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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Survey Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25643.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Survey Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25643.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Survey Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25643.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Survey Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25643.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Survey Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25643.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Survey Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25643.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Survey Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25643.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Survey Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25643.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Survey Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25643.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Survey Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25643.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Survey Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25643.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Survey Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25643.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Survey Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25643.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Survey Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25643.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Survey Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25643.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Survey Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25643.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Survey Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25643.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Survey Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25643.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Survey Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25643.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Survey Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25643.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Survey Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25643.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Survey Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25643.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Survey Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25643.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Survey Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25643.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Survey Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25643.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Survey Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25643.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Survey Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25643.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Survey Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25643.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Survey Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25643.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Survey Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25643.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Survey Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25643.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

37 This synthesis gathered data from two main groups: high schools and community colleges. As discussed in Chapter 2, two survey instruments were developed—one for high schools and one for colleges. To enable the reader to differentiate findings between these two groups, this chapter presents the groups’ findings independently of each other. However, because the two survey instruments contain identical questions, this chapter puts the data per survey question or topic under the same section heading. Current Aviation Courses/Programs/Pathways The first survey question asked about the extent of aviation education pathways and programs currently offered by participating schools. The question was designed to help understand the breadth of programs. High Schools Of those participating high schools with aviation pathways, fixed-wing flight programs are the most common, with 23 (39%) participating high schools offering this pathway. The second most common pathway is unmanned aviation systems with 17 (29%) schools offering this pathway. Aircraft maintenance is another program that is somewhat common, with 8 (14%) schools offering this pathway. “Other” responses generally list specific academic courses. See Figure 3. Community Colleges Of those participating community colleges with aviation programs, aircraft maintenance is most common, offered by 38 (62%) colleges. Fixed-wing flight programs are almost as common, with 37 (61%) of colleges offering this pathway. The next most common program is UAS, offered by 19 (31%) colleges. Avionics and rotary-wing flight training programs are also somewhat common at participating colleges, offered by 15 (25%) and 13 (21%) programs, respectively. “Other” responses generally list specific academic courses. See Figure 4. Future Aviation Courses/Programs/Pathways In an effort to determine trends, including possible future programs to be offered, the survey inquired about new programs or pathways on the drawing board, such as unmanned systems or aviation maintenance. C H A P T E R 4 Survey Results

38 Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges Figure 3. Which of the following aviation courses/programs/pathways does your high school currently provide? Figure 4. Which of the following aviation courses/programs/degrees does your community college currently provide?

Survey Results 39 High Schools Among participating high schools, UAS is the most popular program being considered for future classes, with 8 (32%) high schools considering it. Aircraft maintenance is the next most commonly considered program for future offerings, with 6 (24%) high schools considering it. It should be noted that 7 (28%) high schools have no plans to develop new aviation programs. See Figure 5. Community Colleges Among participating community colleges, and similar to high schools, UAS is the most popular program being considered for future classes, with 14 (23%) colleges considering it. Avionics is the next most considered program, with 11 (18%) colleges considering it. It should be noted that 22 community colleges (36%) have no plans to develop new aviation programs. See Figure 6. Total Aviation Offerings Participants were also asked about the extent of their total aviation offerings. High Schools Among participating high schools, 8 (31%) schools provide three 1-year aviation courses, while 8 (31%) provide four 1-year aviation courses. This result indicates that more than 60% of high school aviation programs offer three- or four-year courses. See Figure 7. Figure 5. Which NEW aviation courses/programs/pathways is your high school considering possibly offering in the future?

40 Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges Figure 6. Which NEW aviation courses/programs/degrees is your community college considering possibly offering in the future? Figure 7. What is the extent of your total aviation offerings (total aviation courses offered)?

