National Academies Press: OpenBook

Heritable Human Genome Editing (2020)

Chapter: Appendix D: Acronyms and Abbreviations

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Acronyms and Abbreviations." National Academy of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and the Royal Society. 2020. Heritable Human Genome Editing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25665.
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D

Acronyms and Abbreviations

AG-haESCs Androgenetic haploid embryonic stem cells
AIDS Acquired immune deficiency syndrome
ARRIGE Association for Responsible Research and Innovation in Genome Editing
ART Assisted reproductive technology
CAR-T cells Chimeric antigen receptor T cells
Cas CRISPR associated protein
Cas9 CRISPR associated protein 9
CF Cystic Fibrosis
CRISPR Clustered regularly-interspaced short palindromic repeats
DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid
ES cell Embryonic stem cell
ESHRE European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology
FDA Food and Drug Administration
FH Familial Hypercholesterolemia
gRNA Guide ribonucleic acid
HDR Homology-directed repair
HFEA Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Acronyms and Abbreviations." National Academy of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and the Royal Society. 2020. Heritable Human Genome Editing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25665.
×
HHGE Heritable human genome editing
HIV Human immunodeficiency syndrome
hPGCLC Human primordial germ-like cell
HSC Hematopoietic stem cell
ICH International Council for Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Pharmaceuticals for Human Use
ICM Inner cell mass
ICSI Intracytoplasmic sperm injection
IFFS International Federation of Fertility Societies
IOB International Oversight Board
iPSC Induced pluripotent stem cell
ISAP International Scientific Advisory Panel
IVF In vitro fertilization
IVG In vitro gametogenesis
LDL Low-density lipoprotein
MII Metaphase II
MRT Mitochondrial replacement techniques
MST Maternal spindle transfer
mtDNA Mitochondrial DNA
NGS Next-generation sequencing
NHEJ Non-homologous end joining
ntESC Nuclear transfer embryonic stem cell
OHSS Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome
PAM Protospacer-adjacent motif
PB Polar body
PCR Polymerase chain reaction
PGC Primordial germ cell
PGCLC Primordial germ cell-like cell
PGT Preimplantation genetic testing
PNT Pronuclear transfer
RNA Ribonucleic acid
SART Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology
SCD Sickle cell disease
SNP Single nucleotide polymorphism
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Acronyms and Abbreviations." National Academy of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and the Royal Society. 2020. Heritable Human Genome Editing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25665.
×
SNV Single nucleotide variant
SSC Spermatogonial stem cell
TALEN Transcription activator–like effector nuclease
WGS Whole-genome sequencing
WHO World Health Organization
ZFN Zinc-finger nuclease
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Acronyms and Abbreviations." National Academy of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and the Royal Society. 2020. Heritable Human Genome Editing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25665.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Acronyms and Abbreviations." National Academy of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and the Royal Society. 2020. Heritable Human Genome Editing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25665.
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Page 215
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Acronyms and Abbreviations." National Academy of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and the Royal Society. 2020. Heritable Human Genome Editing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25665.
×
Page 216
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Acronyms and Abbreviations." National Academy of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and the Royal Society. 2020. Heritable Human Genome Editing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25665.
×
Page 217
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Acronyms and Abbreviations." National Academy of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and the Royal Society. 2020. Heritable Human Genome Editing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25665.
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Page 218
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Heritable human genome editing - making changes to the genetic material of eggs, sperm, or any cells that lead to their development, including the cells of early embryos, and establishing a pregnancy - raises not only scientific and medical considerations but also a host of ethical, moral, and societal issues. Human embryos whose genomes have been edited should not be used to create a pregnancy until it is established that precise genomic changes can be made reliably and without introducing undesired changes - criteria that have not yet been met, says Heritable Human Genome Editing.

From an international commission of the U.S. National Academy of Medicine, U.S. National Academy of Sciences, and the U.K.'s Royal Society, the report considers potential benefits, harms, and uncertainties associated with genome editing technologies and defines a translational pathway from rigorous preclinical research to initial clinical uses, should a country decide to permit such uses. The report specifies stringent preclinical and clinical requirements for establishing safety and efficacy, and for undertaking long-term monitoring of outcomes. Extensive national and international dialogue is needed before any country decides whether to permit clinical use of this technology, according to the report, which identifies essential elements of national and international scientific governance and oversight.

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