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Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap (2021)

Chapter: Appendix F Six Original Portfolios

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F Six Original Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F Six Original Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F Six Original Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F Six Original Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F Six Original Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F Six Original Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F Six Original Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F Six Original Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F Six Original Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F Six Original Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F Six Original Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F Six Original Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F Six Original Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F Six Original Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F Six Original Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F Six Original Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F Six Original Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F Six Original Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F Six Original Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F Six Original Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F Six Original Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F Six Original Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F Six Original Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F Six Original Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F Six Original Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F Six Original Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F Six Original Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F Six Original Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F Six Original Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F Six Original Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F Six Original Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F Six Original Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F Six Original Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F Six Original Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F Six Original Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F Six Original Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F Six Original Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F Six Original Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F Six Original Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F Six Original Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F Six Original Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F Six Original Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F Six Original Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F Six Original Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F Six Original Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F Six Original Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F Six Original Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F Six Original Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F Six Original Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F Six Original Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F Six Original Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F Six Original Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F Six Original Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F Six Original Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F Six Original Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F Six Original Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F Six Original Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F Six Original Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F Six Original Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F Six Original Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F Six Original Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F Six Original Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F Six Original Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F Six Original Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F Six Original Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F Six Original Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F Six Original Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F Six Original Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F Six Original Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F Six Original Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F Six Original Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F Six Original Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F Six Original Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F Six Original Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F Six Original Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F Six Original Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F Six Original Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F Six Original Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap F-1 A P P E N D I X F Six Original Portfolios

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap F-2 Six Original Portfolios • Rural Public and School Transportation Portfolio (May 2019) • Transporting Rural Products (Freight) to Market (August 2019) • Weather, Climate, Resilience and Environment (August 2019) • Active Transportation (August 2019) • Connected and Automated Vehicles and Emerging Technologies (August 2019) • Economic Development & Tourism (August 2019)

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap F-3 Project No. NCHRP 20-122 RURAL TRANSPORTATION ISSUES: RESEARCH ROADMAP RURAL PUBLIC AND SCHOOL TRANSPORTATION THEME INTERIM REPORT Prepared for NCHRP Transportation Research Board Of The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine TRANSPORTAION RESEARCH BOARD OF THE ACADEMIES OF SCIENCES, ENGINEERING AND MEDICINE PRIVILEGED DOCUMENT This document, not released for publication, is finished only for review to members of or participants in the work of CRP. This document is to be regarded as fully privileged, and dissemination of the information included herein must be approved by CRP. Jaime Sullivan, P.E. and Karalyn Clouser Western Transportation Institute at Montana State University Bozeman, MT And John Shaw, P.E. Institute of Transportation at Iowa State University Ames, Iowa May 20, 2019 Permission to use any unoriginal material has been obtained from all copyright holders as needed.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap F-4 Update Please note that PT-IB-01: Development and Implementation of the National Intercity Bus Atlas was supported by the AASHTO Research and Innovation Committee and was funded in the FY 2020 NCHRP program for $600,000 under project number 8-133. The following projects were identified by the NCHRP 20-122 Project Panel for problem statement development for possible submission to the FY 2020 TCRP program if a champion is identified: • PT-NEMT-01: Evaluate transportation policies across multiple Federal agencies (CMS, FTA, VA, etc.) to identify opportunities to improve service coordination and increase productivity ($750,000). • PT-MF-01: Evaluate the characteristics, benefits and drawbacks, and design considerations for deviated fixed route systems that have been implemented in rural areas ($650,000). • Combined PT-IB-04: Develop a guidebook to assist tribal communities, local governments, and private intercity bus providers with implementing and improving connectivity between local, tribal, regional, and long-distance bus services and PT-IB- 02: Identify methods to coordinate state intercity bus subsidy programs across jurisdictional boundaries ($500,000). Ranking Methodology The ranks shown below were calculated based on two prioritization exercises: (1) the TRB Workshop dot exercise and (2) the Spring Webinar ranking exercise. For the TRB Workshop, all research suggestions generated prior to the workshop were printed on posters, and participants were asked to identify high-priority items by marking the most important items with dots. The resulting “dot count” was then tallied. For the Spring Webinar, participants were asked to rate each research suggestion by providing one of six possible responses: extremely important, very important, moderately important, slightly important, not important, or no opinion. Responses were then converted to a 5-point scale, with “extremely important” corresponding to 5 points and “not important” corresponding to 1 point. To assure that respondents did not feel pressured to rate items that were outside their technical expertise, “no opinion” responses were excluded from the scoring. To allow the Spring Webinar and TRB Workshop rankings to be compared directly; the TRB Workshop dot rankings were mathematically converted to an equivalent 5-point scale. In both cases, participants were also given the opportunity to comment on the wording and content of each item, and an opportunity to provide additional research suggestions. Therefore, some research suggestions had multiple rankings (from both TRB Workshop and Spring Webinar), while newer items added during the TRB Workshop had only one score.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap F-5 The higher of the two scores was then used to create the final rankings within each of the research themes. After the research suggestions were sorted into rank order based on the higher of the two scores (TRB Workshop or Spring Webinar), the team looked for natural breaks in the rankings to identify a workable number of research priorities within each theme (typically about the top 10% of the research suggestions). Where possible, related items were consolidated and an overview (generally one to two paragraphs) was written to describe each candidate research suggestion. Next Steps Below you will find the information sorted into three pieces for your review: • The top research priorities for this theme (number, research title, rank, subcategory, description, and notes), • The newly proposed research suggestions/titles identified through the Spring Webinar (unprioritized and therefore unranked), and • The remainder of the research suggestions/titles in this theme sorted by category (number, research title, and rank). At this point in time, the NCHRP 20-122 team needs the TRB research monitor, NCHRP 20-122 panel chair, and/or NCHRP 20-122 panel to review this information and provide the research team with a concise list (3-5) of the top-priority research titles for this theme. While all research titles in this document will be documented in the final report, only the top 3-5 priorities chosen by the panel will be laid out in the actual roadmap graphic and several of these top 3-5 priorities will be drafted into full CRP research needs statements by the research team. Top Research Priorities • (PT-IB-01) Development and implementation of a national intercity bus atlas (RNS23). o Rank: 1 o Subcategory: Intercity Bus o Description: The purpose of this research project is to develop a national atlas of intercity bus services that utilizes General Transit Feed Specification (GTFS) data, is publicly available, can be maintained to a high level of currency, and is complementary to the National Transit Map. Although the network of intercity bus services represents the most comprehensive national coverage provided by any of the intercity modes, there has not been any comprehensive, complete, and up-to-date inventory of these services until recently. Such an inventory has been needed by policy-makers, planners, operators of complementary services, and the industry itself to understand and depict the current state of the intercity bus network, its role, its connections with local transit, and its role with regard to Amtrak and commercial air service. o Notes: No action required: RNS 23 is included in the April 2019 AASHTO balloting.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap F-6 • (PT-MF-01) Evaluate the characteristics, benefits and drawbacks, and design considerations for deviated fixed route systems that have been implemented in rural areas. o Rank: 2 o Subcategory: Modeling and Forecasting o Description: Traditional rural bus systems operate either a pre-scheduled fixed route, or an on-demand (dial-a-ride) type service. Deviated fixed route systems are an intermediate option: the general route and schedule is pre-determined, but the route can be varied to some degree based on requests from riders. This option presents a number of policy and service planning issues, such as how much deviation from the standard route will be permitted and whether all riders are allowed to request deviations, or only those passengers meeting certain criteria (e.g., a certified disability). Additionally, there are important operational issues related to whether vehicles return to the normal route after making a deviation or proceed directly to the location of the next known passenger (which could bypass non-appointment passengers waiting at intermediate stops). In 2010, TCRP Report 140 developed general descriptions of several deviated fixed route systems (including their target productivity levels), but for the most part the schedule-adherence and productivity effects of various deviation policies have only been explored in theoretical papers. Additional field studies are necessary to evaluate the characteristics, benefits, drawbacks, and design considerations for rural deviated fixed route systems, including data that can help validate theoretical performance models. • (PT-IB-02)-Identify methods to coordinate state intercity bus subsidy programs across jurisdictional boundaries. o Rank: 3 o Subcategory: Intercity Bus o Description: By their nature, intercity bus trips often involve long-distance travel that crosses state lines, but the Federal Transit Administration's rural intercity bus subsidy programs are administered by individual states. Differences in the selection criteria and timing for state subsidy decisions can deter carriers from proposing routes or route extensions that extend beyond a single state. To address this issue, the proposed research would review current state subsidy programs, identify data needs related to coordinating intercity bus route planning, and develop case examples of successful collaborations for routes that include two or more states. • (PT-NEMT-01) Evaluate transportation policies across multiple Federal agencies (CMS, FTA, VA, etc.) to identify opportunities to improve service coordination and increase productivity. o Rank: 4 o Subcategory: NEMT o Description: Non-Emergency Medical Transportation (NEMT) is a substantial element of the demand for public transportation in many rural communities.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap F-7 NEMT is funded from several sources, and rural transportation operators face important challenges in coordinating services funded by various federal agencies (such as the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, Federal Transit Administration, and Veterans Administration) and their state counterparts. The purpose of this research is twofold. The first phase will compile a state-of-practice review that documents all of the agencies and programs that play a role in NEMT, the methods currently used by rural transportation operators to coordinate these services, and any known inconsistencies in the interpretation of NEMT regulations. The second phase will convene a series of working sessions to allow state and federal funding agency officials to confer with front-line service delivery agencies on methods for optimizing the outcomes of NEMT programs. • (PT-IB-03) Update TCRP 147 demand model at the route level with additional data points from expanded use of in-kind and add a network model. o Rank: 5 o Subcategory: Intercity Bus o Description: TRCP Report 147 (2011) developed a sketch-planning level tool for estimating rural intercity bus service demand. Since that time there have been major changes in the intercity bus industry, including the introduction of new subsidized and unsubsidized services. The proposed research would develop an updated ridership forecasting methodology that is based on a larger sample and provides more refined route-level passenger forecasts. Such a tool could assist intercity carriers, regional planners, and state transportation agencies in identifying unserved and underserved rural communities and making optimal use of existing funding programs. • (PT-Pl-01) Expand the use of the Oregon DOT methodology for identifying "Key Transit Hubs" (transfer points) to include the entire United States and document best practices for coordinating the funding of passenger transportation services that cross jurisdictional boundaries. o Rank: 6 o Subcategory: Planning o Description: Oregon DOT recently developed the "Key Transit Hub" concept, which uses GIS to facilitate identification of rural transit transfer points. The availability of this analysis method has increased awareness of the need for improving transfers between rural transit routes, between rural and urban systems, and between rural transit and other modes (including transfers that support trips across service area boundaries). The proposed research will develop guidance on methods for identifying existing and potential rural transfer points, improving service coordination, and sharing information about rural service connections with existing riders and the public. This guidance will cover both interline transfers (between routes operated by the same transit system) and interline transfers (between two or more systems).