Survey Results 41 Community Colleges Because of the anticipated wide variation among community college aviation programs, the survey asked participants to answer in an open-item manner the number of aviation units they offered. Of the 41 colleges answering this question, the average number of aviation units offered equaled 81. Four-year universities averaged 120–140 units for a bachelor’s degree, so 81 is quite robust at the community college level. Current Student Enrollment Participants were also asked about their size of student enrollment. High Schools Figure 8 presents high school aviation student enrollment. As indicated, most programs are rather small, enrolling fewer than 25 students. It does appear that students are fairly consistent at each of the four years of school. When enrollment by aviation pathway was examined, it was seen that the most popular pathway among freshmen is fixed-wing flight training, with 31% enrolled. The most popular pathway among sophomores is also fixed-wing flight programs, with 26% enrolled. Most popular among juniors is also fixed-wing flight programs, with 33% enrolled. Most seniors (33%) are enrolled in fixed-wing flight programs. UAS is the next most popular pathway, with aviation maintenance in a close third place. Community Colleges Figure 9 presents community college aviation student enrollment. As indicated, most pro- grams are rather small with fewer than 25 students in each of four years of classes. As expected, most students are at the freshman or sophomore level, indicating the two-year nature of these programs. Some of the participating institutions also offer four-year degrees. When aviation pathway enrollment is examined, the most popular program among fresh- man is aircraft maintenance, with 22% enrolled. Fixed-wing flight training is also popular Note: Bar colors correspond left to right to the colors in the key. 22 7 2 0 0 27 6 1 0 0 28 1 0 0 0 23 0 2 0 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 1-25 26-50 51-75 76-100 100+ N um be r o f P ro gr am s Number of Students Freshman Sophomore Junior Senior Figure 8. What is your current student enrollment in each pathway?

42 Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges among freshmen, with 20% enrolled. Among sophomores, aircraft maintenance is most popular, with 23% enrolled. Also popular among sophomores is fixed-wing flight training, with 19% enrolled. Juniors are most commonly enrolled in either fixed-wing flight training (15%) or aircraft maintenance (15%). Seniors are most commonly enrolled in aircraft maintenance, with 21% enrolled. Fixed-wing flight training is also popular among seniors, with 15% enrolled. Regardless of year, UAS is the third most popular program for students. Curriculum Development Often, the most challenging aspect of developing new academic programs, whether at the high school or college level, is creating curriculum for the required courses. In general, schools and colleges may develop curriculum in-house or acquire currently available off-the-shelf curricu- lum. The survey queried schools and colleges on this topic to better understand the curriculum development process. High Schools The majority of participating high schools are currently using the STEM curriculum pro- vided by AOPA. Technically, because of the structure of this question, AOPA was considered off-the-shelf, although the vast majority of “Other” responses referenced the AOPA curriculum. See Figure 10. Community Colleges At the community college level, development of curriculum using existing faculty, staff, and advisory board members is quite common. Although ground curriculum for flight- related programs can be acquired from various providers in an off-the-shelf format, it appears from the results that 35 (80%) colleges prefer in-house development of curriculum. The majority of “Other” responses include a combination of off-the-shelf and in-house. See Figure 11. Note: Bar colors correspond left to right to the colors in the key. 72 16 7 7 5 2 65 17 2 3 22 0 0 0 0 11 0 0 0 0 10 20 30 40 60 50 70 80 1-25 26-50 51-75 76-100 100+ N um be r o f P ro gr am s Number of Students Freshman Sophomore Junior Senior Figure 9. What is your current student enrollment in each pathway?

Survey Results 43 Figure 10. Did you develop your curriculum in-house or acquire off-the-shelf curriculum? Figure 11. Did you develop your curriculum in-house or acquire off-the-shelf curriculum?

44 Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges Off-the-Shelf Curriculum In an effort to better understand which specific sources of off-the-shelf curriculum are being adopted by schools and colleges, the survey queried participants on this topic. High Schools The majority of participating high schools (12; 63%) report using the high school STEM curriculum developed and offered by AOPA. “Other” sources include curriculum provided by Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University through its Gaetz Aerospace Institute. See Figure 12. Community Colleges Among participating community colleges, most are using a mix of various curricula currently available, including Gleim, Jeppesen, and FAA. One-third report using publisher-supplied curriculum that matches the textbook. “Other” responses include specific curriculum not mentioned in the survey, including that supplied by a textbook publisher. See Figure 13. Airport Partnerships To determine the role of airports in the preparation of the next generation of aviation professionals, the survey asked participants about any airport partnerships that might exist. High Schools Fully 75% of participating high schools do have at least one airport partnership in place. Granted, these partnerships were of varying degree, but it is helpful to understand that the majority of high schools are in some form of partnership with an airport in the local community. Figure 12. What specific off-the-shelf sources have you adopted?

