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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Literature Review." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25643.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Literature Review." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25643.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Literature Review." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25643.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Literature Review." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25643.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Literature Review." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25643.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Literature Review." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25643.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Literature Review." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25643.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Literature Review." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25643.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Literature Review." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25643.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Literature Review." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25643.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Literature Review." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25643.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Literature Review." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25643.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Literature Review." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25643.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Literature Review." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25643.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Literature Review." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25643.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Literature Review." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25643.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Literature Review." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25643.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Literature Review." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25643.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Literature Review." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25643.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Literature Review." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25643.
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16 We always need people to be interested in aviation for a variety of reasons. I think it benefits our society when the population is educated about aviation, understands it, and appreciates it. Sully Sullenberger, Experimental Aircraft Association Young Eagles Co-Chairman, 2009–2013 You potentially have the experts of tomorrow, the generals for tomorrow, the doctors for tomorrow, the presidents for tomorrow, [the airport directors of tomorrow] (in your classrooms). Intellect and potential come in diverse and non-conventional sizes, shapes, and frames. There are individuals sitting in your classroom right now who will eclipse anything that anyone has done in the United States and we must be prepared to recognize that potential and understand (as teachers) you have the power to unlock a future for an individual who will do tremendous things to advance the United States of America. (Peck, 2012, para. 13) STEM, STEAM, and AVSED The term “STEM,” which is used quite commonly today, refers to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. The term “STEAM” also includes the arts and architecture. According to Hom (2014), “What separates STEM from the traditional science and math edu- cation is the blended learning environment and showing students how the scientific method can be applied to everyday life” (para. 8). It is this “blended learning environment” that makes STEM so unique. By challenging students in a more rigorous and applied manner, STEM creates a dynamic learning environment that stimulates learning in a more substantial way. The FAA has expanded upon the STEM term and, in so doing, has developed AVSED (STEM Aviation and Space Education). According to the FAA (2015a), “STEM is not only a critical part of a student’s success in aviation, but it’s also a driving force behind our country’s strategic positioning and economic wellbeing” (para. 4). As the FAA proposes, STEM + Students = Success in Aviation Whether “STEM” or “STEAM” is the term used, studies have shown that student interest in these fields has been declining. Today, only 16% of high school students are interested in a STEM career and have a verified ability in mathematics (Hom, 2014). Furthermore, just 2.2% of Hispanics and Latinos, 2.7% of African Americans, and 3.3% of Native Americans and Alaska Natives have earned a first university degree in the natural sciences or engineering by age 24. Additionally, although women represent the majority of enrolled college students and almost half of the nation’s workforce, they represent fewer than one in five bachelor’s degree recipients in STEM fields and hold only 25% of STEM jobs (National Science and Technology Council, 2013). To counteract this downward trend, the Obama administration developed “Educate to Innovate” in 2009. This initiative was designed to (1) increase STEM literacy so all students C H A P T E R 3 Literature Review

Literature Review 17 can think critically in science, math, engineering, and technology; (2) improve the quality of math and science teaching so American students are no longer outperformed by those in other nations; and (3) expand STEM education and career opportunities for underrepresented groups, including women and minorities. Intended to inspire students to pursue STEM sub- jects and motivate more teachers to pursue teaching credentials in these fields, this initiative has resulted in more STEM pathways being developed at high schools and community colleges. President Obama shared, “Reaffirming and strengthening America’s role as the world’s engine of scientific discovery and technological innovation is essential to meeting the challenges of this century” (White House, Office of the Press Secretary, 2009, para. 3). In the following year, President Obama’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology issued a report titled “Prepare and Inspire: K-12 Education in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) for America’s Future.” The report recommended the following: (1) Improve federal coordination and leadership on STEM education; (2) Support the state-led movement to ensure that the nation adopts a common baseline for what students learn in STEM; (3) Cultivate, recruit, and reward STEM teachers who prepare and inspire students; (4) Create STEM-related experiences that excite and interest students of all backgrounds; and (5) Support states and school districts in their efforts to transform schools into vibrant STEM learning environments (President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology, 2010, p. v). During this same year, President Obama hosted the first-ever White House Science Fair. In 2012, President Obama’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology issued another report, titled “Engage to Excel: Producing One Million Additional College Graduates with Degrees in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics.” The report recommended the following: (1) Catalyze widespread adoption of empirically validated teaching practices; (2) Advocate and provide support for replacing standard laboratory courses with discovery- based research courses; (3) Launch a national experiment in postsecondary mathematics education to address the mathematics preparation gap; (4) Encourage partnerships among stakeholders to diversify pathways to STEM careers; and (5) Create a Presidential Council on STEM Education with leadership from the academic and business communities to provide strategic leadership for transformative and sustainable change in STEM undergraduate educa- tion (President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology, 2012, para. 5). During this year, President Obama held the second-ever White House Science Fair and also encouraged the nation’s 200,000 federal scientists and engineers to be more active in their communities to encourage boys and girls to pursue STEM careers (National Science and Technology Council, 2013). In May 2013, the White House unveiled a Five-Year STEM Strategic Plan. This plan identified five priority STEM areas: (1) Improve STEM instruction by preparing 100,000 excellent new K-12 STEM teachers by 2020, and support the existing STEM teacher workforce; (2) Increase and sustain youth and public engagement in STEM by supporting a 50% increase in the number of U.S. youth who have an authentic STEM experience each year before completing high school; (3) Enhance STEM experience of undergraduate students by graduating one million additional students with degrees in STEM fields over the next 10 years; (4) Better serve groups historically underrepresented in STEM fields by increasing the number of students from such groups who graduate with STEM degrees in the next 10 years and improve women’s participation in areas of STEM where they are significantly underrepresented; and (5) Design graduate education for tomorrow’s STEM workforce by providing graduate-trained STEM professionals with basic and applied research expertise, options to acquire specialized skills in areas of national importance, support for mission-critical workforce needs for the federal agencies represented on the Com- mittee on Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math, and ancillary skills needed for success in a broad range of careers (National Science and Technology Council, 2013, p. viii).

