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Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges (2019)

Chapter: Appendix E - FAA Reauthorization Act of 2018, Title VI

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - FAA Reauthorization Act of 2018, Title VI." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25643.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - FAA Reauthorization Act of 2018, Title VI." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25643.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - FAA Reauthorization Act of 2018, Title VI." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25643.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - FAA Reauthorization Act of 2018, Title VI." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25643.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - FAA Reauthorization Act of 2018, Title VI." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25643.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - FAA Reauthorization Act of 2018, Title VI." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25643.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - FAA Reauthorization Act of 2018, Title VI." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25643.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - FAA Reauthorization Act of 2018, Title VI." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25643.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - FAA Reauthorization Act of 2018, Title VI." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25643.
×
Page 148
Page 149
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - FAA Reauthorization Act of 2018, Title VI." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25643.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - FAA Reauthorization Act of 2018, Title VI." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25643.
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140 A P P E N D I X E FAA Reauthorization Act of 2018, Title VI TITLE VI—AVIATION WORKFORCE Subtitle A—Youth In Aviation 10 SEC. 601. STUDENT OUTREACH REPORT. Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of this Act, the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall submit to the appropriate committees of Congress a report that describes the Administration’s existing outreach efforts, such as the STEM Aviation and Space Education Outreach Program, to elementary and secondary students who are interested in careers in science, technology, engineering, art, and mathematics— (1) to prepare and inspire such students for aviation and aeronautical careers; and (2) to mitigate an anticipated shortage of pilots and other aviation professionals. SEC. 602. YOUTH ACCESS TO AMERICAN JOBS IN AVIATION TASK FORCE. (a) IN GENERAL.—Not later than 90 days after the date of enactment of this Act, the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall establish a Youth Access to American Jobs in Aviation Task Force (in this section referred to as the “Task Force”). (b) DUTIES.—Not later than 12 months after its establishment under subsection (a), the Task Force shall develop and submit to the Administrator recommendations and strategies for the Administration to— (1) facilitate and encourage high school students in the United States, beginning in their junior year, to enroll in and complete career and technical education courses, including STEM, that would prepare them to enroll in a course of study related to an aviation career at an institution of higher education, including a community college or trade school; (2) facilitate and encourage the students described in paragraph (1) to enroll in a course of study related to an aviation career, including aviation manufacturing, engineering and maintenance, at an institution of higher education, including a community college or trade school; and

FAA Reauthorization Act of 2018, Title VI 141 (c) CONSIDERATIONS.—When developing recommendations and strategies under subsection (b), the Task Force shall— (1) identify industry trends that encourage or discourage youth in the United States from pursuing careers in aviation; (2) consider how the Administration; air carriers; aircraft, powerplant, and avionics manufacturers; aircraft repair stations; and other aviation stakeholders can coordinate efforts to support youth in pursuing careers in aviation; (3) identify methods of enhancing aviation apprenticeships, job skills training, mentorship, education, and outreach programs that are exclusive to youth in the United States; and (4) identify potential sources of government and private sector funding, including grants and scholarships, that may be used to carry out the recommendations and strategies described in subsection (b) and to support youth in pursuing careers in aviation. (d) REPORT.—Not later than 30 days after submission of the recommendations and strategies under subsection (b), the Task Force shall submit to the appropriate committees of Congress a report outlining such recommendations and strategies. (e) COMPOSITION OF TASK FORCE.—The Administrator shall appoint members of the Task Force, including representatives from the following: (1) Air carriers. (2) Aircraft, powerplant, and avionics manufacturers. (3) Aircraft repair stations. (4) Local educational agencies or high schools. (5) Institutions of higher education, including community colleges and aviation trade schools. (6) Such other aviation and educational stakeholders and experts as the Administrator considers appropriate. (f) PERIOD OF APPOINTMENT.—Members shall be appointed to the Task Force for the duration of the existence of the Task Force. (g) COMPENSATION.—Task Force members shall serve without compensation. (h) SUNSET.—The Task Force shall terminate upon the submittal of the report pursuant to subsection (d). (3) identify and develop pathways for students who complete a course of study described in paragraph (2) to secure registered apprenticeships, workforce development programs, or careers in the aviation industry of the United States.