Survey Results 45 Community Colleges Somewhat less than high schools, 54% of community colleges report having at least one airport partnership in place. While these partnerships were also of varying degree, it is insight- ful to understand that most community college aviation programs are in some form of active partnership with an airport in the local community. Partnership Benefits High Schools Fully 69% of partnerships between airports and high school aviation programs have been developed since 2010, indicating that it is a relatively new approach. However, 31% of programs existed before 2010, with 1985 the average year of creation. Because industry partnerships tend to be driven by demand for personnel, the fact that most of these partnerships were formed rela- tively recently is no surprise. When asked about the benefits of these partnerships to the aviation program and students, the participants gave varied responses, although themes, including the following benefits, were apparent: • Provide for discounted rates on flight training • Present opportunities for students to receive mentorship • Offer pathways to careers after graduation See Appendix A for actual survey respondent comments. Community Colleges Fully 40% of partnerships between airports and community college aviation programs have been developed since 2010. However, 60% of programs existed prior to 2010, with 1996 the average year of creation. When queried about the benefits of these partnerships to the aviation Figure 13. What specific off-the-shelf sources have you adopted?

46 Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges program and students, the participants gave varied responses, including some themes such as the following: • Discounted and convenient access to flight training • Access to office and hangar space at discounted rates • Access to mentorship for students See Appendix A for actual survey respondent comments. Non-airport Partnerships In addition to airport partnerships, the survey queried participating high schools and com- munity colleges about any non-airport partnerships, such as aircraft manufacturers, air traffic control facilities, or national organizations. High Schools Slightly more than one-third of participating high schools report having a partnership with at least one non-airport company or organization. Generally, these partnerships are with airlines, aircraft manufacturers, universities, and trade associations. These partners see value in partner- ing with high schools, generally with the realization of potential future employees. Community Colleges Approximately half of participating colleges report having a partnership with at least one non-airport company or organization. Generally, these partnerships were with airlines, business aircraft operators, and trade associations. These partners are also cognizant of the pipeline of future employees as they graduate from these community college programs. ROTC Programs To find out what role Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) and Junior ROTC programs play in aviation programs, the survey asked participants to indicate the degree to which ROTC or Junior ROTC partnered with the aviation program. High Schools Only one-third of high schools (33%) report partnerships between aviation and Junior ROTC. This result confirms the finding during the survey methodology design process that aviation emphasis in Junior ROTC programs was typically not present. Community Colleges At the college level, ROTC partnerships with aviation are less common, reported by only 9% of participants. Again, this result confirms the finding during the survey methodology design process. Civil Air Patrol Participants were queried about partnerships with the U.S. Air Force auxiliary, the Civil Air Patrol.

Survey Results 47 High Schools Although the majority of participating high schools report no relationship between aviation programs and the CAP, a minority (25%) of participating high schools do report a relationship. Community Colleges Similar to high schools, the vast majority of community colleges report no relationship between their aviation program and Civil Air Patrol. However, 6% do report having such a relationship. Facilities To find out the degree of support for aviation programs at the high school and community college level, in recognition of the unique aspect of aviation training and education, the survey asked participants about the state of their aviation facilities. High Schools Most participating high schools (13; 55%) do not have any purpose-built aviation facilities. Because some programs are relatively young, this result indicates that many of these programs might not yet have reached critical mass, justifying a new facility. See Figure 14. Community Colleges Community colleges are more likely to have purpose-built facilities in support of their aviation program. The most commonly reported facility (41%) is an airport hangar. “Other” responses include shared buildings and airport facilities. See Figure 15. Figure 14. What type, if any, of stand-alone facilities does your high school have to support your aviation program?

48 Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges Future Facilities To gauge the degree of projected growth and future support by school and college leadership, the survey asked participants about any future facilities being planned. High Schools Although 13 (54%) of participating high schools report no future facilities on the drawing board, several do indicate planned future facilities, such as airport hangars and/or airport class- rooms. “Other” responses include specific plans. See Figure 16. Community Colleges Although 20 (44%) participating community colleges have no plans for future facilities in support of the aviation program, more than half report plans for new facilities, to include an airport hangar, an airport classroom, or a purpose-built facility on campus. “Other” responses include specific plans. See Figure 17. Contracted Training Because the most common aviation path at both high schools and community colleges is fixed-wing flight training, the survey queried participants on the degree of contracted flight training (as contrasted with in-house). High Schools and Community Colleges Most participating high schools and community colleges do not contract out any aviation training. Of those that do, flight training is the service most frequently contracted out. Figure 15. What type, if any, of stand-alone facilities does your community college have to support your aviation program?