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap F-8 Notes: Combined multiple research needs to create this one. • (PT-TIB-01) Analyze effects of transit and intercity bus services on rural economic development. o Rank: 6 o Subcategory: Transit/Intercity Bus o Description: Over the years, several studies have looked at the effects of transit on rural economic development, however, most of these studies are either 10-20 years old or focus on small regions (e.g., a few towns in Georgia or Tennessee). One recent study done by APTA and CTAA, “Public Transportation’s Impact on Rural and Small Towns” looked at the impact overall, but only had a brief summary on the impact to economic development. The purpose of this study is to build on that recent study and do a more comprehensive look at the effects across the nation. It should also focus on both intercity bus and transit and should be broken down by transit rider type (e.g., elderly, work trips, school trips, etc.). • (PT-Po-01) Document the effects of public transportation service levels (or lack of service) on income inequality and poverty perpetuation in the rural United States. Assess the link between rural accessibility barriers and socioeconomic outcomes, such as the implications of limited access to education, jobs, and medical services for non- drivers. o Rank: 8 o Subcategory: Policy o Description: The proposed research will: • Document the effects of public transportation service levels (or lack of service) on income inequality and poverty perpetuation in the rural United States. • Assess the link between rural accessibility barriers and socioeconomic outcomes, such as the implications of limited access to education, jobs, and medical services for non-drivers. • Estimate the overall economic benefit of providing rural transit service, perhaps by comparing household income and gross economic output in pairs of similar communities with and without transit service. o Notes: Combined multiple research needs to create this one. • (PT-IB-04) Develop a guidebook to assist tribal communities, local governments, and private intercity bus providers with implementing and improving connectivity between local, tribal, regional, and long-distance bus services. o Rank: 8 o Subcategory: Intercity Bus o Description: Develop a guidebook to assist tribal communities, local governments, and private intercity bus providers with implementing and improving connectivity between local, tribal, regional, and long-distance bus services.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap F-9 • (PT-MF-02) Assessing Rural Passenger Transportation Market Trends o Rank: 10 o Subcategory: Modeling and Forecasting o Description: Rural public transportation is often perceived as a service targeted primarily toward people with disabilities, the elderly, and low-income residents. While these riders are an important component of the rural transit customer base, attracting a broader range of riders can boost financial performance and contribute to broader community goals. Nevertheless, rural transit appears to be facing new competitive pressures from ride sourcing. As a result, it is important to develop an up-to-date understanding of how ridership is affected by the presence of ride sourcing, capital improvements such as enhanced passenger amenities and real-time bus location, optimization of service frequency and stop locations, pairings with other modes (such as bicycling), and alternative service delivery methods (e.g., fixed route vs demand-responsive). Thus, the purpose of this research is to identify emerging rural transportation user needs and desires, and to consider how these trends can be leveraged to stabilize and grow ridership. To accomplish this, rural transit market research will be conducted at the national level, and guidance will be developed to help system managers adjust the national data to local conditions based on Census data and existing system performance metrics. o Notes: Combined multiple research needs to create this one. • (PT-Pl-02) Re-evaluate the Federal Transit Administration's National Transit Database (NTD) to simplify reporting requirements but cover more FTA programs. o Rank: 10 o Subcategory: Planning o Description: FTA’s National Transit Database (NTD) “records the financial, operating and asset condition of transit systems.” The data is required from both urbanized (5307) and rural (5311) FTA grant recipients, with more than 660 providers reporting. o This project would re-evaluate the amount of detail required for demand- responsive services to identify whether a smaller set of basic data would be sufficient [e.g., cost for the ride segment (as many rides will be linked multimodal trips), the provider, time/date at each trip end, whether the ride provider accommodated a wheel chair or scooter, and geo-stamped location for the destination end of the trip]. It would also evaluate the feasibility of expanding the NTD to include all federally subsidized demand-responsive programs [i.e., services funded by Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) and the Veterans Affairs (VA) as well as FTA].

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap F-10 • (PT-Po-02) Evaluate the efficiency/effectiveness of the Federal Transit Administration 5310/5311 program and the impacts of the 5310 program mandated changes. o Rank: 10 o Subcategory: Policy o Description: Several Federal programs provide financial assistance for the operation of rural public transportation services. These include: • The Enhanced Mobility of Seniors & Individuals with Disabilities (Section 5310) program, recently revised under the FAST Act, which provides formula funding to states for the purpose of assisting private nonprofit groups in meeting transportation needs of the elderly and persons with disabilities. • The Formula Grants for Rural Areas (Section 5311) program, which provides capital, planning, and operating assistance to states to support public transportation in areas with populations under 50,000. • The Tribal Transit Formula Grants (Section 5311(c)(2)(B) program), which provides funding to federally recognized Indian tribes to provide public transportation services on and around Indian reservations or tribal land in rural areas. Eligibility for these programs qualifies agencies for additional funding sources. For example, Section 5311 recipients are eligible for assistance with the capital costs of purchasing buses and improving passenger facilities. Thus, the administrative rules for 5310 and 5311 funding (and the associated matching funds requirements) are quite complicated, with ripple effects on other programs. The purpose of this project is to identify and document the effects of existing law and administrative rules on rural transit customers. The project will also analyze any unintended effects of the program rules and the extent to which they positively and/or negatively affect the type and quality of transportation services available to rural residents. • (PT-Tr-01) Analyze multi-jurisdictional issues in tribal funding. o Rank: 10 o Subcategory: Tribal o Description: Many tribal transit systems operate in rural areas, and often not only provide public transportation services within an Indian Reservation, but also connect to larger communities outside of the Reservation. In addition to the Tribal Transit Formula Grants (Section 5311(c)(2)(B) program; Tribes are also often eligible to receive FTA Section 5310 and 5311 funding. Further, some tribal transit systems may also provide intercity bus services (FTA Section 5311(f)). This project will analyze all funding available to tribal governments for public transportation services and will highlight any unintended effects of program rules (including both Federal and State rules) and the extent to which they positively and/or negatively affect the type and quality (funding) of transportation services available to both tribal and rural residents. • (PT-M-01) Evaluate current rural transit service marketing programs.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap F-11 o Rank: 10 o Subcategory: Marketing o Description: The purpose of this project is to assess current rural transit service marketing techniques (e.g., travel training, personal bottom-up approach vs. top- down wide audience, etc.) to determine their impact and effectiveness (e.g., does the public know service exists including the connections between services). The project will also consider which types of media are effective in reaching potential new riders (direct mail, targeted internet advertising, local radio, etc.) Best practices and lessons learned should be identified and documented. The project should also assess the impact of re-branding rural transit services to switch from a focus on human service to one emphasizing that the system is open to the general public. o Notes: Combined multiple research needs to create this one. • (PT-PR-01) Exploring the value of passenger rail service in rural network access (RNS20): Analyze available data about rural Amtrak ridership, trip patterns, trip purposes, and passenger demographics to identify service gaps and opportunities to strengthen Amtrak and its connections to other modes. o Rank: 10 o Subcategory: Passenger Rail o Description: The objective of this research is to review current utilization of intercity passenger rail service in rural areas, develop an understanding of rail's overall market share for long-distance trips that have an origin or destination in a rural community, and assist transportation planners in understanding the extent to which travelers consider rail to be equal or superior to other modes (such as aviation or intercity bus). To achieve this objective, the proposed project will: • Analyze passenger rail data for rural areas (e.g., rider characteristics, purpose of trip, origins/destinations, etc.). • Compare the availability and utilization of rural passenger rail services in states that provide subsidy for Amtrak service with those that do not. • Document current practices for linking aviation, passenger rail, and intercity bus services. • Identify locations where existing commercial airports, intercity bus stops, and rural transit service stops coincide with passenger rail stations but modal transfers are not currently feasible due to lack of facilities/services or incompatible schedules. o Note: Update of RNS20 • (PT-Pl-03) Identify new/innovative transit operations models for the future. o Rank: 20 o Subcategory: Planning o Description: The emergence of ride sourcing services and other app-based mobility options has provoked reconsideration of the methods used to deliver rural transportation services. Traditional fixed-route services remain the norm in many areas, while other communities have successfully operated demand-

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap F-12 responsive services for decades. The availability of ride sourcing apps and volunteer driver programs creates new opportunities for delivering mixed-mode services in some areas. o These mixed-mode operations can potentially reduce travel time and allow service planners to improve service frequency or geographical coverage. At the same time, shifting customers to third-party services has the potential to drive down transit system performance measures. The proposed research will explore potential hybrid service delivery models and assess their potential effects on costs, travel time, quality of service, service area geography, and equity for people with disabilities and other underrepresented groups. New Proposed Research Suggestions/Titles (Unprioritized/Unranked) • Human Resources (School Transportation) o (PT-HR-01) Identify methods for addressing shortages of school bus drivers. • Intercity Bus o (PT-IB-05) Identify the effects of rural intercity bus service frequency, stop density, and amenities on ridership. Description: TRCP Report 147 (2011) developed a sketch-planning level model for estimating rural intercity bus service demand. Since that time there have been major changes in the intercity bus industry, including the introduction of new subsidized and unsubsidized services. The proposed research would develop an updated model that is based on a larger sample and provides more refined route- level passenger forecasts. Such a model could assist intercity carriers, regional planners, and state transportation agencies in identifying unserved and underserved rural communities and making optimal use of existing funding programs. o (PT-IB-06) Develop an Intercity Bus industry overview that includes an updated analysis of how well rural communities are being served by intercity operators. Description: TCRP Report 79 (2002) and NCHRP Research Results Digest 356 (2011) analyzed state practices for the use of FTA Section 5311(f) rural intercity bus funding and provided advice on the potential ways in which states could implement rural intercity bus programs. Since the release of those publications, there have been major changes in the intercity bus industry. In 2005 Greyhound completed a major restructuring that resulted in the loss of service to many rural areas and small towns, increasing the scale of the problem and causing many more states to consider the options for replacing lost intercity service. In 2010 the Federal Transit Administration issued guidance for a pilot project allowing the use of the value of connecting unsubsidized intercity bus service as the required match for Section 5311(f). This was later included in statute and is now a part of the program. This change has allowed many more states to implement rural intercity bus programs, and has

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap F-13 changed the options for program design, as it requires a high degree of connectivity with the unsubsidized network. In addition, the industry itself has continued to undergo changes, with new carriers that have emerged that offer low-cost express (nonstop or limited-stop) services between major cities. Ethnic carriers, notably those focusing on the Hispanic market, have introduced new services that sometimes include stops in small cities. Traditional intercity bus carriers such as Greyhound have revised their routes and schedules and introduced new express services. At the state level, many more states have developed programs to use Section 5311(f) funding combined with in-kind match, and added innovations in branding, information technology and connectivity. As a result of these rapid changes, there is a need for up-to-date research that examines how well the needs of rural intercity bus passengers are being served, identifies best practices in state implementation of the 5311(f) program, and provides recommendations for the development of state programs in response to changing market conditions. • Modeling and Forecasting o (PT-MF-03) Develop recommended practices for accounting for intermodal linked trips in rural travel demand forecasting models. • School Transportation o (PT-ST-01) Evaluate methods to improve the safety of school transportation, including reduction of illegal passbys. o (PT-ST-02) Identify methods for making school bus routes more efficient and making best-possible use of drivers and equipment. o (PT-ST-03) Identify effects of school bus route length on student academic performance. o (PT-ST-04) Identify methods for encouraging students to utilize on-bus time to improve their academic performance. o (PT-ST-05) Identify relationships and synergies between school transportation and general public transportation. Remainder of the Research Suggestions/Titles for this Theme • Funding o (PT-F-01) Evaluate innovative revenue sources for rural transit systems (RNS12). (Rank = 28) o (PT-F-02) Identify the impact of decline in overall non-urbanized population on transit funding. (Rank = 37) o (PT-F-03) Analyze the funding impacts resulting from rural areas shifting into urbanized areas after the 2010 Census and the potential effects of the 2020 Census. (Rank = 79) o (PT-F-04) Review the relationship of FTA Urbanized/Non-Urbanized designations to various rural community types. (Rank = 79)