142 Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges (i) DEFINITION OF STEM.—The term “STEM” means— (1) science, technology, engineering, and mathematics; and (2) other career and technical education subjects that build on the subjects described in paragraph (1). Subtitle B—Women In Aviation SEC. 611. SENSE OF CONGRESS REGARDING WOMEN IN AVIATION. It is the sense of Congress that the aviation industry should explore all opportunities, including pilot training, science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education, and mentorship programs, to encourage and support female students and aviators to pursue a career in aviation. SEC. 612. SUPPORTING WOMEN’S INVOLVEMENT IN THE AVIATION FIELD. (a) ADVISORY BOARD.—To encourage women and girls to enter the field of aviation, the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall create and facilitate the Women in Aviation Advisory Board (referred to in this section as the “Board”), with the objective of promoting organizations and programs that are providing education, training, mentorship, outreach, and recruitment of women into the aviation industry. (b) COMPOSITION.—The Board shall consist of members whose diverse background and expertise allow them to contribute balanced points of view and ideas regarding the strategies and objectives set forth in subsection (f). (c) SELECTION.—Not later than 9 months after the date of enactment of this Act, the Administrator shall appoint members of the Board, including representatives from the following: (1) Major airlines and aerospace companies. (2) Nonprofit organizations within the aviation industry. (3) Aviation business associations. (4) Engineering business associations. (5) United States Air Force Auxiliary, Civil Air Patrol. (6) Institutions of higher education and aviation trade schools. (d) PERIOD OF APPOINTMENT.—Members shall be appointed to the Board for the duration of the existence of the Board.

FAA Reauthorization Act of 2018, Title VI 143 (e) COMPENSATION.—Board members shall serve without compensation. (f) DUTIES.—Not later than 18 months after the date of enactment of this Act, the Board shall present a comprehensive plan for strategies the Administration can take, which include the following objectives: (1) Identifying industry trends that directly or indirectly encourage or discourage women from pursuing careers in aviation. (2) Coordinating the efforts of airline companies, nonprofit organizations, and aviation and engineering associations to facilitate support for women pursuing careers in aviation. (3) Creating opportunities to expand existing scholarship opportunities for women in the aviation industry. (4) Enhancing aviation training, mentorship, education, and outreach programs that are exclusive to women. (g) REPORTS.— (1) IN GENERAL.—Not later than 2 years after the date of enactment of this Act, the Board shall submit a report outlining the comprehensive plan for strategies pursuant to subsection (f) to the Administrator and the appropriate committees of Congress. (2) AVAILABILITY ONLINE.—The Administrator shall make the report publicly available online and in print. (h) SUNSET.—The Board shall terminate upon the submittal of the report pursuant to subsection (g). Subtitle C—Future Of Aviation Workforce SEC. 621. AVIATION AND AEROSPACE WORKFORCE OF THE FUTURE. (a) FINDINGS.—Congress finds that— (1) in 2016, United States air carriers carried a record high number of passengers on domestic flights, 719 million passengers; (2) the United States aerospace and defense industry employed 1.7 million workers in 2015, or roughly 2 percent of the Nation’s total employment base; (3) the average salary of an employee in the aerospace and defense industry is 44 percent above the national average;