Survey Results 49 Figure 16. What type of facilities, if any, does your high school or district have planned for the future to support your aviation program? Figure 17. What type of facilities, if any, does your community college have planned for the future to support your aviation program?

50 Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges Funding The survey also aimed to gauge support for aviation programs at the high school and community college levels, as well as the sources of funding for aviation programs. High Schools One-third (8) of participating high schools report funding directly from their school’s CTE department or division. At these schools, the aviation program is funded in-house through the CTE budget. Other sources of funding include federal, state, local, and school endowment. “Other” responses include grants and tuition funds. See Figure 18. Community Colleges Slightly more than one-third (15) of participating community colleges report receiving funds from state sources. Other common sources of funding include federal and college budget. “Other” responses include combined funding sources. See Figure 19. Outside Influences There are numerous external variables, or outside influences, that affect both high school and community college aviation programs. To gather knowledge about these outside influences, the survey queried participants on this topic. High Schools Most participating high schools do not have any outside influences, according to the responses. Of those that do, the influences most often are the weather, enrollments, and insufficient numbers of instructors. Figure 18. What sources of funding directly support your aviation program (i.e., purchase of simulators, equipment, etc.)?

Survey Results 51 Community Colleges Most participating community college programs have no outside influences. Of those that do experience the effect of outside influences, common influences include enrollment, the weather, and Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) requirements. Development Strategies To better understand how these aviation programs are securing funding, the survey asked participants about development strategies. High Schools Among participating high schools, applying for grants was the most frequently cited devel- opment strategy. One school even has a full-time grant writer on staff. Other strategies include advisory committees and networking. It should be noted that CTE programs require an industry advisory board to ensure students are well prepared for in-demand fields. Community Colleges Among participating community colleges, strategies include applying for grants, connecting with board members, and working with industry partners. One school has a team dedicated to developing partnerships, which occasionally leads to funding support. Political and Financial Support Participants were asked about the political and financial support provided to the program by the community. Figure 19. What sources of funding directly support your aviation program (i.e., purchase of simulators, equipment, etc.)?

52 Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges High Schools Among participating high schools, funding generally comes from the school district. Political support comes from parents and the community, including industry partners. Community Colleges Participating community colleges mentioned a number of different strategies to obtain political and financial support. Strategies include college funding, state funding, for-profit structure, and board members. One college shared that, “The college president and the board of trustees have traveled to Washington, D.C., and advocated for the college, and while in D.C. advocated for the aviation department specifically.” Extra-Curricular Activities The extent of extra-curricular activities available to aviation students helps present a more fully developed picture of the career preparation of these students. High Schools Participating high schools report numerous extra-curricular offerings available for students. The two most common ones are field trips (22; 92%) and guest speakers (21; 88%). Aviation student clubs, after-school activities, and aviation career counseling are also quite common, according to participants. “Other” responses include Experimental Aircraft Association Young Eagles, Aviation Explorers, and flight training. See Figure 20. Figure 20. Which of the following extra-curricular activities are available to your aviation students?

Survey Results 53 Community Colleges At participating community colleges, aviation students are also enriched in a number of ways outside the curriculum. Guest speakers are the most popular offering, reported by 43 (83%). Aviation student clubs, field trips, and aviation career counseling are also common student enrichment methods, according to participating colleges. “Other” responses include EAA chapter meetings and drone club. See Figure 21. Work-Based Learning Participants were asked about any work-based learning required of students. Responses will help in understanding the efforts at providing actual industry experience to currently enrolled students. High Schools Most participating high schools (14; 61%) indicate that no form of work-based learning is required of students. However, several programs report requiring an internship or job shadow- ing for students. See Figure 22. Community Colleges Most participating community colleges (37; 74%) do not require any form of work- based learning of students. Internships are required by 6 (12%) participating colleges. See Figure 23. Figure 21. Which of the following extra-curricular activities are available to your aviation students?

54 Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges Figure 22. To what extent does your aviation program require some form of work-based learning for students? Figure 23. To what extent does your program require some form of work-based learning for students?