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap F-14 o (PT-F-05) Identify how to correctly interpret sponsored trip regulations for operational funding. (Rank = 100) o (PT-F-06) Document the basic data needed for rural areas to apply for funding. (Rank = 106) • Human Resources o (PT-HR-02) Develop case examples of rural transit and school bus systems that have found innovative methods for utilizing human resources and equipment efficiently during off-peak periods. (Rank = 61) o (PT-HR-03) Identify gaps in the availability of training rural transit and paratransit vehicle operators and potential solutions. (Rank = 79) o (PT-HR-04) Identify strategies to train and motivate first responders to gather appropriate data for bus-involved traffic incidents. (Rank = 90) • Intercity Bus o (PT-IB-07) Innovative business models for rural intercity passenger transportation (RNS24). (Rank = 34) o (PT-IB-08) Identify ideas for making intercity bus services more attractive. What services/attributes, marketing, and priority infrastructure would assist with this? (Rank = 34) o (PT-IB-09) Develop software to link the Intercity Bus Atlas to the BTS National Transit Map. (Rank = 37) o (PT-IB-10) Analyze existing intercity bus subsidy programs and their relationships with unsubsidized commercial services provided by traditional, ethnic, and express carriers. Compare the characteristics of routes requiring long- term subsidy and those which are financially self-sustaining. (Rank = 50) o (PT-IB-11) Update TCRP 79 and NCHRP RRD 356 to document what states are doing with FTA section 5311 funding. (Rank = 86) • Marketing o (PT-M-02) Identify the effects of using electronic payment systems (including multi-agency debit cards) on rural transit ridership. (Rank = 32) o (PT-M-03) Evaluate the effectiveness of current rural transit service marketing programs and the specific marketing techniques that are effective. (Rank = 37) o (PT-M-04) Develop tools that assist public transportation customers with visualizing network connections and linkages. (Rank = 37) o (PT-M-05) Assess the impact of marketing techniques: travel training, personal bottom-up approach vs. top-down wide audience. (Rank = 52) o (PT-M-06) Update TCRP Report 150, "Communication with Vulnerable Populations: A Transportation Planning & Emergency Management Toolkit." Consider adding more information about tribal communities and the roles of rural social service agencies. (Rank = 57) o (PT-M-07) Evaluate the merits of a stored-value card that would allow cognitively independent subsidized riders to make their own decisions about mode choice and carrier. (Rank = 61)

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap F-15 o (PT-M-08) Identify strategies to ensure that riders and potential riders know and understand their eligibility status, so no one gets left behind. (Rank = 61) o (PT-M-09) Identify best practices for preparing riders (specifically elderly and veterans) to use the public transit systems via social media. (Rank = 76) o (PT-M-10) Update TRCP Report 150, "Communication with Vulnerable Populations." Identify social resilience in rural communities; assess social networks (person to person and online) to support emerging communications and emerging transportation. (Rank = 86) o (PT-M-11) Identify relationships between transit/paratransit equipment specifications and customer acceptance or service marketability metrics. (Rank = 109) • Modeling and Forecasting o (PT-MF-04) Characterize and quantify markets for rural public transportation; identify socioeconomic and technological trends which may shape these markets going forward. (Rank = 20) o (PT-MF-05) Identify best practices for matching rural transit service intensity with passenger demand. (Rank = 49) o (PT-MF-06) Identify methods for comparing rural transit system ridership with demand for alternative services such as ride sourcing and carpooling. (Rank = 56) o (PT-MF-07) Evaluate the importance of providing access to medical facilities and testing laboratories on rural transit routes. (Rank = 79) o (PT-MF-08) Comprehensively study vehicle availability trends in rural areas. (Rank = 85) o (PT-MF-09) Review the effect of national immigration policies on rural transit ridership. (Rank = 106) • NEMT o (PT-NEMT-02) Develop case examples that quantify the impacts to rural transportation agencies when non-emergency medical transportation providers cease operations. (Rank = 22) o (PT-NEMT-03) Integrate transit subsidy programs with overall medical treatment programs for people with cognitive disabilities. (Rank = 37) o (PT-NEMT-04) Conduct a comprehensive review of state and federal policies for funding medical transportation. (Rank = 57) o (PT-NEMT-05) Identify best practices and strategies for transit contracts with rural healthcare facilities. (Rank = 61) o (PT-NEMT-06) Update the 2005 cost benefit analysis for non-emergency medical transportation (NEMT) and include case studies. (Rank = 86) o (PT-NEMT-07) Analyze cost for accessing medical care. (Rank = 98) o (PT-NEMT-08) Update the state-by-state Medicaid/Medicare reimbursement study. (Rank = 110) • Passenger Facilities

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap F-16 o (PT-PF-01) Measure the impact of rural bus stop infrastructure conditions and bus stop ADA compliance on ridership; identify potential solutions for improving the safety, comfort, and accessibility of rural bus stops. (Rank = 36) o (PT-PF-02) Identify relationships between roadway surface conditions, passenger comfort, and vehicle maintenance costs for rural public transit and paratransit systems. (Rank = 93) o (PT-PF-03) Evaluate the feasibility of using low-cost surfacing materials for rural bus stops and platforms, such as gravel stabilized with acrylic polymer. (Rank = 100) • Passenger Rail o (PT-PR-02) Evaluate the value of accommodating bicycles on long-distance passenger trains and/or providing bicycle rental at rural stations. (Rank = 105) • Performance Measures o (PT-PM-01) Develop key public transit performance metrics and target levels for discretionary travel (ADA40). (Rank = 27) o (PT-PM-02) Create and analyze separate, rural-specific benchmarks/performance metrics for intercity bus and public transit. (Rank = 31) o (PT-PM-03) Adjust the transit investment value and cost benefit analysis framework for rural outcomes. (Rank = 52) o (PT-PM-04) Apply the return on investment methodology (previously utilized for active transportation analysis) to infrastructure, partnerships, and Medicaid population access. (Rank = 76) • Planning o (PT-Pl-04) Identify new/innovative transit operations models for the future. (Rank = 20) o (PT-Pl-05) Evaluate methods to improve transit access through improving transit data. (Rank = 22) o (PT-Pl-06) Inventory all rural transit providers and create a comprehensive rural transit coverage map. (Rank = 22) o (PT-Pl-07) Develop synthesis of practice on the integration of rural transit planning with overall rural transportation planning. (Rank = 25) o (PT-Pl-08) Identify best practices for transit oriented development in small towns (ADA30). (Rank = 26) o (PT-Pl-09) Analyze changes in demand for public transportation as the rural (and tribal) populations age. (Rank = 28) o (PT-Pl-10) Document best practices for cross-jurisdictional coordination of passenger transportation using travel shed concepts. (Rank = 37) o (PT-Pl-11) Develop recommended practices for funding passenger transportation services in travel sheds that cross jurisdictional boundaries. (Rank = 37) o (PT-Pl-12) Identify strategies for encouraging rural transit service coordination and/or mergers to improve services that cross jurisdictional boundaries. (Rank = 37)

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap F-17 o (PT-Pl-13) Identify strategies for rural transportation and college-oriented services to interact and benefit each other. (Rank = 37) o (PT-Pl-14) Identify unmet mobility needs or offer methodology for practitioners to measure unmet needs in their state/community – where are there high rates of vehicle unavailability without corresponding alternate mode choices? (Rank = 37) o (PT-Pl-15) Identify strategies for assuring that affordable housing developed in rural areas has a residential density sufficient to serve efficiently with transit. (Rank = 37) o (PT-Pl-16) Identify the service quality expectations of rural transit riders on underfunded and low-density systems. (Rank = 51) o (PT-Pl-17) Identify best practices for human service transportation in underserved rural areas. (Rank = 52) o (PT-Pl-18) Review the effects of service area characteristics on transit system productivity, financial performance, and subsidy requirements (Rank = 61) o (PT-Pl-19) Evaluate overlaps between rural transit and paratransit services and identify opportunities to improve efficiency and customer service. (Rank = 61) o (PT–Pl-20) Identify security measures for rural transit systems and cost-effective deployment options. (Rank = 74) o (PT-Pl-21) Identify the transit operational issues, best practices, and lessons learned for “necks” of peninsulas. (Rank = 74) o (PT-Pl-22) Evaluate cost effective options for "on-demand" transit services in rural areas (Rank = 76) o (PT-Pl-23) Identify barriers to the expansion of on-demand paratransit services in rural areas. (Rank = 79) o (PT-Pl-24) Prepare a meta-analysis of rural transit system feasibility studies to identify the characteristics of route expansions and new systems which advanced to the implementation stage. (Rank = 93) o (PT-Pl-25) Create tool for converting transit system costs into costs per passenger-mile for rural mobility services. (Rank = 93) o (PT-Pl-26) Evaluate potential effects of the Safe Routes to School program on the transportation preferences of the post-Millennial generation. (Rank = 100) • Policy o (PT-Po-03) Identify strategies to ameliorate rural transit funding inequities. (Rank = 28) o (PT-Po-04) Evaluate the extent of rural transit system utilization of the General Transit Feed Specification (GFTS) to disseminate route and schedule information through commercial mapping services such as Google Maps. Identify barriers to further GFTS implementation and methods to encourage GFTS use by rural operators. (Rank = 37) o (PT-Po-05) Develop case examples of the impacts to citizens and businesses when a local government fails to secure matching funds. (Rank = 52)

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap F-18 o (PT-Po-06) Analyze the economic impact of having rural transit versus not having transit. (Rank = 59) o (PT-Po-07) Evaluate the impact of changing funding allocations on rural transportation. (Rank = 59) o (PT-Po-08) Explore the cost-efficiency and cost-effectiveness for rural transit service provision. (Rank = 61) o (PT-Po-09) Conduct a comprehensive policy review for Federal funding of rural public transportation (transit and paratransit). (Rank = 61) o (PT-Po-10) Compare transit and no-transit small urban communities. (Rank = 61) o (PT-Po-11) Identify the implications of converting existing FTA operating and capital funding programs to a block grant approach for rural systems. (Rank = 61) o (PT-Po-12) Evaluate the impact of private vehicle use in rural communities that have invested a significant amount of money in creating a multi-modal transportation system offering. (Rank = 73) o (PT-Po-13) Identify tools to train and incentivize transit agencies to implement best practices including compliance requirements. (Rank = 79) o (PT-Po-14) Analyze Federal Transit Administration matching funds requirements for rural transit systems, document utilization of in-kind services and other “soft match” and analyze social and economic effects of current cost-share policies. (Rank = 93) o (PT-Po-15) Identify techniques for a higher level of financial accountability and reporting compliance for rural public transportation systems. (Rank = 98) o (PT-Po-16) Identify methods to provide transportation (including long-distance transportation) for low-income people who wish to testify at legal proceedings as witnesses, subject matter experts, etc. (Rank = 100) o (PT-Po-17) Assess the feasibility and impacts of a reduction or suspension of local matching funds requirements for Federal Transit Administration projects in economically distressed rural communities. (Rank = 108) • School Transportation o (PT-ST-06) Research the changing trends in communities where parents drive their kids to school – what is driving it and should schools be designed differently to accommodate this trend? (Rank = 32) o (PT-ST-07) Research relationships between school bus use and state/local policies that allow students to attend a district other than the one where they reside. (Rank = 93) • Tribal o (PT-Tr-02) Analyze and document tribal funding formulas. (Rank = 61) o (PT-Tr-03) Identify the effects of urbanization on rural tribal funding when not self-sufficient. (Rank = 100) • Vehicle Technology o (PT-VT-01) Evaluate the feasibility of implementing rural autonomous public transportation systems. (Rank = 61)