18 Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges Building on former President Obama’s STEM initiatives, President Trump’s administra- tion issued a five-year STEM education strategic plan titled “Charting a Course for Success: America’s Strategy for STEM Education” in December 2018. Outlined in the report is what President Trump envisions as “a future where all Americans will have lifelong access to high- quality STEM education and the United States will be the global leader in STEM literacy, innovation, and employment” (National Science and Technology Council, 2018, p. v). The STEM strategy includes the following: (1) Develop and enrich strategic partnerships by focusing on strengthening existing relationships and developing new connections between educational institutions, employers, and their communities; (2) Engage students where disciplines converge by making STEM learning more meaningful and inspiring to students through focusing on complex real-world problems and challenges that require initiative and creativity; (3) Build computational literacy by recognizing how thoroughly digital devices and the Internet have transformed society and adopt strategies that empower learners to take maximum advantage of this change; and (4) Operate with transparency and accountability by committing the federal government to open evidence-based practices and decision making in STEM programs, invest- ments, and activities. Career Technical Education According to the Association for Career and Technical Education (ACTE), STEM can be more effectively taught through the venue of CTE. Yet, CTE is much broader than STEM. CTE “prepares students to be college- and career-ready by providing core academic skills, employability skills and technical, job-specific skills” (ACTE, 2018, para. 2). As summarized by the ACTE, “Today’s cutting-edge, rigorous and relevant career and technical education (CTE) prepares youth and adults for high-wage, high-skill, high-demand careers in established and emerging industries” (ACTE, 2018, para. 1). Aviation is one such industry for which CTE programs can prepare students. According to Hyslop and Imperatore (2013, p. 17), Today’s CTE is on the cutting edge of connecting students to their futures through relevant educa- tion. These programs engage and prepare students for postsecondary education and a range of career opportunities by providing core academic, employability and technical skills through an integrated, applied, and connected curriculum. With its emphasis on hands-on learning in industry-relevant fields, CTE gives students a path to a career beyond what high schools normally are prepared to do. Rather than simply serving as a general education and college preparatory set of courses, CTE builds relevant skills in students who often become employable high school graduates. Yet, CTE programs are also partnering with community colleges and universities to offer college credit and encourage those students who desire a college degree (whether associate’s or bachelor’s) to further their education. According to Todd (2018, p. 34), “CTE, with its emphasis on relevant hands-on learning, is positioned well to fill this need [created by the aviation labor shortage] by harnessing students’ natural interest in flight and transforming that interest into skills needed to fill these in-demand jobs.” CTE has been “proven to decrease dropout rates and improve academic performance, due in part to instructional methods—such as hands-on, project-based, inquiry-based, and service learning—that provide context to academic subjects” (Hyslop and Imperatore, 2013, p. 18). Those authors further explain, “Career pathways and programs of study that form a coherent sequence of relevant, career-focused courses are a central element of CTE’s success” (p. 19).

Literature Review 19 Yes, CTE has come a long way. However, CTE is also “not well understood by policymakers,” leading to less-than-desired budgets, facilities, and so on (Shulock, Moore, and Offenstein, 2011, p. i). As those authors have noted, CTE is generally characterized by the following: • A lack of priority across the system • Weak credential structures and transfer pathways • Underdeveloped data and accounting systems • Higher costs that are not well addressed • A lack of integration with core institutional objectives (Shulock, Moore, and Offenstein, 2011, p. i) Although some states, such as Florida, Maryland, and Texas, have placed great emphasis on CTE, policy makers and administrators in other states would gain help if they understood the benefits of CTE. These benefits include the following: • Meet completion goals • Meet workforce goals • Meet equity goals • Increase postsecondary productivity • Realize benefits of high school reforms (Shulock, Moore, and Offenstein, 2011, p. i) As explained by Hyslop and Imperatore (2013), “Students in CTE programs have a clearer perspective of how their coursework relates to their career aspirations, and CTE’s instructional approach helps students learn academic and technical content not by rote, but in an in-depth and meaningful way” (p. 19). Indeed, students in CTE pathways are more successful and enjoy higher graduation rates. Fully 93% of students in CTE pathways graduate from high school, compared to the national average of 80% (ACTE, 2018). “CTE strategies of engagement through rigorous and relevant coursework, positive relationships and clear pathways for edu- cation and careers” can greatly improve the high school experience for students, generating a positive outlook on life and leading to “well-educated and trained individuals ready to succeed in both postsecondary education and their careers” (Hyslop and Imperatore, 2013, p. 19). Evolution of Aviation Education at the High School and Community College Levels The evolution of aviation education at the high school and community college levels can be traced to just after WWII. However, flight training education can be traced back to the Wright brothers’ first flight. There was a need for pilots to be trained to fly the first aircraft. Although not as formal as it is today, it was the beginning of aviation education. Regardless of which starting point is referred to, aviation education at both the K-12 and community college levels has greatly evolved since the early days. Today, according to Young (2010), “Most of the more than 4,000 community colleges, four-year undergraduate colleges, and research universities in the United States offer courses and academic programs of relevance to developing the aviation workforce” (p. 18). Although many of these institutions might not offer aviation-specific courses, even business programs can prepare the next generation of aviation business professionals. For example, Aviation High, a career and technical education school in Queens, NY, with 2,000 students, is the largest U.S. high school specifically focused on aviation. The required curriculum includes typical math, English, science, and foreign language, but also includes airframe and powerplant shops. Select honors students are provided the opportunity to study in a 5,000-sq-ft annex at JFK International Airport, which houses dozens of aircraft. FedEx has donated a B727 to the school to further aid in the students’ education (Ernst, 2004, para. 4).

20 Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges In 1988, the Florida Memorial College Division of Airway and Computer Sciences was awarded a grant by the Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education. This grant enabled the development of the Aviation Careers Accessibility Program (ACAP), which was designed to serve as a “model program for inner-city high school students that would provide them information and accessibility to careers and opportunities in the aviation industry” (Florida Memorial College, 1995, p. 9). According to the Final Report, the project was success- ful in meeting its goals. More than 250 students were served during the three-year grant. The program exposed students to the aviation industry and aviation career opportunities, as well as aviation field trips, aviation guest speakers, and aviation career counseling. Students also received “academic enrichment, test-taking preparation, personal and cultural development, mentoring by aviation persons, and exposure to college campus life” (Florida Memorial College, 1995, p. 7). Available Aviation Curricula The evolution of aviation education includes the evolution of programs and curricula offerings. Although there are several unique programs and curricula offerings, there are well-known national organizations with aviation programs and curricula to be considered. The available curricula are geared toward the high school, middle school, and even elementary school levels. Although it is challenging to review every curriculum currently available, this section will review some of the more well-known curricula (Figure 2). Academy of Model Aeronautics The Academy of Model Aeronautics (AMA) presents the AMA Flight School, which contains a robust set of STEM resources for educators. The following are some of those resources: • UAS4STEM is a team-oriented, competitive program for middle and high school students to build their own drone, learn about aviation, and practice STEM-related skills. • Learn sUAS – Introducing a new educational resource for small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS) hobbyists. Figure 2. Students flying simulators in aviation classroom. Source: Chris Peterson.