Survey Results 55 Manned Flight Training The survey also endeavored to determine the extent of manned flight training being performed in high school and community college aviation programs. High Schools Among participating high schools, exactly half report that no manned flight training is being conducted for students. A small number of programs (4; 17%) provide manned flight training for students up to the FAA private pilot certificate. See Figure 24. Community Colleges Among participating community colleges, almost half (25; 46%) do not provide any manned flight training for students. Of the programs that do provide manned flight training, it is rather extensive up to certified flight instructor (CFI). See Figure 25. Unmanned Flight Training Because of the growing popularity of UAS programs, the survey also queried participants about the degree of unmanned flight training provided to students. High Schools Interestingly, the degree of unmanned flight training that high schools provide is quite varied. Six of the schools (25%) do not provide any unmanned flight training. One-quarter provide fewer than five hours, 21% provide 5–10 hours, and 29% provide more than 10 hours. See Figure 26. Figure 24. To what extent do your aviation students receive manned flight training?

56 Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges Figure 25. To what extent do your aviation students receive manned flight training? Figure 26. To what extent do your aviation students receive unmanned flight training (remote pilot-UAS)?

Survey Results 57 Community Colleges Among participating community colleges, 38 (71%) do not provide unmanned flight training. Of those that do, most provide students 40+ hours of unmanned flight training. The remaining programs provide fewer than 40 hours, with 5–10 hours being most common. See Figure 27. Student Awareness of Career Paths The aviation industry has numerous career paths, the breadth of which might not be under- stood by students. To determine how aware students are of these varied career paths, the survey queried schools and colleges on this topic. High Schools Among participating high schools, teachers, and administrators, 54% believe students are very aware of aviation career paths, while 46% feel students are somewhat aware. See Figure 28. Community Colleges Among participating community colleges, teachers and administrators at 68% of colleges believe that students are very aware of aviation career paths. One-quarter feel students are somewhat aware of aviation career paths. See Figure 29. Credentials, Professional Certifications, Credit To determine the certifications and industry credentials students are graduating with, the survey queried schools and colleges on this topic. Figure 27. To what extent do your aviation students receive unmanned flight training (remote pilot-UAS)?

58 Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges Figure 28. How aware are your students of the numerous career paths and opportunities in the aviation industry? Figure 29. How aware are your students of the numerous career paths and opportunities in the aviation industry?

Survey Results 59 High Schools The most common credits/certifications provided to high school students are college credit and the FAA remote pilot certificate, reported by 10 (42%) and 9 (38%) of schools, respectively. Some schools (13%) also provide students access to the FAA private pilot certificate. See Figure 30. Community Colleges As expected, participating community colleges reported more extensive credits and certifica- tions for students than high schools. Most colleges (42; 78%) provide an associate’s degree, with 28 (52%) providing a certificate. In the area of manned flight training, 26 (48%) provide the private pilot certificate, 22 (41%) provide the instrument rating, 23 (43%) provide the com- mercial pilot certificate, 18 (33%) provide the multi-engine rating, and 18 (33%) provide the CFI. In the area of aviation maintenance, 29 (54%) provide the airframe certificate and 30 (56%) provide the powerplant certificate, often combined in a two-year program allowing students to graduate with their Airframe and Powerplant (A&P) license. One-quarter (13) also provide students the remote pilot certificate in the college’s UAS program. See Figure 31. College Credits To determine the degree of transferability to college for high school graduates, the survey queried participating high schools about the degree of college credits available to students. Although many (10; 42%) offer no college credit, other programs do, to some degree. Six high schools actually offer more than 12 units of college credit. See Figure 32. Figure 30. What credentials/professional certifications/credit do aviation students receive upon (or prior to) graduation from your aviation program?

60 Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges Figure 31. What credentials/professional certifications/credit do aviation students receive upon (or prior to) graduation from your aviation program? Figure 32. How many college credits are possible for students who complete your aviation program?