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap F-19 o (PT-VT-02) Identify best practices to build out infrastructure to accommodate electric vehicles/buses. (Rank = 86) o (PT-VT-03) Assess the impacts of driverless vehicles on rural transit. (Rank = 91) o (PT-VT-04) Assess the effectiveness of alternative fuels sources for rural applications. (Rank = 91)

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap F-20 This is an uncorrected draft as submitted by the contractor. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied herein are those of the contractor. They are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the Academies, or the program sponsors. Theme: Transporting Rural Products (Freight) to Market Ranking Methodology The ranks shown below were calculated based on two prioritization exercises: (1) the TRB Workshop dot exercise and (2) the Spring Webinar ranking exercise. For the TRB Workshop, all research suggestions generated prior to the workshop were printed on posters, and participants were asked to identify high-priority items by marking the most important items with dots. The resulting “dot count” was then tallied. For the Spring Webinar, participants were asked to rate each research suggestion by providing one of six possible responses: extremely important, very important, moderately important, slightly important, not important, or no opinion. Responses were then converted to a 5-point scale, with “extremely important” corresponding to 5 points and “not important” corresponding to 1 point. To assure that respondents did not feel pressured to rate items that were outside their technical expertise, “no opinion” responses were excluded from the scoring. To allow the Spring Webinar and TRB Workshop rankings to be compared directly; the TRB Workshop dot rankings were mathematically converted to an equivalent 5-point scale. In both cases, participants were also given the opportunity to comment on the wording and content of each item, and an opportunity to provide additional research suggestions. Therefore, some research suggestions had multiple rankings (from both TRB Workshop and Spring Webinar), while newer items added during the TRB Workshop had only one score. The higher of the two scores was then used to create the final rankings within each of the research themes. After the research suggestions were sorted into rank order based on the higher of the two scores (TRB Workshop or Spring Webinar), the team looked for natural breaks in the rankings to identify a workable number of research priorities within each theme (typically about the top 10% of the research suggestions). Where possible, related items were consolidated and an overview (generally one to two paragraphs) was written to describe each candidate research suggestion. Next Steps Below you will find the information sorted into three pieces for your review: • The top research priorities for this theme (number, research title, rank, subcategory, description, and notes), • The newly proposed research suggestions/titles identified through the Spring Webinar (unprioritized and therefore unranked), and • The remainder of the research suggestions/titles in this theme sorted by category (number, research title, and rank).

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap F-21 At this point in time, the NCHRP 20-122 team needs the TRB research monitor, NCHRP 20-122 panel chair, and/or NCHRP 20-122 panel to review this information and provide the research team with a concise list (3-5) of the top-priority research titles for this theme. While all research titles in this document will be documented in the final report, only the top 3-5 priorities chosen by the panel will be laid out in the actual roadmap graphic and several of these top 3-5 priorities will be drafted into full CRP research needs statements by the research team. Top Research Priorities • (RPM-OO-01) Develop guidance to assist rural roadway designers in forecasting the volume of heavy/wide agricultural loads for the purposes of pavement and bridge design. o Suggested Title: Forecasting Heavy/Wide Agricultural Loads for Pavement and Bridge Design o Rank: 1 o Subcategory: Oversize/Overweight Loads on Highways o Description: In recent years the size and weight of agricultural equipment has been steadily increasing, sometimes exceeding the structural design parameters for rural roads and bridges. Through previous research, a system has been developed for estimating loads associated with ag equipment such as large grain carts, manure tank trains, high flotation spray applicators, and tracked tractors. This project will build on prior research by developing methods for estimating the frequency of these extraordinary loads for use in pavement and bridge design computations. o Notes: • (RPM-Sa-01) Identify low-cost methods for signalizing rural railroad crossings. o Suggested Title: Low-Cost Active Warning Devices for Rural Railroad Crossings o Rank: 2 o Subcategory: Safety o Description: The design of railroad crossing signals has changed very little since the 1930s, using an expensive but reliable electromechanical train detection system. Currently a typical crossing signal installation costs around $250,000. As a result of these high costs, installing warning signals universally has been financially infeasible: in spite of more than 80 years of Federal subsidies that cover up to 90% of installation costs, there are currently about 60,000 unsignalized railroad crossings in the United States. Many of these crossings are on high-speed rural roads. This project will build on prior research by evaluating the effectiveness and reliability of lower-cost technical options for rural active warning devices. The project will also compare the costs of various levels of warning reliability with the actuarial costs of crossing crashes, and examine warning communication methods that correspond to the reliability of the detection system. o Notes:

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap F-22 • (RPM-Co-01) Develop an all-modes guide for local officials describing the structure of rural freight systems; factors affecting freight costs; the organizational objectives and roles of private freight carriers, shippers, shipper associations, local government, state government, and federal agencies; public investment strategies for freight; methods for incentivizing private investments in freight infrastructure; and methods for allocating the costs of freight infrastructure when it is partially or entirely subsidized by the public sector. o Suggested Title: A Rural Leaders’ Guide to Freight Transportation o Rank: 3 o Subcategory: Coordination o Description: This project will develop an all-modes guide for local officials describing the structure of rural freight systems; factors affecting freight costs; the organizational objectives and roles of private freight carriers, shippers, shipper associations, local government, state government, and federal agencies; public investment strategies for freight; methods for incentivizing private investments in freight infrastructure; and methods for allocating the costs of freight infrastructure when it is partially or entirely subsidized by the public sector. o Notes: This item incorporates a related topic moved from the Funding & Policy theme, “Identify guidance for officials on public investment strategies for freight” which was ranked #42 among Funding & Policy issues. • (RPM-MF-01) Identify methods for enhancing the environmental, transportation and navigational benefits of the inland waterway systems. o Suggested Title: Enhancing the Benefits of Inland Waterway Transportation Corridors o Rank: 3 o Subcategory: Maritime Freight o Description: The inland waterways system includes more than 36,000 miles of rivers, waterways, channels, and canals, as well as 241 locks at 195 sites. The system infrastructure directly serves 41 states and is managed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. It was developed primarily to transport bulk commodities such as grain, fuels, road salt, and cement while mitigating seasonal flooding. The system also serves recreational maritime traffic and provides habitat for numerous aquatic and wetland species. This project will explore opportunities for enhancing the environmental, transportation and navigational benefits of the inland waterways while balancing the needs of the system’s numerous stakeholders, including enhancements that could be implemented by states and localities in coordination with the Corps of Engineers. o Notes: • (RPM-RIF-01) Evaluate the effectiveness of current rail policies in serving rural shippers. Analyze impacts of rail industry consolidation and declining coal traffic on freight costs and service quality in rural areas.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap F-23 o Suggested Title: Rural Rail I: Health and Competitiveness of the Freight Rail System in the Rural United States o Rank: 3, 6 o Subcategory: Rail and Intermodal Freight o Description: Over the past several years there have been many changes in the freight rail industry. There were once dozens of long-distance railroads, but through corporate mergers only seven major railroad companies remain. Most rail freight routes are served by only one company, and each company can generally set prices as it sees fit. Many branch lines previously owned by major carriers were spun off, resulting about 560 small carriers (short-line and regional railroads) that operate local connections to rural communities. There are concerns that continued industry consolidation could reduce service levels and increase rates for rural shippers. Meanwhile, changes in the energy sources used for electricity generation have resulted in a long-term decline in coal traffic, raising concerns that small shippers will need to pay a larger share of the railroads’ fixed costs. This project will assess the effects of industry consolidation on shortline railroads and rural shippers, and develop a set of benchmarks for assessing the health and stability of local rail services in rural communities. The project will also consider local freight connections in the context of larger national/international objectives such as sustainable rural development and resilience to disruptions in the highway and maritime freight systems. o Notes: Two related research needs were combined to create this item • (RPM-TC-01) Analyze the trends affecting rural freight services to document the current status of the freight market and identify metrics and benchmarks to help future local, state and national officials assess freight market health and determine whether any policy adjustments are necessary. o Suggested Title: An All-Modes Assessment of Rural Freight Competitiveness in the United States o Rank: 6 o Subcategory: Trends and Competitiveness o Description: The freight services offered in the rural United States include trucking, rail, maritime (inland waterways, Great Lakes, and coastal), air freight, and intermodal services. For nearly 100 years freight prices and service areas were tightly regulated by the Federal government. This was followed by deregulation in the 1980s based on the assumption that competition between modes and carriers would result in fair pricing. These policies predate corporate consolidation in the freight industry, as well as trends such as globalization, expanded domestic energy production, and efforts to reduce carbon emissions. This project will analyze the trends affecting rural freight services to document the current status of the freight market, freight costs, and service quality in rural areas. The project will document the current health of the rural freight market and identify metrics and benchmarks to help future local, state and national

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap F-24 officials assess freight market health and determine whether any policy adjustments are necessary. o Notes: • (RPM-Co-02) Identify practical methods to improve coordination across freight modes, holistically address bottlenecks, and optimize the effectiveness of the freight system as a whole. o Suggested Title: Reducing Bottlenecks and Improving Coordination Across All Freight Modes o Rank: 7 o Subcategory: Coordination o Description: Historically each of the freight modes (trucking, rail, coastal shipping, inland waterways, and air freight) developed separately, using different funding sources, with very limited coordination between modes. Deeper coordination of freight systems (both at the policy and implementation levels) is hampered by differing oversight agencies, policy objectives, and cost recovery mechanisms. Currently each freight mode has its own capital funding mechanisms, some administered by state and local government, some by federal agencies such as the Army Corps of Engineers and Federal Aviation Administration, and some by the private sector. Operationally, some modes require large up-front investments and are dominated by a handful of carriers, while others have thousands of carriers and few barriers to entering or leaving the market. The purpose of this project is to take a holistic view of the U.S. freight shipping system, particularly as it relates to freight originating in or destined for rural, frontier, and remote areas. Operational bottlenecks in major metropolitan areas such as Atlanta, Chicago, Dallas, New York, and Los Angles have ripple effects on rural shippers. How could freight investments be coordinated to reduce costs, reduce bottlenecks, and maximize overall value to shippers, consignees, and the environment? What level of redundancy is appropriate to balance infrastructure costs with resilience? o Notes: • (RPM-RIF-02) Develop case examples of public investments in terminal facilities that support the efficient transfer of rural freight between rail, waterways, air, and highways. o Suggested Title: Rural Freight Terminals: Fostering Efficient Transfers between Roads, Rails, Waterways, and Aircraft o Rank: 7 o Subcategory: Rail and Intermodal Freight o Description: Freight terminals are a critical link in modern logistics systems, providing the opportunity to transfer freight between long distance carriers and local delivery services. Many rural communities are not large enough to support the operation of privately-owned terminals by all carriers, resulting in increased freight costs due to inefficient use of vehicles/equipment or the emergence of a single dominant carrier. This research will develop case examples of public investments in terminal facilities that support the efficient transfer of rural

