155 Notes Note: Photographs, figures, and tables in this report may have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.

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More airport operations/management academic programs at both the high school and community college levels would help the airport industry. With baby boomers currently reaching retirement age at the rate of 10,000 each day, and later generations much smaller in size, new employees are not entering the workforce swiftly enough to replace those leaving because of retirement, illness, and other complicating factors.

As a result, the aviation industry, like others, is experiencing a significant labor shortage. With no end in sight, the industry has joined forces in a number of unique partnerships in an effort to not only enhance the quality of current aviation graduates, but also stimulate interest in aviation careers among college students, high school students, and even middle school and elementary school students.

The TRB Airport Cooperative Research Program's ACRP Synthesis 103: Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges points out the many characteristics of high school and community college aviation programs throughout the country, which could prove useful to airport management. By better understanding the academic programs producing the next generation of aviation professionals, airports can develop proactive efforts to promote the airport profession to aviation programs in their local area and influence young people to seriously consider airports as a viable career path, thus positively affecting the future of the airport industry.

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