144 Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges (4) in 2015, the aerospace and defense industry contributed nearly $202.4 billion in value added to the United States economy; (5) an effective aviation industry relies on individuals with unique skill sets, many of which can be directly obtained through career and technical education opportunities; and (6) industry and the Federal Government have taken some actions to attract qualified individuals to careers in aviation and aerospace and to retain qualified individuals in such careers. (b) SENSE OF CONGRESS.—It is the sense of Congress that— (1) public and private education institutions should make available to students and parents information on approved programs of study and career pathways, including career exploration, work-based learning opportunities, dual and concurrent enrollment opportunities, and guidance and advisement resources; (2) public and private education institutions should partner with aviation and aerospace companies to promote career paths available within the industry and share information on the unique benefits and opportunities the career paths offer; (3) aviation companies, including air carriers, manufacturers, commercial space companies, unmanned aircraft system companies, and repair stations, should create opportunities, through apprenticeships or other mechanisms, to attract young people to aviation and aerospace careers and to enable individuals to gain the critical skills needed to thrive in such professions; and (4) the Federal Government should consider the needs of men and women interested in pursuing careers in the aviation and aerospace industry, the long-term personnel needs of the aviation and aerospace industry, and the role of aviation in the United States economy in the creation and administration of educational and financial aid programs. SEC. 622. AVIATION AND AEROSPACE WORKFORCE OF THE FUTURE STUDY. (a) IN GENERAL.—Not later than 90 days after the date of enactment of this Act, the Comptroller General of the United States shall initiate a study— (1) to evaluate the current and future supply of individuals in the aviation and aerospace workforce; (2) to identify the factors influencing the supply of individuals pursuing a career in the aviation or aerospace industry, including barriers to entry into the workforce; and (3) to identify methods to increase the future supply of individuals in the aviation and aerospace workforce, including best practices or programs to incentivize, recruit, and retain young people in aviation and aerospace professions.

FAA Reauthorization Act of 2018, Title VI 145 (b) CONSULTATION.—The Comptroller General shall conduct the study in consultation with— (1) appropriate Federal agencies; and (2) the aviation and aerospace industry, institutions of higher education, and labor stakeholders. (c) REPORT TO CONGRESS.—Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act, the Comptroller General shall submit to the appropriate committees of Congress a report on the results of the study and related recommendations. SEC. 623. SENSE OF CONGRESS ON HIRING VETERANS. It is the sense of Congress that the aviation industry, including certificate holders under parts 121, 135, and 145 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations, should hire more of the Nation's veterans. SEC. 624. AVIATION MAINTENANCE INDUSTRY TECHNICAL WORKFORCE. (a) REGULATIONS.—Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of this Act, the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall issue a final rule to modernize training programs at aviation maintenance technician schools governed by part 147 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations. (b) GUIDANCE.—Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of this Act, the Administrator shall coordinate with government, educational institutions, labor organizations representing aviation maintenance workers, and businesses to develop and publish guidance or model curricula for aviation maintenance technician schools referred to in subsection (a) to ensure workforce readiness for industry needs, including curricula related to training in avionics, troubleshooting, and other areas of industry needs. (c) REVIEW AND PERIODIC UPDATES.—The Administrator shall— (1) ensure training programs referred to in subsection (a) are revised and updated in correlation with aviation maintenance technician airman certification standards as necessary to reflect current technology and maintenance practices; and (2) publish updates to the guidance or model curricula required under subsection (b) at least once every 2 years, as necessary, from the date of initial publication. (d) REPORT TO CONGRESS.—If the Administrator does not issue such final rule by the deadline specified in subsection (a), the Administrator shall, not later than 30 days after such deadline, submit to the appropriate committees of Congress a report containing— (1) an explanation as to why such final rule was not issued by such deadline; and

146 Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges (2) a schedule for issuing such final rule. (e) STUDY.—The Comptroller General of the United States shall conduct a study on technical workers in the aviation maintenance industry. (f) CONTENTS.—In conducting the study under subsection (e), the Comptroller General shall— (1) analyze the current Standard Occupational Classification system with regard to the aviation profession, particularly technical workers in the aviation maintenance industry; (2) analyze how changes to the Federal employment classification of aviation maintenance industry workers might affect government data on unemployment rates and wages; (3) analyze how changes to the Federal employment classification of aviation maintenance industry workers might affect projections for future aviation maintenance industry workforce needs and project technical worker shortfalls; (4) analyze the impact of Federal regulation, including Federal Aviation Administration oversight of certification, testing, and education programs, on employment of technical workers in the aviation maintenance industry; (5) develop recommendations on how Federal Aviation Administration regulations and policies could be improved to modernize training programs at aviation maintenance technical schools and address aviation maintenance industry needs for technical workers; (6) develop recommendations for better coordinating actions by government, educational institutions, and businesses to support workforce growth in the aviation maintenance industry; and (7) develop recommendations for addressing the needs for government funding, private investment, equipment for training purposes, and other resources necessary to strengthen existing training programs or develop new training programs to support workforce growth in the aviation industry. (g) REPORT.—Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act, the Comptroller General shall submit to the appropriate committees of Congress a report on the results of the study. (h) DEFINITIONS.—In this section, the following definitions apply: (1) AVIATION MAINTENANCE INDUSTRY.—The term “aviation maintenance industry” means repair stations certificated under part 145 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations.