Literature Review 21 • Aerolab – STEM Model Aviation curriculum created by science educators for science educators. • ESTES Educator Program – High School. Get young people excited about learning with Estes model rockets. • Various camps and scholarships. The resources are available free of charge and accessible online: http://www.amaflight school.org/. Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association The Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association (AOPA), aware of the pilot and aviation main- tenance technician shortage, is developing an aviation STEM curriculum appropriate for high schools. The AOPA curriculum will be complete by the 2021–2022 school year, which will allow students to complete four years of aviation-oriented curriculum. The AOPA Foundation funds this initiative through donations, making it free for schools; they need to apply to gain access. Teachers who want to offer the curriculum are required to participate in a three-day professional development workshop at AOPA headquarters. Curriculum available as of early 2019 included courses titled (1) Launching into Aviation, (2) Exploring Aviation and Aerospace, (3) Intro- duction to Flight, and (4) Aircraft Systems. More information about the curriculum and free resources are available online: https:// youcanfly.aopa.org/high-school/high-school-curriculum. National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA has a robust website in support of K-12 STEM education. High school educators will find hundreds of resources available on the NASA website, including activities and events. Recent free webinars hosted by NASA for high school educators include Exploring the Red Planet, Forces and Motion, and Apollo Legacy. Additional resources include a Mars virtual reality simulation and GLOBE observer app. All NASA resources are available free of charge and accessible online: https://www.nasa.gov/audience/foreducators/edu-9-12-current-opps.html. Civil Air Patrol Aerospace education is one of the three core missions of the Civil Air Patrol. As a result, its website contains numerous resources for educators: • Aerospace Connections in Education Programs – These are free, cross-curricular, grade-specific programs for grades K-6. • STEM Kit Program – This free program delivers STEM Kits to educator members to use in their classrooms, libraries, or youth group meetings. Choose from 15 different subject area kits ranging from rocketry to computer programming and so much more. • Aerospace Education Excellence (AEX) Award Program – AEX is a free K-12 hands-on aerospace program with completion plaque and student certificates. • TOP Flights – This free program allows educators to get “out of the classroom and into the skies” to learn about aviation principles and how to integrate them into the learning environment for youth.

22 Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges • Grants – Submit a competitive application for a $250 Air Force Association (AFA) grant to promote aerospace/STEM education in formal or informal learning environments. • Awards for Educators • Successes and Best Practices • Textbook, Journey into Aerospace Each of these resources is available free of charge and may be accessed online: https://www. gocivilairpatrol.com/programs/aerospace-education/for-educators. Short Guide for Aviation Resources for Community College Libraries Cunningham (2009) presents a guide of resources to support the aviation program for a community college library, which is also appropriate for high schools. This list is unique in that each resource is produced by the FAA, with the exception of Aerodynamics for Naval Aviators. The list of resources is geared toward a flight program and contains the following texts: • Aerodynamics for Naval Aviators • Airplane Flying Handbook • Aviation Instructor’s Handbook • Aviation Instructor’s Handbook Errata Sheet • Aviation Weather • Aviation Weather Services • FAR/AIM (Federal Aviation Regulations/Aeronautical Information Manual) • Instrument Flying Handbook • Instrument Flying Handbook Addendum • Instrument Flying Handbook Errata Sheet • Instrument Procedures Handbook • Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge (Cunningham, 2009, pp. 172–174). This list of resources is available free of charge and accessible online: https://eric.ed.gov/ ?id=EJ861929. Federal Aviation Administration In addition to those texts listed by Cunningham geared toward community college programs, the FAA maintains an extensive list of aviation handbooks and manuals produced by the agency, as follows: • Advanced Avionics Handbook • Advanced Avionics Handbook Errata Sheet • Aeronautical Chart User’s Guide • Aeronautical Information Manual • Air Quality Handbook • Airplane Flying Handbook • Airship Aerodynamics Technical Manual • Airship Pilot Manual • Balloon Safety Tips: False Lift, Shear, and Rotors • Balloon Safety Tips: Powerlines and Thunderstorms • Banner Towing Operations • Flight Navigator Handbook • Helicopter Flying Handbook

Literature Review 23 • Helicopter Flying Handbook Addendum • Helicopter Flying Handbook Errata Sheet • Helicopter Instructor’s Handbook • International Flight Information Manager • MC-4 Ram Air Free-fall Personnel Parachute System Technical Manual • Parachute Rigger Handbook • Pilot Safety Brochures • Plane Sense – General Aviation Information • Powered Parachute Flying Handbook • Remote Pilot—Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems Study Guide • Risk Management Brochures • Risk Management Handbook • Safety Risk Management • Seaplane, Skiplane, and Float/Ski Equipped Helicopter Operations Handbook • Student Pilot Guide • Tips on Mountain Flying • Weight and Balance Handbook • Weight-Shift Control Aircraft Flying Handbook • Weight-Shift Control Aircraft Flying Handbook Addendum This list of resources is available free of charge and accessible online: https://www.faa.gov/ regulations_policies/handbooks_manuals/aviation/. For programs that desire more airport-focused FAA resources, the Part 150 Advisory Circulars (ACs) can be beneficial. These AC resources are also available free of charge and accessible online: https://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/go/document.list/ parentTopicID/11. North Texas Aviation Education Initiative In October 2009, the North Texas Aviation Education Initiative developed Recommended Aviation Education Curricula for North Central Texas. This resource presents a compilation of courses that make up aviation curricula at a number of universities. By making refinements to these sample curricula and considering Aviation Accreditation Board International (AABI) criteria, the resource presents a recommended curriculum for the following aviation programs: • Aviation Management • Aviation Maintenance Management • Aviation/Flight Professional Pilot As so aptly pointed out in this resource, for aviation academic programs to be successful in their mission, collaborative partnerships are crucial. As stated in the report, The type of collaborations and partnerships that exist between educational institutions should also exist between the business community and education institutions as part of the culture of these organizations. This strengthens the aviation industry by enhancing the value of its partnerships and relationships with educational organizations and recognizing academia’s importance and role in the industry’s overall success. (North Central Texas Council of Governments, 2009, p. 20) In addition to the sample curriculum provided by the North Texas Aviation Education website, resources include program coordination guidance, recommended business plan, and public outreach guidance. Resources are available free of charge and accessible online: https://resources.nctcog.org/ trans/aviation/education/.

24 Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges Aviation Maintenance Experts Fred Dyen (2017), in his dissertation, produced a model aviation maintenance technician curriculum. On the basis of focus groups and survey results from experts in the field of aviation maintenance, Dyen developed an aviation maintenance technician model curriculum with sub- ject areas, times, and credit hours. As he explains, “the AMT model curriculum was designed so that it could be easily adapted by an individual AMTS [Aviation Maintenance Technician School] to meet their specific curricular needs” (Dyen, 2017, p. 86). This resource is available free of charge and accessible online: https://digitalcommons.odu.edu/ teachinglearning_etds/7/. Although a curriculum certainly includes courses, learning outcomes, and associated texts, some programs also include—for hands-on learning—a competition that brings students together to compete on a large-scale project. One such competition is the Aviation Design Challenge, sponsored by the General Aviation Manufacturers Association (GAMA). The design competition, which is open to high school teams from across the nation, is a STEM-focused competition. During a three-month period, teams use their knowledge of aerospace engineer- ing to modify a virtual Cessna 172SP using X-plane flight simulation software. Teams modify their designs to optimize range, payload, and efficiency. Designs are judged by a team of GAMA engineers, with the winning team and chaperone receiving an all-expenses-paid trip to Glasair Aviation where they will participate in assembling a Glasair Sportsman 2+2 (NBAA, 2018c). Airport Management/Operations Texts Although there is not currently a widely available curriculum for airport management or airport operations programs, there are some available textbooks for this field that are often supplemented with PowerPoint presentations, exam questions, and other resources by the author and made available by the publisher. Here is a sampling of popular textbooks in this field: • American Association of Airport Executives. (2019). Body of Knowledge modules. Alexandria, VA. • Prather, C. D. (2015). Airport Management. Newcastle, WA: Aviation Supplies and Aca- demics, Inc. • Price, J. (2016). Practical Airport Operations, Safety, and Emergency Management. Cambridge, MA: Elsevier. • Young, S., & Wells, A. (2019). Airport Planning and Management (7th ed). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. Career Opportunities and Promotion of These Opportunities Possibly the greatest challenge to exposing students to the myriad of aviation industry career paths is the wider perception in the economy that aviation consists only of a few careers—for example, pilots. According to Young (2010), “One of the greatest challenges in developing the aviation industry workforce is that the wider professional industry is not generally aware of the multitude of professional opportunities found in aviation” (p. 5). Yet, in reality, there are dozens of unique career paths available within the aviation industry. Highlighting various paths, Young (2010) explains, “Outside of commercial air carriers the aviation industry includes a variety of professions within general aviation, air traffic management, airport operations and management, and aviation system planning and engineering” (p. 5). According to Hyslop and Imperatore (2013), “Career pathways are often developed and strengthened through partnerships between CTE programs and local business and industry”