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap F-25 freight between rail, waterways, air, and highways, and explore the viability of shared use (multi-carrier or multi-shipper) terminals as an economic development tool for rural communities. Terminals allow small shipments to be consolidated into full loads and broken down into individual pallets (or individual parcels) at multiple points in the distribution chain. Short-term storage at a terminal can assist carriers in balancing inbound and outbound demand to avoid backhauling empty trucks or railcars. A second type of terminal is designed to handle bulk cargo (grain, coal, liquid fuels, road salt, etc.); for example, grain from local farms could be transferred to railcars for long-distance shipment. Some bulk cargo terminals include facilities for storing materials temporarily so that the inbound and outbound vehicles or vessels do not need to be present at the same time. Some freight terminals include co-located warehouses or distribution centers. o Notes: • (RPM-RIF-03) Develop a guidebook to assist state and local agencies in identifying gaps in the current freight rail network that potentially constrain economic development opportunities. Identify methods for evaluating strategic reinvestment in freight rail to support industrial development. o Suggested Title: Resolving Freight Rail Gaps that Constrain Economic Productivity o Rank: 7 o Subcategory: Rail and Intermodal Freight o Description: When the rail industry was deregulated in the 1980s, the process for abandoning rail corridors was simplified. Over the next several years, most railroads trimmed their networks to focus on the most profitable routes. As a result, many rural branch lines were shortened or completely abandoned. While this process had financial benefits for the rail industry and provided the opportunity to develop numerous ped/bike paths on former rail corridors, it left behind many gaps in the rail network. As a result, many rural communities that were once part of a continuous rail corridor are now beyond the remaining track. As the economy continues to evolve, these rail coverage gaps can limit community economic development opportunities. For example, the ethanol industry barely existed the 1980s, but today ethanol production is a growing industry that converts local grain into a finished product that is usually shipped to fuel blending plants by rail. (Shell, the world’s second-largest energy company, projects that 14% of the world’s energy will need to be supplied from biofuels by 2070 to meet the Paris Agreement requirements.) This project will develop a guidebook to assist state and local agencies in identifying gaps in the current freight rail network that potentially constrain economic development opportunities, and identify methods for evaluating strategic reinvestment in freight rail to support industrial development. o Notes:

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap F-26 • (RPM-Co-03) Develop guidance for analyzing the resilience of the rural freight network (including privately-operated freight services) covering disruptions caused by natural disasters, adverse weather/climate events, and human events such as labor disputes. o Suggested Title: Strategies for Improving the Resilience of U.S. Rural Freight Systems to Adverse Weather, Natural Disasters, and Human-Caused Disruptions o Rank: 10 o Subcategory: Coordination o Description: The U.S. rural freight system is operated mainly by private industry, but relies on publicly-owned facilities such as roads and waterways. Adverse events such as natural disasters, severe weather, and labor disputes can disrupt the freight network, making it difficult or costly for rural communities to obtain inbound merchandise, and difficult for rural industries to ship their goods to domestic and international customers. For example, due to flooding much of the Mississippi River was closed to commercial traffic in spring 2019, stranding hundreds of barges for weeks with resulting economic impacts for grain exporters and other rural shippers. This project will evaluate the robustness of the U.S. freight network, consider the feasibility of shifting traffic from one mode to another in response to major events, and map the main chokepoints. Additionally, the project will explore strategies that would make it easier to bypass chokepoints or redirect cargo to other modes. o Notes: • (RPM-MF-02) Conduct a comprehensive evaluation of the economic and social impacts of the Jones Act, which prohibits foreign ships from carrying freight between U.S. ports, including effects on consumers and businesses in Alaska, American Samoa, Guam, Hawaii, the Northern Mariana Islands, and Puerto Rico. o Suggested Title: Domestic U.S. Inland and Ocean Shipping: Effects of the Jones Act on Economic Competitiveness and Social Wellbeing o Rank: 10 o Subcategory: Maritime Freight o Description: The economics of the domestic maritime industry are strongly influenced by the Merchant Marine Act of 1920 (also known as the Jones Act), which requires goods shipped between U.S. ports to be transported on ships that are built, owned, and operated by United States citizens or permanent residents. The law affects maritime shipments within the U.S. mainland, along with those between the mainland and outlying regions such as Alaska, American Samoa, Guam, Hawaii, the Northern Mariana Islands, and Puerto Rico. While intended to strengthen the domestic shipbuilding and maritime industries, the law is at odds with typical business practices in the maritime industry, which usually registers ships in countries such as Panama or Liberia to sidestep various regulations and wage laws. By discouraging short-sea shipping between U.S. ports, the Jones Act is believed to benefit the trucking and railroad industries and protect certain domestic maritime carriers, while increasing freight costs for shippers and consumers. The law also appears to have some unintended

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap F-27 economic effects. For example, it reportedly makes it more difficult to sell products from the U.S. mainland in Puerto Rico and Hawaii because they can become more expensive than foreign goods arriving on foreign ships. This project will review the positive and negative effects of the Jones Act and consider whether it could be modified to preserve its main benefits while minimizing unintended consequences. o Notes: • (RPM-OO-02) Create a low cost, automated online oversize/overweight (OSOW) permit system for use by local agencies in rural areas. o Suggested Title: Developing an Open-Source Oversize/Overweight (OSOW) Permit Management System for Rural Transportation Agencies o Rank: 10 o Subcategory: Oversize/Overweight Loads on Highways o Description: Many state DOTs have electronic systems in place to manage permits for road freight shipments that exceed statutory height, width, length, or weight limits. These systems are often tied to GIS databases that contain detailed information about bridge clearances and other road characteristics. There is an ongoing need for similar automation that would allow commercial vehicle operators to check clearances and load limits for county and municipal roadways, and apply for local OSOW permits. This would save time and money for local agencies by reducing the need for manual analysis of the route, and could also reduce errors such as overlooking a load-limited bridge. To accomplish this objective, this project will develop open source software framework that could be customized by municipal and county agencies to automate OSOW permit requests and reviews (and by state DOTs that do not already have an automated system). o Notes: Also see item RPM-OO-03, “Evaluate the feasibility of developing a national unified oversize/overweight (OSOW) load permitting system that incorporates clearance and weight restrictions for rural highways under state, county, and local jurisdiction” which was ranked #25 in this theme. • (RPM-RIF-04) Identify methods for increasing the availability of empty intermodal containers in locations distant from seaports, such as the use of locally produced one- trip containers. o Suggested Title: Strategies for Improving the Availability of Intermodal Containers in Inland Rural Communities o Rank: 10 o Subcategory: Rail and Intermodal Freight o Description: Empty intermodal shipping containers are abundant near major seaports, but container availability declines rapidly with distance from a port. As a result, rural companies that sell their products internationally can face considerable costs to haul in empty containers. This project will explore options for balancing the supply and demand of freight containers in rural areas, such as the use of locally produced one-trip containers.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap F-28 o Notes: • (RPM-RIF-05) Evaluate the economic development potential of providing shared-use rail-highway transloading facilities to extend the reach of rail services beyond the rail line itself. Develop methods for identifying economically viable locations for truck-to- rail intermodal cargo transfer facilities, and prepare a guide to help rural communities develop transloading facilities in partnership with local shortline railroads or other organizations. o Suggested Title: Developing Transloading Facilities to Extend Rail Freight Service Beyond Local Railheads o Rank: 10 o Subcategory: Rail and Intermodal Freight o Description: Historically, railroads often provided shared-use transloading facilities (traditionally called team tracks) in many rural communities. Such facilities allow shippers and consignees that are not directly connected to the rail system to transfer freight between railcars and trucks. Although this type of facility fell out of favor in the late 20th Century, in recent years some rural communities have reinvigorated the notion of shared-use transloading points to support local agricultural and industrial development. In collaboration with operators such as short-line railroads, modern transloading facilities are said to provide opportunities to expand the reach of rural rail systems beyond the rail line itself. This research will examine the economics and governance of modern shared-use transloading facilities to identify the characteristics of successful and not-so-successful facilities serving rural communities. o Notes: • (RPM-RIF-06) Evaluate rail policy alternatives that can improve freight connectivity. Evaluate the impacts of subsidy programs for short line railroads. o Suggested Title: Rural Rail II: U.S. Freight Policy Review o Rank: 10, 10 o Subcategory: Rail and Intermodal Freight o Description: The national and state freight rail policies in the United States have remained largely unchanged since the rail industry was deregulated in the 1980s, but the demand for freight services has been affected by globalization and other macroeconomic trends. This project will apply the benchmarks and state-of-the- industry analysis developed in the Rural Rail I project to assess the effectiveness of current state and national freight rail policies in the United States. Alternative policy options will be analyzed to determine whether alternative policies would better align with the needs of rural shippers, the short line railroads that serve rural communities, and the communities themselves. o Notes: Two related research needs were combined to create this item. • (RPM-TC-02) Evaluate the impact of Federal agricultural policies on demand for long- distance transportation of agricultural products, and potential changes in commodity flows/travel demand if ag programs are restructured.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap F-29 o Suggested Title: Modeling the Effects of Federal Policies on Agricultural Commodity Flows o Rank: 10 o Subcategory: Trends and Competitiveness o Description: The 2018-2019 trade tensions between the U.S. and China provide a unique opportunity to examine the effects of national policy on agricultural traffic and commodity flows. This project will conduct an in-depth analysis of commodity flow data before and after changes in tariffs on agricultural products. It will examine possible changes in the quantity, destination, and shipping mode for ag exports, and their secondary effects on ag imports and domestic consumption. Using this information, the project will develop a model that transportation agencies can use to estimate the effects of future agricultural policy changes (such as raising or lowering ag subsidies) on commodity flows. This commodity flow data could then be used in state freight analysis models to estimate changes in traffic on specific roadways, railways, and waterways. o Notes: • (RPM-TC-03) Analyze impacts of energy development (wind, natural gas, and petroleum extraction) on rural road safety, heavy vehicle use, workforce development, and traffic flow (RNS 9). o Suggested Title: Energy Development Projects: Effects on the Safety and Structural Integrity of Rural Roads and Bridges o Rank: 10 o Subcategory: Trends and Competitiveness o Description: In recent years, many parts of the rural U.S. have been selected for intensive petroleum and natural gas extraction or the development of wind turbine arrays. Local officials report that in many cases these energy projects generate unprecedented traffic increases on rural roadways. The objective of this research is to identify and document the practices that agencies are currently using to mitigate traffic impacts resulting from energy development. To achieve this objective, the proposed project will survey state and local agencies to identify (and if possible quantify) the extent of traffic impacts resulting from energy development projects, compile and compare state and local policies that have been implemented to mitigate these traffic impacts, and document best practices and future research needs. o Notes: • (RPM-TC-04) Identify the implications of climate change for rail and barge freight demand, services and networks (A0020T). o Suggested Title: Implications of Climate Change for Rail and Barge Freight Demand, Services and Networks o Rank: 10 o Subcategory: Trends and Competitiveness o Description: Climate change research indicates that weather conditions and weather patterns could trigger shifts in land use, economic activity and trade,