FAA Reauthorization Act of 2018, Title VI 147 (2) TECHNICAL WORKER.—The term “technical worker” means an individual authorized under part 43 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations, to maintain, rebuild, alter, or perform preventive maintenance on an aircraft, airframe, aircraft engine, propeller, appliance, or component part or employed by an entity so authorized to perform such a function. SEC. 625. AVIATION WORKFORCE DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS. (a) IN GENERAL.—The Secretary of Transportation shall establish— (1) a program to provide grants for eligible projects to support the education of future aircraft pilots and the development of the aircraft pilot workforce; and (2) a program to provide grants for eligible projects to support the education and recruitment of aviation maintenance technical workers and the development of the aviation maintenance workforce. (b) PROJECT GRANTS.— (1) IN GENERAL.—Out of amounts made available under section 48105 of title 49, United States Code, not more than $5,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2019 through 2023 is authorized to be expended to provide grants under the program established under subsection (a)(1), and $5,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2019 through 2023 is authorized to provide grants under the program established under subsection (a)(2). (2) DOLLAR AMOUNT LIMIT.—Not more than $500,000 shall be available for any 1 grant in any 1 fiscal year under the programs established under subsection (a). (c) ELIGIBLE APPLICATIONS.— (1) An application for a grant under the program established under subsection (a)(1) shall be submitted, in such form as the Secretary may specify, by— (A) an air carrier, as defined in section 40102 of title 49, United States Code, or a labor organization representing aircraft pilots; (B) an accredited institution of higher education (as defined in section 101 of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1001)) or a high school or secondary school (as defined in section 7801 of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 7801)); (C) a flight school that provides flight training, as defined in part 61 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations, or that holds a pilot school certificate under part 141 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations; or (D) a State or local governmental entity.

148 Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges (2) An application for a grant under the pilot program established under subsection (a)(2) shall be submitted, in such form as the Secretary may specify, by— (A) a holder of a certificate issued under part 21, 121, 135, or 145 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations or a labor organization representing aviation maintenance workers; (B) an accredited institution of higher education (as defined in section 101 of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1001)) or a high school or secondary school (as defined in section 7801 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 7801)); and (C) a State or local governmental entity. (d) ELIGIBLE PROJECTS.— (1) For purposes of the program established under subsection (a)(1), an eligible project is a project— (A) to create and deliver curriculum designed to provide high school students with meaningful aviation education that is designed to prepare the students to become aircraft pilots, aerospace engineers, or unmanned aircraft systems operators; or (B) to support the professional development of teachers using the curriculum described in subparagraph (A). (2) For purposes of the pilot program established under subsection (a)(2), an eligible project is a project— (A) to establish new educational programs that teach technical skills used in aviation maintenance, including purchasing equipment, or to improve existing such programs; (B) to establish scholarships or apprenticeships for individuals pursuing employment in the aviation maintenance industry; (C) to support outreach about careers in the aviation maintenance industry to— (i) primary, secondary, and post-secondary school students; or (ii) to communities underrepresented in the industry; (D) to support educational opportunities related to aviation maintenance in economically disadvantaged geographic areas; (E) to support transition to careers in aviation maintenance, including for members of the Armed Forces; or