Literature Review 25 (p. 19). In addition to internships and other opportunities for students, these industry partner- ships also assist a CTE program with staying relevant to industry by, for example, providing guidance to aid curriculum revision and donating time, expertise, and funds for facility improvements and equipment acquisitions. Internships, even for high school students, provide students the opportunity of a real-world industry experience. Whether for the summer, semester, or calendar year, internships can be arranged with airports, airlines, fixed-base operators, manufacturers, and associations. If structured correctly, internships produce mutual benefits, both for the student and the organization. If poorly structured, students learn only to get coffee, make copies, and sort mail, while the organization loses out on the talent, knowledge, and zeal of the students. One organization that provides internship opportunities to college students is the National Business Aviation Association. According to Larae Stotts, a summer 2018 intern at the National Business Aviation Association, Many students find themselves unexpectedly undergoing a process of discovery during an internship. Options that they had not previously considered are presented during the course of the internship, evoking a strange sense of childlike wonder. Career paths and employment opportunities that they previously knew nothing about begin to emerge. (Stotts, 2018–2019, p. 6) Boeing, realizing that 60% of the aerospace workforce was 45 or older (in 2013) and 20% was ages 55–64, and building on its Pilot and Technician Outlook, approached the then-governor of Washington state, Christine Gregoire, about the impending shortage of aerospace workers. In response, CTE programs at high schools and community colleges within the Puget Sound area were bolstered. Additionally, a new state aerospace office was established by the governor (Hayes, 2013). Today, Washington Gov. Jay Inslee is focused on encouraging “innovation and entrepreneurship in a competitive global economy through investments in workforce training, education at the elementary through graduate levels, infrastructure and continued support of key industries such as aerospace” (Washington Governor’s Office, Office of Aerospace, 2019, para. 4). Boeing oversees the Aerospace Partners for the Advancement of Collaborative Engi- neering (AerosPACE) program at four university campuses. This program is intended to prepare students for entry-level aerospace jobs (NBAA, 2019). Airports will engage high schools and community colleges as their need for skilled labor becomes more acute. With a heightened awareness of workforce development needs, and the realization that high school and community college aviation programs can meet those needs, airports will develop additional partnerships with these academic institutions. Increasing Enrollments and Attracting Minorities Recruiting girls and minorities into STEM fields can be a challenge. The National Girls Collaborative Project presents numerous reports and resources on its site that point to this dilemma. The National Science Board (2016) reported the following data: • In general, female and male students perform equally well in mathematics and science on standardized tests, but larger gaps exist between students of different racial and ethnic back- grounds or family income, with white and Asian/Pacific Islander students and those from higher income families scoring higher than their counterparts who are black, Hispanic, or American Indian/Alaska Native or who are from lower income families. • Female and male students enrolled in advanced science courses at comparable rates, with females slightly more likely than males to do so (22% versus 18%). However, only 15% of black students and 17% of Hispanic students took these courses.

26 Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges • Male students were more likely than female students to take engineering (3% versus 1%) and computer science courses (7% versus 4%) and enrolled in AP Computer Science at a much higher rate (81% males; 19% females). • While women receive more than half of bachelor’s degrees awarded in the biological sciences, they receive far fewer in the computer sciences (17.9%), engineering (19.3%), physical sciences (39%), and mathematics (43.1%). • Women make up half of the total U.S. college-educated workforce but only 29% of the science and engineering workforce. • In 2013, 70% of workers in science and engineering occupations were white, which is close to the proportion in the U.S. working age population. • Hispanics, blacks, and American Indians/Alaska Natives make up a smaller share of the science and engineering workforce (11%) than their proportion in the general population (27% of U.S. working age population). • Minority women comprise fewer than 1 in 10 employed scientists and engineers. The gap in underrepresentation by female and minority students is reflected in their career paths. In an effort to address this gap at the federal level, specifically as it relates to transporta- tion STEM careers, the U.S. Department of Transportation “is dedicated to developing and advancing women in the industry through programs in these four key areas of the career continuum”: • Education • Access to jobs • Retention • Leadership (U.S. Department of Transportation, 2015, para. 1–8) Specific DOT STEM initiatives include the National Summer Transportation Institute, the Aviation Career Education Academy Program, the Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization Women and Girls Transportation Initiative, and the John Volpe Internship Program. Each of these initiatives can be explored in more detail by visiting https://cms.dot.gov/ policy-initiatives/women-and-girls/usdot-programs. The Organization of Black Aerospace Professionals (OBAP) is actively engaged in provid- ing opportunities for minority students and professionals to excel in the aviation/aerospace industries. The mission of OBAP is to “Inspire excellence. We support, transform, educate, and mentor black aerospace professionals” (OBAP, 2019, para. 1). OBAP works on its mission through a number of initiatives, including Luke Weathers Flight Academy, ACE Academy, Aero- space Professionals in Schools, Aerospace Professional Development Program, and partnerships with the Academy of Model Aeronautics and the National Flight Academy. Learn more about OBAP by visiting its website at https://www.obap.org. Women in Aviation International (WAI) is an organization “dedicated to the encourage- ment and advancement of women in all aviation career fields of interest” (WAI, 2019, para. 1). WAI’s educational support includes hands-on aviation education materials; helicopter-themed materials; the WAI Aviation Fun Patch for Girl Scouts, American Heritage girls, and more; scholarships; and an aerospace educators’ workshop. It also offers a WAI chapter program that allows colleges and aviation professionals the opportunity to connect and be recognized at the local level. The annual WAI Girls in Aviation Day is a worldwide event that served 15,200 girls, ages 8–17, in 2018. With tours, hands-on activities, guest speakers, and more, this event is WAI’s main initiative to introduce young girls to aviation and aerospace. Learn more about WAI by visiting its website at https://www.wai.org.