Survey Results 61 Postgraduate Tracking To better determine the degree to which high schools and community colleges track their graduates, and thus know the success of their programs, the survey queried participants on this topic. High Schools Among most participating high schools, little postgraduate tracking occurs. The most common type of tracking is recording which colleges graduates attend. Community Colleges Most participating community colleges track graduates to some degree. Generally, colleges are most interested in the initial employment of graduates. Most colleges mention that this information can be difficult to obtain because they are relying on graduates to report it. Aviation or College Path After Graduation To gain insight on the track after high school and community college graduation, the survey asked participants for the percentage of graduates who obtain either a job in aviation or continue to a four-year college or university to major in aviation. High Schools Among participating high schools, there is a general lack of awareness of graduates’ paths after graduation. Although 6 (25%) of the high schools report that less than 10% of graduates continue in aviation (whether with employment or continued education), 3 (13%) report that 10–29% of graduates do and 2 (8%) report than 90%-plus do. Fully 10 (42%) schools are not sure. See Figure 33. Community Colleges Generally, participating colleges report great success with graduates. Slightly more than one-third (14; 35%) report that 90%-plus of graduates either obtain a job in the aviation industry or continue to a four-year university to major in aviation. Another third (13) report that 70–89% of graduates obtain a job in aviation or continue to major in aviation at a four-year university. See Figure 34. Program Promotion to Students To gauge the degree of promotion to students, and thus shed light on why programs enjoy high enrollments or experience low enrollments, the survey asked participants, in an open- ended question, about this topic. High Schools As seen in the word cloud in Figure 35, the most common methods of promoting high school aviation programs to prospective students include open houses, club and career fairs, presentations and community outreach.

62 Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges Figure 33. Generally, what percentage of your graduates obtain either a job in aviation after graduation or continue to a community college or four-year college/university to major in aviation? Figure 34. Generally, what percentage of your graduates obtain either a job in aviation after graduation or continue to a four-year college/university to major in aviation?

Survey Results 63 Common themes identified in the open-ended responses to this question include the following: • Directly reaching out to middle schools, promoting to middle school parents • Hosting open houses for prospective students • Promotion on social media (Facebook, Instagram) Actual open-ended responses to this question appear in Appendix A. Community Colleges As seen in the word cloud in Figure 36, the most common methods of promoting the aviation programs to prospective students include career fairs, high school visits, advertising, tours, partnerships, and open houses. Common themes identified in the open-ended responses to this question include the following: • Public advertising (radio, billboards, Internet, and social media ads) • Directly reaching out to high schools • Hosting open houses for prospective students • Several programs are not allowed by the college to promote themselves. Actual open-ended responses to this question appear in Appendix A. Program Promotion to Industry To determine how programs are encouraging partnerships and building career pathways for their graduates, the survey queried participants on the topic of promotion to industry. Figure 35. In what ways do you promote your aviation program to prospective students? Figure 36. In what ways do you promote your aviation program to prospective students?

64 Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges High Schools As presented in the word cloud in Figure 37, many high schools do not promote their programs to industry. Of those that do, aviation meetings, local contacts, and broader industry contacts are the ways in which this promotion occurs. Common themes identified in the open-ended responses to this question include the following: • Directly reaching out to companies • Establishing advisory boards with industry representatives • Promoting through networking at trade fairs or conventions Actual open-ended responses to this question appear in Appendix A. Community Colleges As presented in the word cloud in Figure 38, community colleges promote their programs to industry through advisory committees, industry trade shows and connections, aviation meetings, field trips, and meetings with employers. Common themes identified in the open-ended responses to this question include the following: • Establishing advisory boards with industry representatives • Trade shows and conventions • Establishing contacts through the college career center • Not allowed to reach out by the college Actual open-ended responses to this question appear in Appendix A. Challenges To aid those high schools and community colleges desiring to begin an aviation pathway (which would further support the industry labor pipeline), participants were queried about challenges faced. Figure 37. In what ways do you promote your aviation program to industry? Figure 38. In what ways do you promote your aviation program to industry?

Survey Results 65 High Schools As presented in the word cloud in Figure 39, among participating high schools, challenges in developing and/or maintaining their aviation program include lack of financial resources, finding qualified teachers, and keeping students motivated. Common themes identified in the open-ended responses to this question include the following: • Funding for equipment • Generating student interest in the program • Scheduling courses as part of the master schedule of the school • Parents and administrators understanding purpose and function of program Actual open-ended responses to this question appear in Appendix A. Community Colleges As presented in the word cloud in Figure 40, challenges experienced by community colleges are varied and oftentimes significant. Challenges include regulatory and VA compliance, funding, shortage of instructors, and educating college leadership to the unique challenges of aviation. Common themes identified in the open-ended responses to this question include the following: • Funding to run program • Cost of program to students • Finding and retaining qualified staff and instructors • Recruiting and retaining students • Lack of support and understanding from college administration • Working with the VA Actual open-ended responses to this question appear in Appendix A. Figure 39. What challenges have you encountered in developing and/or maintaining your aviation program and how did you overcome these challenges? Figure 40. What challenges have you encountered in developing and/or maintaining your aviation program and how did you overcome these challenges?

