National Academies Press: OpenBook

Heritable Human Genome Editing (2020)

Chapter: Appendix D: Acronyms and Abbreviations

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Acronyms and Abbreviations." National Academy of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and the Royal Society. 2020. Heritable Human Genome Editing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25665.
Page 209
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Acronyms and Abbreviations." National Academy of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and the Royal Society. 2020. Heritable Human Genome Editing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25665.
Page 210

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Appendix D Acronyms and Abbreviations AG-haESCs Androgenetic haploid embryonic stem cells AIDS Acquired immune deficiency syndrome APHIS Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service ART Assisted reproductive technologies CAR-T cells Chimeric antigen receptor T cells Cas CRISPR associated protein Cas9 CRISPR associated protein 9 CF Cystic Fibrosis CRISPR Clustered regularly-interspaced short palindromic repeats DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid ES cell Embryonic stem cell ESHRE European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology FDA Food and Drugs Administration FH Familial Hypercholesterolemia GCP Good clinical practice gRNA Guide ribonucleic acid GWAS Genome wide association study HDR Homology directed repair HFEA Human Fertility and Embryology Authority HHGE Heritable human genome editing HIV Human immunodeficiency syndrome hPGCLC Human primordial germ-like cells ICM Inner cell mass ICSI Intracytoplasmic sperm injection IFFS International Federation of Fertility Societies iPS cell Induced pluripotent stem cell ISAP International Scientific Advisory Panel IVF In vitro fertilization IVG In vitro gametogenesis LDL Low-density lipoprotein MII Metaphase II MRT Mitochondrial replacement techniques MST Maternal spindle transfer mtDNA Mitochondrial DNA NGS Next generation sequencing NHEJ Non-homologous end joining ntES cell Nuclear transfer embryonic stem cell OHSS Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome PAM Protospacer adjacent motif PB Polar body PCR Polymerase chain reaction PGC Primordial germ cells PGCLC Primordial germ-like cells PREPUBLICATION COPY | UNCORRECTED PROOFS 209

PGT Preimplantation genetic testing PNT Pronuclear transfer RNA Ribonucleic acid SCD Sickle cell disease SNP Single nucleotide polymorphism SNV Single nucleotide variants SSC Spermatagonial stem cells TALEN Transcription activator-like effector nuclease WGS Whole-genome sequencing WHO World Health Organization ZFN Zinc finger nuclease PREPUBLICATION COPY | UNCORRECTED PROOFS 210

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Heritable human genome editing - making changes to the genetic material of eggs, sperm, or any cells that lead to their development, including the cells of early embryos, and establishing a pregnancy - raises not only scientific and medical considerations but also a host of ethical, moral, and societal issues. Human embryos whose genomes have been edited should not be used to create a pregnancy until it is established that precise genomic changes can be made reliably and without introducing undesired changes - criteria that have not yet been met, says Heritable Human Genome Editing.

From an international commission of the U.S. National Academy of Medicine, U.S. National Academy of Sciences, and the U.K.'s Royal Society, the report considers potential benefits, harms, and uncertainties associated with genome editing technologies and defines a translational pathway from rigorous preclinical research to initial clinical uses, should a country decide to permit such uses. The report specifies stringent preclinical and clinical requirements for establishing safety and efficacy, and for undertaking long-term monitoring of outcomes. Extensive national and international dialogue is needed before any country decides whether to permit clinical use of this technology, according to the report, which identifies essential elements of national and international scientific governance and oversight.

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