Literature Review 27 To build upon these national initiatives, educators and administrators at the local level can invest in girls and minority students to interest them in STEM fields. Although specific efforts vary greatly among high schools and community colleges across the nation, Donna Milgram, executive director of the Institute for Women in Trades, Technology, and Science, suggests that effective strategies might include the following: • Ads that feature women and girls • Personal invitations to informational programs • Conversations that tell women they are capable of the work involved in technical careers • Technology career-oriented programs • Women in Technology sections on college and program websites • Media coverage of women working in occupations that traditionally employed men (AACC, 2008, p. 6) According to marketing expert Clif McFeely, who has worked with educators through the American Association of Community Colleges, schools need to be intentional about increasing the number of female and minority students in their STEM programs: • Use media messages that appeal to these students’ emotions and their desire to be part of something meaningful that is bigger than themselves. • Use the digital media favored by teens to connect with students where they are. • Help students understand that math and science knowledge is power. It powers virtually everything interesting in your life. (AACC, 2008, p. 2) At the program level, educators can pique girls’ curiosity in STEM with hands-on presen- tations. For example, the Greenville Technology aircraft maintenance technology department takes innovative equipment to high schools for show-and-tell. This, according to Carl Washburn, program head, can be an effective recruiting tool. Its virtual reality (VR) helmet, designed by Clemson University, is used by the instructor to teach aircraft inspection techniques. High school students get excited about joining a program where they have access to such unique and innovative equipment. With the move toward more sophisticated and portable VR, it is now easy for Greenville Tech to use the helmet in engaging recruitment presentations (AACC, 2008, p. 8). As stated in a study by California of CTE in the state’s community colleges, the following recommendations would enhance CTE enrollment: • “Require students to declare a program of study and colleges to ensure access to programs. Having students formally select, and colleges provide access to, well-defined programs of study would have tremendous advantages for student success. • Consider fewer and more consistent program offerings. Ensure that the programs they offer are accessible to students and responsive to regional needs. • Focus on basic skills for CTE. Few certificate programs require English or math, raising the question whether they are producing graduates with the skills to succeed in the workplace. • Reexamine associate degrees. Ensure that the associate degree prepares students for transfer and for entry into the workforce.” (Shulock, Moore, and Offenstein, 2011, p. ii) As Todd (2018) reports in a quotation from educator Dr. Sally Downey, “Business and industry will support you if they know they will get a return on their investment, especially when they need that pipeline of skilled workers. In the case of aviation, it’s a mutually beneficial partnership that meets industry needs and gives our students the wings to make their career dreams fly” (p. 36).

28 Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges State of Military Efforts The U.S. Air Force is being rather innovative in an attempt to address the shortage of military aviators. Its strategy involves both high schools and four-year universities. In 2018, 120 select Junior ROTC cadets at the high school level were sent to one of these six partner universities for flight training over a summer: • Auburn University • Liberty University • Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Daytona Beach, FL • Purdue University • University of North Dakota • Kansas State University In 2019, 150 additional select Junior ROTC cadets at the high school level will be sent to one of these 11 partner universities: • Liberty University • Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Daytona Beach, FL • Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Prescott, AZ • Delaware State University • Florida Memorial University • University of North Dakota • Kansas State University • Purdue University • Utah State University • California Baptist University • University of Oklahoma According to Ostarly (2018, para. 2), “A pilot shortage is a growing problem, especially in the Air Force. But a program targeting high school students may be the key for getting the numbers off the ground again.” Through this innovative partnership, the U.S. Air Force is hoping to increase the number of pilots being produced from 1,100 per year to 1,600 per year by 2020. Although a Junior ROTC cadet has no obligation to join the military and the earning of a private pilot certificate does not guarantee future military aviators, Brig. Gen. Michael Koscheski acknowledges that having more certificated pilots who “elect to enter commercial aviation will have a positive impact on the overall national crisis” (O’Malley, 2018). To provide college credit for high school students in their school’s Junior ROTC program, the Air Force has partnered with the Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University (ERAU) Gaetz Aerospace Institute. This agreement provides duel-enrollment college credit in Florida high schools that have Junior ROTC. Of the 73 Air Force Junior ROTC programs housed in high schools throughout Florida, 10 schools were first selected to participate in this dual- enrollment program for the fall 2017 semester. According to Michael Wetzel, the Academic Credit Liaison and DE Safety Representative of the U.S. Air Force Holm Center Academic Affairs Directorate, Both military and commercial aviation are experiencing a shortage of young qualified pilots and unmanned aircraft vehicle (UAV) operators. This is an opportunity to attract Air Force JROTC cadets to the field of aviation through Embry-Riddle’s ground school and small UAS certification programs, with the hope of getting high school cadets interested in an aviation career while becoming young leaders in their communities and for our country. (ERAU, 2017, para. 4) ERAU has bold plans to gradually introduce this model to school districts nationwide. According to Colleen Walsh-Conklin, Executive Director of the Gaetz Aerospace Institute,

Literature Review 29 “the program will have a fast start in Florida with the potential to grow quickly across the country” (ERAU, 2017, para. 5). Another initiative by the Air Force is referred to as the Aviation Character Education (ACE) program. This experimental aviation program is designed to provide “training, motivation and mentorship to high school and college students who have a strong interest in a career in airway science” (Delaware State University, 2018, para. 1). The three-week program was first held at the Delaware Airpark and was hosted by Delaware State University (DSU). The aspiring pilots receive 15 hours of dual flight instruction, 5–10 hours of flight simulator work, and class- room instruction in aviation science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. According to Lt. Michael Hales, director of the DSU aviation program, “This ACE Camp can help the Air Force fix its pilot shortage concerns. At the same time, we found a diverse group of trainees who are interested in becoming Air Force pilots” (Delaware State University, 2018, para. 17). The U.S. Air Force is also investing in those professionals teaching the next generation of aviators. At Howard University, in Washington, D.C., the Air Force has sponsored a week- long ASM International Materials Camp to provide support for high school teachers and Junior ROTC instructors in making STEM learning fun for their students. By providing hands-on experiments for these teachers, the teachers in turn have great ideas to provide hands-on learning for their students. As shared by retired Col. William Edwards, the Junior ROTC instructor at Space Coast High School in St. Johns, FL, “I don’t care what level of education you’re in—whether it’s elementary all the way up to high school—at any level, hands-on experiments provide a greater learning experience. This camp has shown us a great number of low-cost, hands-on experiments we can share with our students” (Peck, 2012, para. 7). The Community College of the Air Force has partnered with a number of accredited civilian higher education institutions “to provide enhanced educational opportunities for our enlisted force” (Angelo State University, 2018, para. 1). At Angelo State University in San Angelo, TX, enlisted Air Force personnel who have completed an associate’s degree are able to earn a bachelor’s degree in Border Security; Intelligence, Security Studies, and Analysis; or Criminal Justice. Airmen complete the bachelor’s degree via distance learning at no more than 60 semester hours beyond the associate degree (Angelo State University, 2018). State of NASA Efforts NASA is also engaging students to stimulate interest in aviation and STEM careers. The NASA website contains numerous STEM resources for educators and students; for example, the “STEM Lessons from Space” section presents numerous video lessons taped aboard the International Space Station. Select schools are able to talk directly with an astronaut aboard the International Space Station through a unique partnership with NASA. The website’s Educa- tors section contains a number of resources designed to enhance existing STEM curricula and provide STEM activities for students. The Students section includes links to robust social media platforms, as well as information on NASA internships and fellowships, Pathways Programs, student programs and projects, and exploring careers. State of Airport Efforts ACRP Synthesis 18, Aviation Workforce Development Practices, includes a sampling of partner- ships between airports and local institutions of higher education. As Young (2010) explains, More than simply considering universities as a location for recruiting, a number of airports and aviation industry firms have created innovative partnerships for promoting aviation as a career, fostering the future workforce, and developing the current workforce. (p. 24)

