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The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia K. McNutt is president. Learn more about the National Academy of Medicine and National Academy of Sciences at www.nationalacademies.org. The Royal Society is a self-governing Fellowship of many of the worldâs most distinguished scientists. Its members are drawn from all areas of science, engineering, and medicine. It is the national academy of science in the United Kingdom. The Societyâs fundamental purpose, reflected in its founding Charters of the 1660s, is to recognize, promote, and support excellence in science and to encourage the development of use of science for the benefit of humanity. Learn more about the Royal Society at www.royalsociety.org. Consensus Study Reports document the evidence-based consensus on the studyâs statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committeeâs deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the authoring institutions on the statement of task. PREPUBLICATION COPY | UNCORRECTED PROOFS