National Academies Press: OpenBook

Powering the U.S. Army of the Future (2021)

Chapter: Front Matter

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Powering the U.S. Army of the Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26052.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Powering the U.S. Army of the Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26052.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Prepublication Copy – Subject to Further Editorial Correction Powering the U.S. Army of the Future Committee on Powering the U.S. Army of the Future Board on Army Research and Development Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences A Consensus Study Report of PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 This activity was supported by Contract W911NF-18-D-0002-0001 with the Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Army for Research and Technology (DASA(RT)). Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: xxxxxxx International Standard Book Number-10: xxxxxxx Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/26052 Limited copies of this report may be available through the Board on Army Research and Development, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Washington, DC 20001; (202) 334-3942 Additional copies of this publication are available for sale from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2021 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Powering the U.S. Army of the Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/26052. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task. Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies. For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION

COMMITTEE ON POWERING THE U.S. ARMY OF THE FUTURE JOHN KOSZEWNIK, NAE, 1 Achates Power, Inc., Co-Chair JOHN LUGINSLAND, CONFLUENT SCIENCES, LLC, Co-Chair JOHN KASSAKIAN, NAE, MIT MICHAEL MACLACHLAN, National Intelligence University PAUL ROEGE, Creative Erg, LLC DEBRA ROLISON, U.S. Naval Research Laboratory SUBHASH SINGHAL, NAE, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory JOHN SZYMANSKI, Los Alamos National Laboratory Staff STEVEN DARBES, Study Director WILLIAM “BRUNO” MILLONIG, Board Director CAMERON MALCOM, Research Associate SARAH JUCKETT, Program Officer CLEMENT MULOCK, Program Assistant LINDA WALKER, Program Coordinator AANIKA SENN, Program Coordinator CHRIS JONES, Senior Finance Business Partner 1 Member, National Academy of Engineering. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION v

BOARD ON ARMY RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT KATHARINA MCFARLAND, U.S. Army (retired), Chair MICHAEL BEAR, BAE Systems, Vice Chair ANDREW ALLEYNE, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign DAVID AUCSMITH, University of Washington JAMES BAGIAN, NAE 1/NAM, 2 University of Michigan JOAN BIENVENUE, University of Virginia LYNN DUGLE, Independent Consultant JOHN FARR, United States Military Academy at West Point GEORGE “RUSTY” GRAY III, NAE, Los Alamos National Laboratory WILLIAM HIX, U.S. Army (retired) DUNCAN MCGILL, Mercyhurst University CHRISTINA MURATA, Deloitte ALBERT SCIARRETTA, CNS Technologies, Inc. GEOFFREY THOME, SAIC JAMES THOMSEN, Seaborne Defense, LLC JOSEP TORRELLAS, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign Staff WILLIAM “BRUNO” MILLONIG, Board Director STEVEN DARBES, Program Officer SARAH JUCKETT, Program Officer TINA LATIMER, Program Coordinator LINDA WALKER, Program Coordinator CAMERON MALCOM, Research Associate CLEMENT MULOCK, Program Assistant CHRIS JONES, Senior Finance Business Partner 1 Member, National Academy of Engineering. 2 Member, National Academy of Medicine. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION vi

Preface I consider it an honor and a privilege to have served as a member on the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine committee studying how to best “Power the U.S. Army of the Future.” Our warfighters who put their lives on the line for our country certainly deserve the very best capabilities that rapidly advancing technology in a number of areas can provide. This is particularly important as we move toward the Department of Defense’s vision of a multi-domain scenario, where the best land, air, space, and sea resources are brought together in a coordinated, strategic fashion against any adversary for competitive advantage. The number one objective, consistent with Army Operational Energy doctrine developed 10 years ago, is to use energy in a manner that provides the greatest net operational advantage on the battlefield. This entails not just energy logistics, but encompasses a more complete information-driven understanding of how energy can best be used to win against near-peer and other adversaries. Supporting this overall objective, there are a number of other important considerations that the committee had in providing its recommendations. These include the following: • Supplying whatever energy is needed to whomever needs it wherever and whenever they need it. Just as one would never want a soldier to run out of ammunition, food, or water, having adequate power and energy saves warfighter lives and is essential to their success; • Recognizing the need to meet growing power demands; • Supporting enhanced battlefield situational awareness for all our warfighters based on improved communications, information processing, and artificial intelligence; • Reducing fuel transport needs to save lives during resupply; • Reducing the weight that the dismounted soldier has to carry; • Reduce the weight of all types of vehicles (i.e., ground and flight assets both manned and unmanned); • Increasing the Army Brigade’s self-sustainment capability from 3 to 7 days; • Providing rapid mobility across a variety of terrain for dismounted soldiers, vehicles, and forward operating bases. This includes rapid set-up and breakdown times for forward operating bases; • Maintaining or reducing the time required to refuel, recharge, or provide new sources of power; • Possessing a capability to utilize a wider range of globally available resources (i.e. fuel resources utilized by allies and adversaries); • Maintaining a capability to disable or lock-out energy resources fall into hostile hands particularly those with proprietary technology; and • Employing environmentally friendly technologies wherever practical without compromising military objectives. Figure P.1 tells an interesting story. Since World War II, the Army is using approximately 20 times more energy per soldier, while reducing the number of soldiers by a roughly equivalent amount. This direction will likely continue in the future and highlights the importance of energy supply and management. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION vii