30 Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges Partnerships outlined in the report by Young (2010) include the following: • Airport University, Seattle-Tacoma International Airport. “Airport University was formed as a partnership between Sea-Tac, Highline Community College, and South Seattle Com- munity College. Class curricula are developed and delivered in partnership with instructors at the college and staff at the airport. Courses are typically offered by community college instructors and some airport employees. Courses are offered on-site at the airport at times that best accommodate the airport workforce, many of whom are on shift-based schedules” (p. 24). • Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University: The Teaching Airport. “Students at ERAU are able to integrate their course curricula with internship and other part-time employment opportunities at the airport [including staffing an airport information kiosk]” (p. 25). • Ohio State University Department of Aviation: Student Employment Program. “The Ohio State University Department of Aviation has a very active student employment program at the university-owned and operated airport. Students have been trained in a wide variety of professional skills to enhance the airport workforce. Student employees are placed in jobs, including aircraft line service, customer service, engineering, planning, and administration” (p. 26). • Ohio Aerospace Initiative. “The Ohio Board of Regents has established and promoted the Ohio Aerospace Initiative, a consortium partnering the state’s public colleges and universities with Ohio-based companies with interests in aviation. The mission of the Initiative is to align university course curricula with the needs of the aviation industry” (p. 26). • Industry Advisory Boards. “The primary mission of these boards is to guide [their] respective colleges and universities in developing and maintaining program curricula that meet the needs of the industry, particularly in the face of a highly volatile environment, with constant changes in policy, technology, and appropriate business methods” (p. 27). State of Airline Efforts In an effort to create a more secure pipeline of aviation talent, with a common focus on pilots, regional airlines have historically signed pathway programs with community colleges and universities. These agreements provide a career path for currently enrolled students to become airline pilots, often in the form of a conditional job offer and mentoring from the airline. A new variation on this theme also has the major air carriers creating pathway programs with universities. Because of the significant shortage of skilled labor, these airline-college partnerships will likely become more common. For example, Delta Airlines has selected the following eight universities with which to partner: • Auburn University • Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University – Daytona Beach, FL • Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University – Prescott, AZ • Middle Georgia State University • Middle Tennessee State University • Minnesota State University – Mankato • University of North Dakota • Western Michigan University The universities are participating in the Delta Propel Pilot Career Path Program. According to the program guidelines, “Each student selected for the program will be matched with a Delta pilot as a mentor, and the students will receive a Qualified Job Offer from Delta, detailing a

Literature Review 31 defined path and an accelerated timeline to become a Delta pilot” (Auburn University, 2018, para. 1). Specifically, The Propel program is the first in the U.S. to offer students their choice of three unique career routes and an accelerated timeline to progress to Delta, in 42 months or less, after: (1) Flying for one of the Delta Connection Carriers, (2) A job-share flying for Delta Private Jets and instructing for one of Delta’s partner collegiate aviation institutions, or (3) Flying military aircraft for the Air National Guard or Reserves. (Auburn University, 2018, para. 4) State of AOPA Efforts AOPA established the AOPA High School Aviation Initiative in 2015. The AOPA website says that the organization designed the high school initiative to rebuild the pilot population and the aviation industry from the ground up. “By providing high-quality STEM-based aviation education to high school students nationwide, AOPA is opening the door to aviation careers for thousands of teens. The courses are designed to capture the imagination and give students from diverse backgrounds the tools to pursue advanced education and careers in aviation fields” (AOPA, 2018, para. 1). Working with professional instructional designers, AOPA is offering a four-year high school aviation STEM program that falls along two tracks—pilot and unmanned aircraft systems or drones. The program conforms to math and science standards and, in keeping with career and technical education best practices, will lead to a certification or industry-accepted test, such as the FAA Private Pilot knowledge test or a Part 107 Remote Pilot certification (AOPA, 2018, para. 2). Led by Cindy Hasselbring, Senior Director for AOPA’s High School Aviation Initiative, the association is actively engaging with industry and educators to prepare a clear path for high schools and high school students who desire to enter the aviation profession. Through this initiative, AOPA hosts an annual High School Aviation STEM Symposium, which is attended by several hundred and features dozens of speakers. The symposium provides a venue for aviation high school educators and those interested in developing an aviation pathway at their high school to learn best practices and share success stories. AOPA also offers a no-cost high school STEM curriculum (Appendix F), which has been adopted by 80 U.S. public, private, or charter schools for the 2018–2019 school year. More than 160 schools plan to implement the curriculum for the 2019–2020 school year. This curriculum has been developed in partnership with industry and requires an application and attendance at a three-day (or virtual) workshop by teachers before adoption. State of AAAE Efforts Byers (2016) projects the need for 51,470 additional airport personnel between 2015 and 2024. AAAE is actively engaging high school and college students in this regard. For example, since 1983, AAAE has offered a student chapter program for colleges and universities offering airport management and aviation-related degrees. Members of a student chapter are afforded many of the benefits AAAE offers, including complimentary or discounted registration to the AAAE Annual Conference and access to the association’s web-based resources. According to the AAAE Student Chapter Resource Manual, “The objectives of the student chapter program are: (1) To promote professional development and instill professional attitudes in students engaged in the study of airport development, administration, management and operation or in related fields of aviation; (2) To develop understanding on the part of the student that professional airport management embodies technical ability, integrity, responsibility, purpose and a desire to