FAA Reauthorization Act of 2018, Title VI 149 (F) to otherwise enhance aviation maintenance technical education or the aviation maintenance industry workforce. (e) GRANT APPLICATION REVIEW.—In reviewing and selecting applications for grants under the programs established under subsection (a), the Secretary shall— (1) prior to selecting among competing applications, consult, as appropriate, with representatives of aircraft repair stations, design and production approval holders, air carriers, labor organizations, business aviation, general aviation, educational institutions, and other relevant aviation sectors; and (2) ensure that the applications selected for projects established under subsection (a)(1) will allow participation from a diverse collection of public and private schools in rural, suburban, and urban areas. Subtitle D—Unmanned Aircraft Systems Workforce SEC. 631. COMMUNITY AND TECHNICAL COLLEGE CENTERS OF EXCELLENCE IN SMALL UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY TRAINING. (a) DESIGNATION.—Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of this Act, the Secretary of Transportation, in consultation with the Secretary of Education and the Secretary of Labor, shall establish a process to designate consortia of public, 2-year institutions of higher education as Community and Technical College Centers of Excellence in Small Unmanned Aircraft System Technology Training (in this section referred to as the “Centers of Excellence”). (b) FUNCTIONS.—A Center of Excellence designated under subsection (a) shall have the capacity to train students for career opportunities in industry and government service related to the use of small unmanned aircraft systems. (c) EDUCATION AND TRAINING REQUIREMENTS.—In order to be designated as a Center of Excellence under subsection (a), a consortium shall be able to address education and training requirements associated with various types of small unmanned aircraft systems, components, and related equipment, including with respect to— (1) multirotor and fixed-wing small unmanned aircraft; (2) flight systems, radio controllers, components, and characteristics of such aircraft; (3) routine maintenance, uses and applications, privacy concerns, safety, and insurance for such aircraft; (4) hands-on flight practice using small unmanned aircraft systems and computer simulator training;

150 Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges (5) use of small unmanned aircraft systems in various industry applications and local, State, and Federal government programs and services, including in agriculture, law enforcement, monitoring oil and gas pipelines, natural disaster response and recovery, fire and emergency services, and other emerging areas; (6) Federal policies concerning small unmanned aircraft; (7) dual credit programs to deliver small unmanned aircraft training opportunities to secondary school students; or (8) training with respect to sensors and the processing, analyzing, and visualizing of data collected by small unmanned aircraft. (d) COLLABORATION.—Each Center of Excellence shall seek to collaborate with institutions participating in the Alliance for System Safety of UAS through Research Excellence of the Federal Aviation Administration and with the test ranges defined under section 44801 of title 49, United States Code, as added by this Act. (e) INSTITUTION OF HIGHER EDUCATION.—In this section, the term “institution of higher education” has the meaning given the term in section 101 of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1001). SEC. 632. COLLEGIATE TRAINING INITIATIVE PROGRAM FOR UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS. (a) IN GENERAL.—Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of this Act, the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall establish a collegiate training initiative program relating to unmanned aircraft systems by making new agreements or continuing existing agreements with institutions of higher education (as defined in section 101 of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1001)) under which the institutions prepare students for careers involving unmanned aircraft systems. The Administrator may establish standards for the entry of such institutions into the program and for their continued participation in the program. (b) UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEM DEFINED.—In this section, the term “unmanned aircraft system” has the meaning given that term by section 44801 of title 49, United States Code, as added by this Act.

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More airport operations/management academic programs at both the high school and community college levels would help the airport industry. With baby boomers currently reaching retirement age at the rate of 10,000 each day, and later generations much smaller in size, new employees are not entering the workforce swiftly enough to replace those leaving because of retirement, illness, and other complicating factors.

As a result, the aviation industry, like others, is experiencing a significant labor shortage. With no end in sight, the industry has joined forces in a number of unique partnerships in an effort to not only enhance the quality of current aviation graduates, but also stimulate interest in aviation careers among college students, high school students, and even middle school and elementary school students.

The TRB Airport Cooperative Research Program's ACRP Synthesis 103: Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges points out the many characteristics of high school and community college aviation programs throughout the country, which could prove useful to airport management. By better understanding the academic programs producing the next generation of aviation professionals, airports can develop proactive efforts to promote the airport profession to aviation programs in their local area and influence young people to seriously consider airports as a viable career path, thus positively affecting the future of the airport industry.

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