FIGURE P.1 Advantages in operational edge. SOURCE: R. Kidd, U.S. Army, 2012, “Army Energy and Sustainability Program,” presentation, https://www.asaie.army.mil/Public/ES/doc/2-General%20Presentation.pdf. Although the total power demands for an Army Brigade are massive, the solutions the committee investigated and endorses require both a “macro” and “micro” look, due to the significant differences (several orders of magnitude) in power requirements for different use categories, including the following: • Milliwatts for distributed remote sensors; • Watts for small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and soldier equipment; • Kilowatts for emerging directed-energy weapons, such as lasers; and • Megawatts and more for ground combat vehicles, emerging (FVL) helicopters/VTOL aircraft, and forward operating bases. Using a metaphor, there’s a “raging river” of power being supplied to U.S. Armed Forces expeditionary and defensive forces. Tapping into that river to take a drink presents some interesting challenges. History has shown that power demands increase over time—a trend expected to continue or accelerate with the ever-increasing pace of technology, including new weapon systems now under development, such as electromagnetic pulse technology, lasers, and rail guns and new communications, artificial intelligence, and data processing systems, such as 5G. Therefore, providing the needed power and energy to our troops using the best available technologies will remain an essential responsibility to ensure the overall security of our nation. John Koszewnik, Co-Chair Committee on Powering the U.S. Army of the Future PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION viii

Acknowledgment of Reviewers This Consensus Study Report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Eric Barth, Vanderbilt University, Nigel Clark, West Virginia University, Kevin Huang, University of South Carolina, Yilu Liu, NAE, 1 University of Tennessee, Arumugam Manthiram, University of Texas, Austin Kathryn McCarthy, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Eric Morgan, MIT Lincoln Laboratory, William Mustain, University of South Carolina, and Kenneth Rosen, NAE, General Aero-Science Consultants, LLC. Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations of this report nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this report was overseen by John Stenbit, NAE, TRW. Inc. (retired). He was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies. 1 Member, National Academy of Engineering. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION ix

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Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ES-1 INTRODUCTION I-1 1 THE MULTI-DOMAIN OPERATIONS AND THE 2035 OPERATIONAL AND TECHNOLOGY ENVIRONMENT 1-1 2 THE POWER AND ENERGY TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT CRITERIA 2-1 3 ENERGY SOURCES, CONVERSION DEVICES, AND STORAGE 3-1 4 SYSTEM WIDE COMMUNICATION ISSUES IN SUPPORT OF MULTI-DOMAIN OPERATIONS 4-1 5 DISMOUNTED SOLDIER POWER AND LIGHT UAVS/UGVS 5-1 6 VEHICLE POWER AND LARGE WEAPON SYSTEMS 6-1 7 FORWARD OPERATING BASE POWER 7-1 8 FUEL CONVERSION EFFICIENCY AND OTHER MATERIAL-DRIVEN OPPORTUNITIES 8-1 9 FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS 9-1 APPENDIXES A Statement of Task A-1 B Biographies B-1 C Call for White Papers C-1 D List of Data-Gathering Sessions D-1 E Abstracts of White Selected White Papers E-1 F Data-Gathering Session Agenda F-1 G Aluminum Fuel G-1 H 5G Networks H-1 I Soldier Silent Power Challenges I-1 J High Performance ICE Engines Roadmap J-1 K Hybrid Fuel Efficiency K-1 L Power Electronics L-1 M Nuclear Power Safety/Regulatory Considerations M-1 N Acronyms List N-1 PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION xi

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At the request of the Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Army for Research and Technology, Powering the U.S. Army of the Future examines the U.S. Army's future power requirements for sustaining a multi-domain operational conflict and considers to what extent emerging power generation and transmission technologies can achieve the Army's operational power requirements in 2035. The study was based on one operational usage case identified by the Army as part of its ongoing efforts in multi-domain operations. The recommendations contained in this report are meant to help inform the Army's investment priorities in technologies to help ensure that the power requirements of the Army's future capability needs are achieved.

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