32 Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges contribute to the strengthening of the profession; and (3) to further the purposes and programs of the AAAE as expressed in the Constitution and Bylaws of the American Association of Airport Executives.” The association also provides an airport internship program guide for airports to refer to when they develop internship programs (AAAE, 2014). This guide covers topics such as student benefits, testimonials, qualifications, work schedule, testing schedule, evaluation schedule, journal writing, mentor system, employee training program, internship development and performance plan, work agreement plan, and final project. The AAAE Faculty Advisor Handbook offers resources for faculty who mentor and guide student chapters and students interested in an airport industry career. For those airports interested in developing a departmental rotation internship, AAAE makes available a report authored by Prather (1998) titled “Airport Internships: Combining Formal Education and Practical Experience for a Successful Airport Management Career.” The report promotes the concept of a departmental rotation internship, which allows students to gain expe- rience in multiple departments during their internship. The departments most useful for interns to gain experience in, in order of importance, are (1) Properties and Contracts, (2) Operations, (3) Information/Public Relations, (4) General Aviation, (5) Facilities/Maintenance, (6) Design and Construction, and (7) Human Resources. Prather (1998) proposes a formula to be used by the airport to determine the number of workdays an intern should spend in each department, on the basis of the importance placed on the departments by the airport managers surveyed. The report is available in the AAAE accreditation library. Additionally, AAAE provides a mentoring program to allow students to make connections with industry professionals and enjoy the benefits of having an industry mentor. Many of these student-oriented resources have been prepared by the AAAE Academic Relations Committee. AAAE resources are available at https://bit.ly/2BanBXj. State of Experimental Aircraft Association Efforts The Experimental Aircraft Association (EAA) has possibly had the single greatest aviation impact on more than 2 million young people. The EAA Young Eagles program, staffed by volunteer pilots, provides a free introductory flight to those aged 8–17. According to the EAA, “It’s the only program of its kind, with the sole mission to introduce and inspire kids in the world of aviation” (EAA, 2018, para. 2). In addition, EAA provides scholarships to those pur- suing flight or a career in aviation or aviation-related/STEM fields. The organization also holds a weeklong camp known as EAA Air Academy at its Oshkosh, WI, headquarters. Of interest to high school educators, the EAA high school curriculum focuses “on advanced applications of STEM and the Flite Test (FT) Engineering Design Model encouraging students to devise creative solutions to problems. Through this curriculum, students will learn to modify FT aircraft and design their own aircraft to develop a comprehensive understanding of design and engineering through scratch build aviation” (EAA, 2018, para. 1). The resources are available at https://www. ftstem.com/curriculum/highschool. State of Business Aviation Efforts The NBAA has devoted a portion of its website, under the heading of Workforce Initiatives, to the labor shortage in business aviation. This site has nearly two dozen NBAA articles high- lighting shortages of pilots, technicians, cabin crew, schedulers/dispatchers, and other business aviation positions.

Literature Review 33 Additionally, NBAA has developed a number of resources and events to stimulate interest in business aviation and develop relationships between those interested and prospective business aviation employers. Resources include the following (NBAA, 2018a): • NBAA Mentoring Network—“Match qualified industry veterans with mentees pursuing business aviation careers, with the aim of fostering a collaborative environment for profes- sional growth.” • Internships—“Safeguarding the business aviation industry for generations to come requires aggressive and thorough succession planning. NBAA’s Internship and Career Guide is a tool to help companies identify and engage future industry leaders.” • NextTech for NextGen—“Building on the Project Bootstrap program, the NBAA Maintenance Committee has developed NextTech for NextGen, an industry-wide initiative to promote sweeping change in the aviation maintenance profession.” • Young Professionals in Business Aviation (YoPro)—“NBAA’s YoPro is a group dedicated to building relationships between emerging leaders across the business aviation industry. YoPro members work to connect young professionals while also increasing public awareness of new initiatives in this vibrant and growing industry.” • “Consider a Career in Business Aviation” flyer—“Designed to be handed out at high schools and colleges at career days and other functions attended by students.” • Scholarship program—“Supports students in various segments of business aviation. More than $100,000 in scholarship funds is available to those seeking to enter the industry and those looking to advance their careers.” • Student edition of Business Aviation Insider magazine—“Geared toward high schoolers and full of attention-grabbing graphics and information.” • Video—Titled “Consider a Career in Business Aviation.” • Careers in Business Aviation Day—“Hosted on the final day of [the NBAA] annual conven- tion, with motivational speakers and the opportunity to visit the exhibit hall and static display. This event has grown every year and is appropriate for students of all ages.” Additionally, the NBAA is active at the regional level. With specific focus on Generation Z (those born generally between 1995 and 2012), its efforts by region are extensive: • Northeast Region – In New Hampshire, the Granite State Airport Management Association developed the Codie Experience, a youth outreach effort that has created a teen spokesman for aviation in the state. The program documents a young pilot’s aviation adventures and shares them as video content on social media channels frequented by Generation Z. • Mid-Atlantic Region – The Greater Washington Business Aviation Association works to introduce aviation to local youth, and NBAA also has outreach to students at Cardozo TranSTEM Academy in Washington, D.C., and Denbigh High School in Norfolk, VA. • Southeast Region – The Georgia Business Aviation Association has been investing in the next generation of business aviation leaders for more than a decade and has awarded more than $600,000 in scholarships to 168 high school and college students. • Central Region – Several active groups work to offer internships, coordinate events and scholarships, and maintain ties with local universities, including the Ohio Regional, Michigan, Western Michigan, Chicago Area, and Greater St. Louis business aviation associations. • Southwest Region – Steve Hadley, NBAA’s senior director of regional programs and Southwest regional representative, is on a new steering committee at Houston’s Sterling Aviation High School. Students prepare for a future aviation career in several ways, including classroom and laboratory training. Private flight lessons with a certified flight instructor are offered, and both airframe maintenance technology and powerplant maintenance technology pathways are available.

34 Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges • Western Region – The Arizona Business Aviation Association covers the travel expenses for Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University – Prescott students to attend the annual NBAA Business Aviation Convention and Exhibition. The Southern California Aviation Association hosts up to 500 students annually for a one-day career-focused program at area airports. Los Angeles World Airports also hosts 1,500 high school students each year for an aviation career day at Van Nuys Airport. • Northwest Region – The Pacific Northwest Business Aviation Association reaches out to Gen Z students. For example, members work closely with Raisbeck Aviation High School on mentoring programs and scholarships, and the association also targets younger people through the Redtail Hawk Association and the Washington Wing of the Civil Air Patrol. (NBAA, 2018b) (copyright 2018 Business Aviation Insider, reprinted with permission by the National Business Aviation Association) This is an association on the move in the area of preparing the next generation of aviation professionals. By developing a number of initiatives in direct response to labor concerns expressed by its members, NBAA is attempting to fill the gap in talent for business aviation. State of Federal Government Efforts On October 5, 2018, the President signed Public Law No. 115-254, FAA Reauthorization Act of 2018. Of importance to the future of the aviation industry, and directly related to the subject of this synthesis, the law included Title VI – Aviation Workforce. Title VI included four subtitles (presented in full in Appendix E): • Subtitle A – Youth in Aviation • Subtitle B – Women in Aviation • Subtitle C – Future of Aviation Workforce • Subtitle D – Unmanned Aircraft Systems Workforce (FAA Reauthorization Act of 2018) Subtitle A, Youth in Aviation, requires the FAA to submit a report to Congress that describes the agency’s existing outreach efforts, including STEM aviation and Space Education programs, to elementary and secondary students. It also requires the FAA to establish a Youth Access to American Jobs in Aviation Task Force, which will develop and submit to the FAA Administrator recommendations and strategies to (1) “facilitate and encourage high school students, to enroll in and complete career and technical education courses, including STEM, that would prepare them to enroll in a course of study related to an aviation career at an insti- tution of higher education, including a community college or trade school”; (2) “facilitate and encourage students . . . to enroll in a course of study related to an aviation career, including aviation manufacturing, engineering and maintenance, at an institution of higher education, including a community college or trade school”; and (3) “identify and develop pathways for students who complete a course of study described . . . to secure registered apprenticeships, workforce development programs, or careers in the aviation industry of the United States” (FAA Reauthorization Act of 2018). Subtitle B, Women in Aviation, requires the FAA to create and facilitate a Women in Aviation Advisory Board “with the objective of promoting organizations and programs that are providing education, training, mentorship, outreach, and recruitment of women into the aviation industry” (FAA Reauthorization Act of 2018). The Advisory Board will present a comprehensive plan for strategies the FAA can take for (1) “Identifying industry trends that directly or indirectly encour- age or discourage women from pursuing careers in aviation”; (2) “Coordinating the efforts of airline companies, nonprofit organizations, and aviation and engineering associations to facili- tate support for women pursuing careers in aviation”; (3) “Creating opportunities to expand