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap F-30 which would lead to substantial changes in transportation demand, services, and networks. Researchers have started exploring the implications of these changes; for example, studying the effects of sea-level rise on coastal communities, evaluating changes in precipitation and temperature on agricultural production, assessing the potential of more frequent and severe weather events on road and bridge design, and modeling the effectiveness of pricing and regulation to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This work should be extended to better understand the implications for freight transportation demand, services, and networks, especially for rail and barge freight transportation which could be disproportionately impacted by climate and energy shifts. Environmental policies often encourage shift to rail and barge modes but, ironically, climate change may negatively affect the viability of these modes (e.g. substantial reduction of coal use could have major impact on rail revenue). o Notes: • (RPM-TC-05) Develop a guidebook to inform state and local agencies on statistically valid methods for collecting data on rural freight movements (especially seasonal agricultural traffic) at the community and corridor levels. o Suggested Title: Rural Freight Data Collection Handbook o Rank: 10 o Subcategory: Trends and Competitiveness o Description: Information about rural freight traffic demand is scarce. In most states, truck traffic counts are only available for a handful of sites (usually on major highways), and it is questionable whether truck percentages from these locations are applicable to other roadways. Freight data for non-highway modes is generally available only from private data brokers who base their estimates on information supplied by major common carriers (after scrubbing it to hide commercially sensitive information). Since the third-party data comes from major freight carriers, it potentially excludes freight handled by small common carriers, the in-house logistics operations of major retailers, and other not-for- hire operations. This project will prepare a guidebook to assist practitioners in understanding the limitations of existing freight data sources and provide practical advice about methods for collecting freight data in the field. This will include statistically valid methods for collecting data on rural freight movements (such as seasonal agricultural traffic) at the community and corridor levels. o Notes: • (RPM-TF-01) Develop transportation agency guidance on determining the demand for heavy truck parking and methods for matching truck parking supply with demand. o Suggested Title: Truck Parking in Rural Areas: Matching Supply and Demand o Rank: 10 o Subcategory: Truck Freight o Description: Overnight truck parking is a persistent problem for state DOTs and other transportation agencies. The truck parking lots at rest areas on rural freeways often reach capacity by early evening, privately-operated truck stops

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap F-31 often have limited space, and parking along the shoulders of entrance and exit ramps is often prohibited as a safety precaution. Nevertheless, Federal regulations place strict limits on the number of hours a driver can work, so truckers need to find parking promptly when their workday draws to a close. This project will explore the truck parking problem and review the effectiveness of ITS devices intended to help truckers find parking. The project will also explore potential solutions to truck parking issues, such as developing overflow lots at industrial sites or disused commercial facilities, along with methods for recovering the cost of building and maintaining truck parking. o Notes: New Proposed Research Suggestions/Titles (Unprioritized/Unranked) o (RPM-TF-02) Evaluate the effects of the National Highway Freight Program (NHFP) and “Critical Rural Freight Corridor” designations on state transportation agency expenditures and priorities. o (RPM-TC-06) Forecasting Rural Travel Demand Remainder of the Research Suggestions/Titles for this Theme • Coordination o (RPM-Co-04) Develop freight supply chain use cases and deployment strategies. (Rank = 24) o (RPM-Co-05) Evaluate the effectiveness of U.S. shipper associations which have been formed to improve access to freight services and identify freight cost reduction strategies aimed at making rural industries and agriculture more competitive in global markets. (Rank = 39) o (RPM-Co-06) Identify guidance for officials on public investment strategies for freight. (Moved from Funding & Policy Theme, where it was one of several projects ranked #42). • Maritime Freight o (RPM-MF-03) Conduct research to determine whether revitalization of short-sea shipping between domestic U.S. ports would benefit rural freight shippers. Evaluate the technical and regulatory environments required to achieve costs competitive with trucking and rail for shorter movements along maritime corridors such as the Great Lakes, Mississippi River, Atlantic Coast, and Pacific Coast including Alaska. (Rank = 25) o (RPM-MF-04) Identify trends affecting the use of small maritime ports and analyze the potential for shifting freight shipments from trucking to maritime services based at small ports. (Rank = 31) o (RPM-MF-05) Evaluate the feasibility of public/private, state/federal collective funding and financing of lock and dam infrastructure on inland waterways. (Moved from Funding & Policy theme, where it was one of several projects ranked #42).

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap F-32 • Oversize/Overweight Loads on Highways o (RPM-OO-03) Evaluate the feasibility of developing a national unified oversize/overweight (OSOW) load permitting system that incorporates clearance and weight restrictions for rural highways under state, county, and local jurisdiction. (Rank = 25) • Rail and Intermodal Freight o (RPM-RIF-07) Explore public sector roles in assuring adequate freight car supply among short-line railroads (AR040). (Rank = 30) o (RPM-RIF-08) Identify barriers to the reinstatement of freight rail lines that have been placed in state "rail banks" or rail-to-trail programs. Identify successful and unsuccessful examples of rail line reinstatement projects and their characteristics. (Rank = 40) o (RPM-RIF-09) Develop methods for analyzing and optimizing the extent and quality of modal interconnectivity for rural passenger and freight systems. (Moved from Funding & Policy Theme, where it was one of several projects ranked #42) • Safety o (RPM-Sa-02) Identify methods for improving the crashworthiness of railroad crossing signals. (Rank = 29) • Social Issues o (RPM-SI-01) Identify cost-effective strategies for improving local access to freight services while minimizing the quality-of-life impacts of freight operations. (Rank = 31) o (RPM-SI-02) Evaluate impacts of limited freight service availability in remote and frontier communities. (Rank = 31) o (RPM-SI-03) Assess the extent of suicides and trespasser/homeless deaths on rural freight rail corridors, and identify methods for reducing crashes involving trains that strike people on or near the track in rural areas. (Rank = 41) Note: The scope of this project should be coordinated with TCRP A-44, “Strategies for Deterring Trespassing on Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Rights-of-Way” which has an urban/suburban focus. o (RPM-SI-04) Conduct a self-assessment bias evaluation to determine the extent to which commercial truck drivers overestimate their driving safety and health (ANB70). (Rank = 41) • Trends and Competitiveness o (RPM-TC-07) Evaluate the competitiveness of short line railroads, as compared to trucking, including the effects of long-term trends affecting the freight market. (Rank = 31) o (RPM-TC-08) Develop methods to estimate transportation demand related to agricultural production. (Rank = 31) o (RPM-TC-09) Develop recommended practices for gauging public opinion about investments in non-highway freight handling facilities such as barge terminals, rail lines, and pipelines. Identify methods for separating the opinions of citizens

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap F-33 directly impacted by freight projects from those of the broader rural community. (Rank = 31) • Truck Freight o (RPM-TF-03) Research low-cost methods for automated truck weight monitoring on rural roadways. (Rank = 25) o (RPM-TF-04) Evaluate the impacts of large/heavy agricultural equipment on rural traffic safety, traffic flow, pavements, and bridges. (Rank = 25) o (RPM-TF-05) Develop guidance on methods for computing seasonally adjusted traffic volumes that take into consideration localized traffic surges related to planting and harvest activities. (Rank = 31) o (RPM-TF-06) Evaluate the viability of developing of shared-use trucking terminals as a rural economic development asset. (Rank = 31) o (RPM-TF-07) Evaluate the feasibility of subsidizing privately constructed regional truck-to-truck transloading stations to reduce trucking costs in smaller communities. (Rank = 41)

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap F-34 This is an uncorrected draft as submitted by the contractor. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied herein are those of the contractor. They are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the Academies, or the program sponsors. Theme: Weather, Climate, Resilience, & Environment Ranking Methodology The ranks shown below were calculated based on two prioritization exercises: (1) the TRB Workshop dot exercise and (2) the Spring Webinar ranking exercise. For the TRB Workshop, all research suggestions generated prior to the workshop were printed on posters, and participants were asked to identify high-priority items by marking the most important items with dots. The resulting “dot count” was then tallied. For the Spring Webinar, participants were asked to rate each research suggestion by providing one of six possible responses: extremely important, very important, moderately important, slightly important, not important, or no opinion. Responses were then converted to a 5-point scale, with “extremely important” corresponding to 5 points and “not important” corresponding to 1 point. To assure that respondents did not feel pressured to rate items that were outside their technical expertise, “no opinion” responses were excluded from the scoring. To allow the Spring Webinar and TRB Workshop rankings to be compared directly; the TRB Workshop dot rankings were mathematically converted to an equivalent 5-point scale. In both cases, participants were also given the opportunity to comment on the wording and content of each item, and an opportunity to provide additional research suggestions. Therefore, some research suggestions had multiple rankings (from both TRB Workshop and Spring Webinar), while newer items added during the TRB Workshop had only one score. The higher of the two scores was then used to create the final rankings within each of the research themes. After the research suggestions were sorted into rank order based on the higher of the two scores (TRB Workshop or Spring Webinar), the team looked for natural breaks in the rankings to identify a workable number of research priorities within each theme (typically about the top 10% of the research suggestions). Where possible, related items were consolidated and an overview (generally one to two paragraphs) was written to describe each candidate research suggestion. Next Steps Below you will find the information sorted into three pieces for your review: • The top research priorities for this theme (number, research title, rank, subcategory, description, and notes), • The newly proposed research suggestions/titles identified through the Spring Webinar (unprioritized and therefore unranked), and • The remainder of the research suggestions/titles in this theme sorted by category (number, research title, and rank).