66 Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges Advice to Other Programs To aid those high schools and community colleges interested in establishing an aviation pathway or program, the survey asked participants for their advice. High Schools As presented in the word cloud in Figure 41, the advice shared by high schools includes implementing the curriculum provided by AOPA; connecting with the local aviation com- munity, such as the local EAA chapter; hiring the right director/champion; and considering student needs. Common themes identified in the open-ended responses to this question include the following: • Hire the right person to lead; he or she must be knowledgeable in both aviation and education. • Take time to plan and have a clear program goal. • Build relationships with industry and organizations like AOPA and EAA early. • Don’t be afraid to try. Actual open-ended responses to this question appear in Appendix A. Community Colleges As presented in the word cloud in Figure 42, community colleges shared numerous pieces of advice. This advice includes ensuring sufficient funding, maintaining FAA and VA compliance, considering the flight instructor pipeline, and owning aircraft. Common themes identified in the open-ended responses to this question include the following: • Understand how to work with the VA before opening school. • Establish a clear plan to assist students with finding funding. • Understand FAA regulations and guidelines, and begin consulting with FAA early in the planning process. Figure 41. What advice might you share with other high schools that are considering developing an aviation program/pathway? Figure 42. What advice might you share with other community colleges that are considering developing an aviation program/ pathway?

Survey Results 67 • Hire the right person to lead the program; the person should be well versed in aviation and able to communicate effectively. Actual open-ended responses to this question appear in Appendix A. Advice to Industry For the benefit of airport operators, participants were asked for advice to industry personnel interested in developing a partnership with a local high school or community college. High Schools Common themes expressed by high schools include the following: • Reach out to programs nearby; they will help tailor the curriculum to your needs. • Send guest speakers to encourage students and build interest. • Donate any supplies; even worn-out equipment can be useful. • Open facilities for field trips; it helps build student interest. Actual open-ended responses to this question appear in Appendix A. Community Colleges Common themes expressed by community colleges include the following: • Promote employment opportunities for grads. • Establish internship opportunities. • Offer or sponsor scholarships for students. • Donate any supplies; even worn-out equipment can be useful. • Reach out to local programs and ask what they need. Actual open-ended responses to this question appear in Appendix A. Airports with Partnerships In addition to surveying high schools and community colleges with aviation programs, airports specifically referenced by either high schools or colleges as an industry partner would also be contacted. Although 12 airports were contacted, only 3 provided information sufficient for consideration in the synthesis results. Of these participating airports, the most common program with which they partner is fixed- wing flight training. One participating airport partners with an airport operations/management academic program. Each of these partnerships was created in 2014. Specific airport benefits include positive public relations with the community and recognition. In all cases, the airport did not hire additional staff to oversee the partnership. Challenges include state and institutional regulations and policies, finding quality duties for interns, and maturity level of interns. Participating airports also shared advice for airports that would like to form a partnership with either a local high school or a community college. One participant shared, “Start small. Our program was originally thought to provide internships for up to 20 students each summer. We have found that six is the maximum we can effectively manage at one time.” Participating airports were also asked about their advice to airports on how to contribute to the next generation of aviation professionals. Advice includes starting an airport internship, creating more partnerships with vocational training programs, and starting early in developing the program, because of the amount of time necessary for curriculum and partnership approvals.

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More airport operations/management academic programs at both the high school and community college levels would help the airport industry. With baby boomers currently reaching retirement age at the rate of 10,000 each day, and later generations much smaller in size, new employees are not entering the workforce swiftly enough to replace those leaving because of retirement, illness, and other complicating factors.

As a result, the aviation industry, like others, is experiencing a significant labor shortage. With no end in sight, the industry has joined forces in a number of unique partnerships in an effort to not only enhance the quality of current aviation graduates, but also stimulate interest in aviation careers among college students, high school students, and even middle school and elementary school students.

The TRB Airport Cooperative Research Program's ACRP Synthesis 103: Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges points out the many characteristics of high school and community college aviation programs throughout the country, which could prove useful to airport management. By better understanding the academic programs producing the next generation of aviation professionals, airports can develop proactive efforts to promote the airport profession to aviation programs in their local area and influence young people to seriously consider airports as a viable career path, thus positively affecting the future of the airport industry.

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