Literature Review 35 existing scholarship opportunities for women in the aviation industry”; and (4) “Enhancing aviation training, mentorship, education, and outreach programs that are exclusive to women” (FAA Reauthorization Act of 2018). Subtitle C, Future of Aviation Workforce, directs the Comptroller General to undertake a study “(1) to evaluate the current and future supply of individuals in the aviation and aerospace workforce; (2) to identify the factors influencing the supply of individuals pursuing a career in the aviation or aerospace industry, including barriers to entry into the workforce; and (3) to identify methods to increase the future supply of individuals in the aviation and aero- space workforce, including best practices or programs to incentivize, recruit, and retain young people in aviation and aerospace professions” (FAA Reauthorization Act of 2018). The FAA is required to issue a final rule to modernize training programs at aviation maintenance technician schools governed by 14 CFR Part 147, with guidance or model curricula to “ensure workforce readiness for industry needs, including curricula related to training in avionics, troubleshooting, and other areas of industry needs” (FAA Reauthorization Act of 2018). The Comptroller General is also required to conduct a study on technical workers in the aviation maintenance industry and the effect of federal regulations on their employment. The Secretary of Transportation is required to establish “a grant program for eligible projects to support the education of future aircraft pilots and the development of the aircraft pilot workforce, and a pro- gram to provide grants for eligible projects to support the education and recruitment of aviation maintenance technical workers and the development of the aviation maintenance workforce” (FAA Reauthorization Act of 2018). Subtitle D, Unmanned Aircraft Systems Workforce, states that “the Secretary of Transporta- tion, in consultation with the Secretary of Education and the Secretary of Labor, shall establish a process to designate consortia of public, 2-year institutions of higher education as Community and Technical College Centers of Excellence in Small Unmanned Aircraft System Technology Training” (FAA Reauthorization Act of 2018). Additionally, the FAA is required to “establish a collegiate training initiative program relating to unmanned aircraft systems by making new agreements or continuing existing agreements with institutions of higher education under which the institutions prepare students for careers involving unmanned aircraft systems” (FAA Reauthorization Act of 2018). State of FAA Efforts The FAA is active in the STEM area with a number of initiatives. According to the FAA, “FAA’s STEM Aviation and Space Education (AVSED) programs offer countless ways for children and young adults to explore the exciting worlds of aviation and aerospace. With the support of numerous partners in the public and private sectors, we reach out to students around the world so they can learn more about civil and commercial aviation as well as the critical role that science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) plays in a young aviator’s future” (FAA, 2015b, para. 1). The Real World Design Challenge (RWDC) is one of the FAA’s AVSED initiatives. It is an annual competition that gives students in grades 9–12 a competitive environment to work on real-world engineering challenges. The FAA has also partnered with numerous organizations to support future aviation professionals, including the following: • Academy of Model Aeronautics. The Academy of Model Aeronautics is the world’s largest model aviation association, representing a membership of more than 150,000. Its purpose is to promote the development of model aviation as a recognized hobby/sport and family recreational activity that is both educational and fun.

36 Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges • Build A Plane. This nonprofit group donates airplanes to schools across the country for students to build or refurbish. The program offers a unique opportunity to learn science, technology, engineering, and math by offering hands-on, real-world projects. • CAP Aerospace Education Program. The CAP was born one week before the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. Its aerospace education program helps prepare American citizens to meet the challenges of aerospace and understand related issues. • EAA KidVenture Program. EAA is dedicated to the discovery and fulfillment of individual potential for those who are inspired by the dream of personal flight. Located in Oshkosh, WI, EAA hosts the AirVenture Oshkosh convention every July, featuring the popular KidVenture program. • FAI Young Artists Contest. Sponsored by Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (FAI), the Young Artists Contest has been held each year since 1986. This international contest encourages young people to demonstrate the importance of aviation through their art and motivates them to become more familiar with and participate in aeronautics, engineering, and science. • Walk in My Boots Program. This program is a collaborative effort between FAA’s STEM AVSED and Flight Standards offices. The program connects high schools with aviation maintenance facilities through a job shadow experience, designed to address the shortage of skilled workers in the aviation maintenance field. • Women in Aviation International. WAI encourages the advancement of women in all aviation career fields and interests. Their resources assist women in all aspects of aviation and encourage young women to consider aviation as a career. • Youth Aviation Adventure (YAA). The YAA’s mission is to introduce the exciting world of aviation to boys and girls ages 12 to 18. Through a pool of more than 100 pilots and adult volunteers, YAA offers hands-on programs that explore numerous aspects of aviation. (FAA, 2015b, para. 1–8) In addition to STEM initiatives by FAA headquarters, each FAA regional office provides education and outreach services to support STEM initiatives. Educators are encouraged to contact their regional FAA office for more information. The FAA education website is https://www.faa.gov/education/.

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More airport operations/management academic programs at both the high school and community college levels would help the airport industry. With baby boomers currently reaching retirement age at the rate of 10,000 each day, and later generations much smaller in size, new employees are not entering the workforce swiftly enough to replace those leaving because of retirement, illness, and other complicating factors.

As a result, the aviation industry, like others, is experiencing a significant labor shortage. With no end in sight, the industry has joined forces in a number of unique partnerships in an effort to not only enhance the quality of current aviation graduates, but also stimulate interest in aviation careers among college students, high school students, and even middle school and elementary school students.

The TRB Airport Cooperative Research Program's ACRP Synthesis 103: Promoting Aviation Career Education in High Schools and Community Colleges points out the many characteristics of high school and community college aviation programs throughout the country, which could prove useful to airport management. By better understanding the academic programs producing the next generation of aviation professionals, airports can develop proactive efforts to promote the airport profession to aviation programs in their local area and influence young people to seriously consider airports as a viable career path, thus positively affecting the future of the airport industry.

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