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap F-35 At this point in time, the NCHRP 20-122 team needs the TRB research monitor, NCHRP 20-122 panel chair, and/or NCHRP 20-122 panel to review this information and provide the research team with a concise list (3-5) of the top-priority research titles for this theme. While all research titles in this document will be documented in the final report, only the top 3-5 priorities chosen by the panel will be laid out in the actual roadmap graphic and several of these top 3-5 priorities will be drafted into full CRP research needs statements by the research team. Top Research Priorities • (WC-IR-01) Document best practices for the permanent relocation of rural communities threatened by climate-related problems. Evaluate infrastructure funding, social impacts, and the logistics of relocation. Develop case studies based on the experiences of Alaska Native villages. o Suggested Title: Permanent Relocation of Community Transportation Infrastructure Due to Weather/Climate Threats o Rank: 1 o Subcategory: Infrastructure Resilience o Description: This project will review and summarize the recent experiences of communities whose transportation access/infrastructure has been severely threatened or damaged by climate-related issues, such as native villages along the Alaska coasts. The project will explore the processes used to make decisions about how much of the community’s infrastructure and other assets should be relocated, as well as decisions associated with selecting relocation sites and the process of reconstruction and relocation. Issues to be considered include infrastructure funding, social impacts, and relocation logistics. Summarize typical experiences and best practices. o Notes: • (WC-IR-02) Identify the probability of large-scale population resettlements due to climate change and the resulting effects on rural transportation infrastructure and services. Examples could include resettlement of U.S. residents displaced by climate disasters, or future humanitarian programs to repopulate rural America with refugees from regions experiencing chronic crop failure, desertification, flooding, etc. o Suggested Title: Rural Transportation Infrastructure Planning for U.S. Humanitarian Resettlement Programs o Rank: 1 o Subcategory: Infrastructure Resilience o Description: Changing precipitation and temperature patterns are steadily increasing the likelihood that large numbers of people will need to be resettled quickly. Examples could include U.S. residents displaced by climate disasters, or future humanitarian programs to repopulate rural America with refugees from regions that are experiencing chronic crop failures, flooding, desertification, or similar issues. These resettlements are likely to proceed more smoothly if their impacts on transportation infrastructure are considered in advance. This project will identify the potential scope and timescale of population resettlements and

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap F-36 identify methods for planning and implementing the required transportation infrastructure in a well-organized manner. o Notes: Also see the second item under “new research suggestions.” • (WC-Ma-01) Identify rural roadway winter maintenance techniques for climate change resilience. o Suggested Title: Rural Roadway Winter Maintenance Techniques for Resilience to Emerging Temperature and Precipitation Patterns o Rank: 1 o Subcategory: Maintenance o Description: In recent years, the eastern two-thirds of the United States has experienced large winter temperature fluctuations coupled with increased precipitation. For example, snowfall has become much more common in the South, and heavy snow followed by extreme cold has become common in the Midwest and Northeast. With temperatures often hovering around the freezing point for long durations, “wintry mix” precipitation (abruptly and randomly shifting between rain, sleet, snow, and fog) is becoming routine in many areas. Several areas have recently experienced “bomb cyclones” with sudden extreme snowfall that can surprise travelers and maintenance personnel and trigger multicar collisions or other traffic calamities. This project will review policies and best practices for handling these increasingly challenging conditions in rural areas. Examples include techniques for notifying the public about sudden changes in travel conditions, snow/ice removal methods suitable for rapidly-changing conditions, staffing/equipment strategies suitable for areas that experience occasional but potentially very heavy snowfall, and methods for coping with rapid melting of heavy snow. o Notes: • (WC-IR-03) Create a bridge and culvert vulnerability assessment software suite (RNS1), including a low-cost tool to measure hydraulic capacity of structures, estimate future stormwater flows, identify vulnerable structures, and model stormwater management scenarios at roughly a countywide scale. o Suggested Title: Integrating Hydraulic and Climatological Models to Identify Vulnerable Rural Highway Infrastructure at the County/District/Regional Level o Rank: 4 o Subcategory: Infrastructure Resilience o Description: In recent years, flood frequencies and stormwater volumes have increased in most parts of the U.S. (Mallakpour and Villarini 2015, EPA 2016). Many rural transportation agencies—particularly those at lower elevations near major rivers—have already experienced multiple bridge and culvert failures. The resulting repair and replacement costs are substantial. The objective of this research is to combine floodplain mapping and climate prediction models into a suite of tools that will allow state, county, and municipal agencies to identify and redesign vulnerable bridges, culverts, and other transportation infrastructure. This information is necessary to redesign riparian structures so that they will remain

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap F-37 serviceable throughout their design life (which is typically 50 years or more). While existing maps provide floodplain information based on the existing land use and climate, the tool needs to incorporate information about expected changes in land use and precipitation to help agencies assess long-term changes in floodplain locations. o Notes: • (WC-IR-04) Evaluate impacts of climate change on road system at county level including long-term. o Suggested Title: Impacts of Changing Weather and Precipitation Patterns on Secondary Rural Roads o Rank: 4 o Subcategory: Infrastructure Resilience o Description: Secondary roads, which are often under county or local jurisdiction, comprise a substantial portion of the rural roadway mileage in the United States. Whether paved or unpaved, the structural strength of these roads is often limited, and it is common to encounter segments that adjoin unstable slopes or were built on floodplains or wetlands. In addition, secondary roads frequently include bridges or drainage structures with substandard hydraulic capacity. Their vulnerability to storm damage and their importance in providing access to rural communities were evident in press reports following Hurricane Maria in Puerto Rico. Additionally, due to changing temperature and precipitation patterns secondary roads may face increased heat and/or freeze-thaw cycles that could impact pavement longevity. This project will develop an overview of secondary road vulnerabilities related to the impacts of changing weather and precipitation patterns, along with actions that could be taken by various levels of government to reduce the associated risks. o Notes: • (WC-IR-05) Identify recommended practices for integrating resilience upgrades into routine transportation and economic development projects. o Suggested Title: Integrating Resilience Upgrades with Routine Rural Transportation and Economic Development Projects o Rank: 4 o Subcategory: Infrastructure Resilience o Description: In recent years FHWA has developed a series of publications that address methods for integrating climate/weather resilience upgrades into the project development process. Currently however, resilience upgrades are usually given serious consideration only for major transportation facilities or those located in highly vulnerable areas. This project will explore the current state of practice with regard to implementing resilience upgrades routinely as part of all rural and small-town transportation projects at the state, county, and local levels. This will include identifying best practices for planning, design, and construction, along with recommended procedures for addressing the cost and scheduling implications of resilience upgrades.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap F-38 o Notes: • (WC-Ma-02) Identify simplified analytical tools that incorporate weather and climate data to help rural decision makers optimize winter maintenance expenditure levels based on their safety and economic development goals. o Suggested Title: Simplified Tools for Optimizing Rural Highway Winter Maintenance Expenditure Levels o Rank: 4 o Subcategory: Maintenance o Description: Transportation agency leaders, especially at the local level, often struggle to agree on how much funding to allocate for winter road maintenance. Higher expenditures allow agencies to boost staffing so that roads can be cleared more quickly and thoroughly after storm events, which can improve safety and reduce storm impacts on business activity and household earnings. Nevertheless, compared to the visible results of allocating money to capital improvements, these economic and safety benefits can seem rather nebulous to budget decision makers. A few years of mild weather can make winter maintenance a tempting target for budget cuts—potentially leading to a financial crisis in a year with severe weather. The objective of this project is to develop a decision support tool that can assist agencies with setting winter maintenance levels objectively based on weather and climate data, mileage, winter road safety history, and the sensitivity of the local economy to weather-related road closures and delays. o Notes: • (WC-OR-01) Identify rapid reconstruction techniques for bridges affected by natural disasters. Identify methods for providing alternative access to communities cut off by bridge failures caused by flooding or similar disasters, such as the temporary use of low water crossings. Identify opportunities to expedite redesign and reconstruction of transportation facilities through flexible design standards and administrative processes. o Suggested Title: Access Alternatives and Rapid Reconstruction Techniques for Rural Transportation Infrastructure Affected by Disasters o Rank: 4 o Subcategory: Operations/Recovery o Description: This project will develop a guidebook that identifies creative methods for providing temporary access to communities that have been cut off by bridge failures caused by flooding or similar disasters. Examples include temporary bridges, temporary low water crossings, temporary roads and bridges, temporary access from limited-access highways, and temporary passenger rail or water taxi service. The guide will also discuss rapid reconstruction techniques, including the adaptation of military bridge-building and road-building techniques to civilian applications. In addition, the guide will provide case examples of methods agencies have used expedite the environmental review and contracting processes for post-disaster reconstructions. o Notes: Three related research ideas were combined into this item.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap F-39 • (WC-OR-02) Analyze and document rural traffic management for particular populations for natural disasters. o Suggested Title: Update of Evacuation Guidance for Rural Populations with Special Needs o Rank: 4 o Subcategory: Operations/Recovery o Description: In 2009, FHWA published a primer titled Evacuating Populations o with Special Needs which provides recommendations for planning evacuations of people without motor vehicles, people with disabilities, hospital and nursing home patients, prisoners, and similar groups. This project will review the experiences of transportation agencies and develop updated guidance on emergency evacuation of special needs populations, with emphasis on solutions suitable for rural areas. o Notes: • (WC-OR-03) Analyze and document methods for natural or man-made disaster recovery in rural areas. Document methods for accelerating rural transportation recovery from climate disasters. o Suggested Title: Expediting Rural Disaster Recovery: Roles and Opportunities for Transit Systems and Highway Agencies o Rank: 4 o Subcategory: Operations/Recovery o Description: Recovering from natural and manmade disasters requires a coordinated effort amongst numerous government agencies and private non-profit organizations, in collaboration with affected residents and businesses. This project will develop a guide on actions that rural public transportation agencies and rural highway agencies can take to support, facilitate, and expedite recovery from disasters. The guide will address coordination between transportation agencies and other groups, including coordinating recovery for transportation infrastructure across various levels of government. o Notes: Two related research ideas were combined into this item. • (WC-Pl-01) Identify the potential for planned abandonment/relocation of vulnerable rural highways (and adjacent land uses) in the event of a disaster, to build back better instead of replacing in-kind at disaster-prone sites. o Suggested Title: Building Back Better: Planning the Abandonment and Relocation of Rural Highway Infrastructure in Disaster-Risk Areas o Rank: 4 o Subcategory: Planning o Description: Many parts of the U.S. have experienced repeated cycles of natural disasters (such as flooding) followed by rebuilding at the original, disaster-prone sites. This research will explore the potential for pre-planning the relocation of rural highways and associated land uses in the event of a natural disaster, so that insurance payouts and other financial resources are directed toward rebuilding in a safer area instead of in-kind replacement at the original site. o Notes:

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap F-40 • (WC-Pl-02) Develop tools and guidance to optimize responses to climate hazards by helping local decision-makers identify climate-related risks and optimize expenditure decisions at the system-wide and program-wide levels. o Suggested Title: Disaster-Resistant Rural Roads & Bridges: Identifying and Addressing Vulnerabilities at the County, District, or Regional Level o Rank: 4 o Subcategory: Planning o Description: Decisions about the rural transportation system can strongly affect the weather and climate-related risk levels faced by states, counties, and local communities. For example, when a rural highway is rebuilt there may be a choice between remaining on the existing alignment or rebuilding on a new alignment that is less prone to flooding. Although the probability of a flood might be low, its consequences might include severe impacts to community health and safety as well as damage to the highway itself. While there is existing guidance to assist with these decisions at the project level, many local officials are unfamiliar with objective methods for addressing low-probability, high hazard situations at the strategic level. The purpose of this project is to develop tools and guidance to help local decision-makers identify climate-related risks and optimize expenditure decisions at the system-wide and program-wide levels. This will include methods for comparing the impacts of various risk-reduction strategies, such as relocating vulnerable road infrastructure, constructing flood protection structures, and constructing floodwater management systems. o Notes: • (WC-OR-04) Identify barriers to expanded use of the FM Radio Data System Traffic Message Channel (RDS-TMC) to disseminate rural traffic and emergency management information through text messages visible on nearly all existing automobile radios. o Suggested Title: Implementing Rural Traffic Alerts on Existing Car Radios with the Radio Data System (RDS) Traffic Message Channel (TMC) o Rank: 6 o Subcategory: Operations/Recovery o Description: Many rural areas lack mobile phone coverage or broadband, but the radios and GPS units in nearly all cars sold in the United States are equipped with the FM Radio Data System (RDS). This technology displays short text messages on the radio’s front panel, as described in ISO Standard 14819. In the U.S., RDS is used mainly for station identification and song titles, but the system also includes a Traffic Message Channel (TMC) that can display traffic alerts and related emergency information. These traffic alerts have been in widespread use in Europe for many years, but have seldom been implemented in the U.S. Wider use of the RDS Traffic Message Channel offers opportunities to improve traffic management in rural areas (including remote areas that lack cellular service) to support emergency evacuations and help travelers avoid routes affected by an adverse event. This project will investigate the barriers to wider use of RDS-TMC

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap F-41 in rural America, and examine opportunities for collaboration between state transportation agencies and broadcasters for possible RDS-TMC implementations. o Notes: Moved from Funding & Policy, where it was ranked #6. • (WC-THS-01) Quantify public health and public safety risks associated with rural highway washouts and structural failures caused by flash floods. o Suggested Title: Public Health and Public Safety Risks of Storm-Related Rural Highway Failures o Rank: 4 o Subcategory: Transportation Health and Safety o Description: Washouts and bridge/culvert failures on rural highways are not just an inconvenience: they can have important public health and public safety impacts. For example, most meat in the United States is now produced by concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), which often house 300 to 1000 cattle, 750-2500 pigs, or 25,000 to 125,000 chickens. To prevent human and animal disease outbreaks, the waste from these animals must be promptly transported to disposal sites. This project will explore the broader health and safety impacts of storm-related rural road closures, such as the potential for disease outbreaks if CAFOs lose highway access. The project will also consider methods for including costs related to human and animal health in analyses of projects aimed at improving the resilience of the rural transportation system. o Notes: • (WC-THS-02) Quantify human health and safety impacts, livestock health, and cropland productivity from increased dust on unpaved rural roads due to more intense drought conditions. o Suggested Title: Rural Road Dust: Human, Animal, and Crop Health Effects and Trends o Rank: 4 o Subcategory: Transportation Health and Safety o Description: More than 40 medical studies have shown that road dust adversely affects human health (Khan & Strand 2018). Some of these effects are related to respiratory irritation caused by fine particulates; others are related to inhalation and ingestion of road dust components such as aluminum, arsenic, chromium, copper, lead, platinum, zinc, silica, and erionite (a carcinogenic fibrous mineral). Road dust has also been shown to affect livestock health, reduce crop yields, and affect the quality of fruit and vegetables grown near roadsides. Additionally, clouds of road dust from unpaved roads can obscure the visibility of oncoming vehicles, contributing to crashes. This project will conduct a holistic assessment of the effects of rural road dust on human, animal, and plant health and safety, along with trends such as possible increases in dust levels due to more frequent freeze-thaw cycles and more intense drought conditions. The project will explore methods for quantifying these impacts and comparing them to the costs of dust reduction strategies such as surfacing or seal coating unpaved roads, replacing

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap F-42 crushed limestone with harder gravel, applying dust control agents/additives, and sweeping paved roads. o Notes: • (WC-EI-01) Develop guidance for improving natural hazards risk management and resiliency to climate change impacts for public lands and other tourism/recreational areas. o Suggested Title: Improving Natural Hazards Risk Management and Resiliency in Public Lands and Tourism/Recreational Areas o Rank: 18 o Subcategory: Environmental Impact Management o Description: Climatic hazards such as flooding and drought can have considerable impacts on rural tourism and public lands. For example, flood damage can cut off highway access to scenic areas, resulting in economic hardship for tourism-dependent communities. Similarly, snow drought or early snowmelt can hamper skiing and other outdoor winter sports, resulting in reduced tourism traffic. This project will explore methods for evaluating and reducing natural hazards that affect roads and highways in public lands and tourism areas. The project will also consider methods for increasing the roadway system’s resilience to changes in temperature and precipitation, such as relocating flood- prone highway segments or constructing structures to prevent flood damage by storing excess meltwater. o Notes: New Proposed Research Suggestions/Titles (Unprioritized/Unranked) • Infrastructure Resilience o (WC-IR-06) Investigate strategies for mitigating the effects of disruptions in petroleum supply on rural transportation infrastructure and services. o (WC-IR-07) Consider establishing an international (US, Canada, Greenland/Denmark) working group to identify emerging transportation needs as global warming makes sub-arctic areas more habitable. If current trends continue, refugees from low-lying coastal areas will need to be resettled somewhere. It is preferable to plan for this and have an orderly migration, rather than dealing with millions of displaced persons on a crisis-by-crisis basis. Remainder of the Research Suggestions/Titles for this Theme • Context Sensitive Design o (WC-CS-01) Identify best practices for managing erosion and sedimentation impacts on rural roads due to changes in climate and land use (AFB30). (Rank = 19) o (WC-CS-02) Identify strategies to improve roadside ecology in public lands. (Rank = 19) o (WC-CS-03) Identify landscaping/vegetation species that can safely be planted in clear zones to add character to tourism routes and/or sequester carbon. (Rank = 19)

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap F-43 o (WC-CS-04) Assess transportation agency and SHPO practices for tribal knowledge incorporation in identification, recordation and evaluation of stone features. (Rank = 30) o (WC-CS-05) Identify context sensitive design options for rural workhorse bridges in historic districts. (Rank = 41) • Environmental Impact Management o (WC-EI-02) Develop an online database of best-practices for the management and mitigation of transportation impacts on endangered species. (Rank = 19) • Geotechnical o (WC-Ge-01) Evaluate deterioration and unit costs for rural transportation geotechnical assets (AFP00). (Rank = 19) o (WC-Ge-02) Create an implementation manual for geotechnical asset management for transportation agencies (AFP10). (Rank = 19) o (WC-Ge-03) Develop design guide for low-cost stormwater overflow management structures suitable for rural riparian areas. (Rank = 30) o (WC-Ge-04) Document strategies for geotechnical asset management, environmental sustainability and resilience (AFP00). (Rank = 30) o (WC-Ge-05) Identify economic analysis tools for management of rural geotechnical assets (AFP00). (Rank = 30) o (WC-Ge-06) Identify structural and seismic risks to rural roads and bridges in petroleum and natural gas extraction areas (RNS10). (Rank = 30) • Infrastructure Resilience o (WC-IR-08) Identify the role of low volume roads to create network resilience/redundancy (AFB30). (Rank = 19) o (WC-IR-09) Document techniques for communicating benefits of resilient infrastructure investments to local officials. (Moved from Funding & Policy where it was ranked #71) • Maintenance o (WC-Ma-03) Identify winter roadway maintenance techniques suitable for regions that experience occasional heavy snow/ice, such as the southern U.S. (Rank = 19) o (WC-Ma-04) Identify retrofit surface treatments to reduce asphalt pavement softening, prevent loss of skid resistance, and deter solar heat rutting. (Rank = 30) o (WC-Ma-05) Identify methods for predicting rural highway segments that are at risk of pavement heave under hotter summer conditions. (Rank = 30) • Operations/Recovery o (WC-OR-05) Identify methods for reducing transportation costs and delays associated with disaster response/recovery in frontier and remote areas of the mainland United States and outlying areas such as Alaska, American Samoa, Guam, Hawaii, the Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. (Rank = 30) o (WC-OR-06) Bouncing back from natural disasters in tourism-dependent rural communities (RNS 17). (Rank = 42)

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap F-44 o (WC-OR-07) Document best practices for the role of rural transit in disaster response/resilience. (Rank = 47) o (WC-OR-08) Document the use of drones for transportation infrastructure inspection and site reconnaissance following natural disasters. (Rank = 47) o (WC-OR-09) Document funding and strategies for past transportation environmental crisis management. (Moved from Funding & Policy where it was ranked #61) • Planning o (WC-Pl-03) Cross-jurisdictional stormwater and floodwater management strategies. (Rank = 47) o (WC-Pl-04) Identify holistic methods for coordinating roadside development and stormwater management at the watershed level, irrespective of state, county, and local jurisdictional boundaries, to assure that communities at lower elevations are not adversely impacted by runoff from communities far upstream. (Rank = 47) • Prediction o (WC-Pr-01) Develop case studies for impacts of natural disasters and climate change on transportation, effects on local economies, and differences and similarities in practice from recent severe weather events in various rural community types. (Rank = 42) o (WC-Pr-02) Evaluate climate change threats to transportation in rural areas, where to focus efforts, and examples of early-warning signs of climate change impacts on transportation systems. (Rank = 42) o (WC-Pr-03) Identify rural transportation adaptation strategies relevant to various regions. (Rank = 42) o (WC-Pr-04) Create a predictive model for where transportation jobs will be needed due to climate change. (Rank = 42) o (WC-Pr-05) Create a climate change overlay for rural community types to establish a convergence of observations. (Rank = 51) o (WC-Pr-06) Modeling, Identification of Risk Assessment and Categorization Impact of Climate Change on Low Volume Road Systems (AFB30). (Rank = 51) • Transportation Health and Safety o (WC-THS-03) Identify impacts of hot summers on rural transportation agency and contractor workforce health and safety; develop appropriate interventions and countermeasures. (Rank = 19) o (WC-THS-04) Identify lessons learned and recommended practices for relocation of vulnerable transit users (e.g., frail elderly) during disasters. (Rank = 19) o (WC-THS-05) Identify changes in rural roadway loss-of-control crash risks related to increased precipitation, freeze-thaw cycles, and cyclic thermal softening of asphalt pavements. (Rank = 30) o (WC-THS-06) Quantify health and safety trade-offs associated with moving rural roadwork to cooler nighttime hours. (Rank = 30)

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap F-45 • Tribal o (WC-Tr-01) Document best practices for transportation-related weather hazard mitigation and emergency management in tribal communities. (Rank = 30)

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap F-46 This is an uncorrected draft as submitted by the contractor. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied herein are those of the contractor. They are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the Academies, or the program sponsors. Theme: Active Transportation Ranking Methodology The ranks shown below were calculated based on two prioritization exercises: (1) the TRB Workshop dot exercise and (2) the Spring Webinar ranking exercise. For the TRB Workshop, all research suggestions generated prior to the workshop were printed on posters, and participants were asked to identify high-priority items by marking the most important items with dots. The resulting “dot count” was then tallied. For the Spring Webinar, participants were asked to rate each research suggestion by providing one of six possible responses: extremely important, very important, moderately important, slightly important, not important, or no opinion. Responses were then converted to a 5-point scale, with “extremely important” corresponding to 5 points and “not important” corresponding to 1 point. To assure that respondents did not feel pressured to rate items that were outside their technical expertise, “no opinion” responses were excluded from the scoring. To allow the Spring Webinar and TRB Workshop rankings to be compared directly; the TRB Workshop dot rankings were mathematically converted to an equivalent 5-point scale. In both cases, participants were also given the opportunity to comment on the wording and content of each item, and an opportunity to provide additional research suggestions. Therefore, some research suggestions had multiple rankings (from both TRB Workshop and Spring Webinar), while newer items added during the TRB Workshop had only one score. The higher of the two scores was then used to create the final rankings within each of the research themes. After the research suggestions were sorted into rank order based on the higher of the two scores (TRB Workshop or Spring Webinar), the team looked for natural breaks in the rankings to identify a workable number of research priorities within each theme (typically about the top 10% of the research suggestions). Where possible, related items were consolidated and an overview (generally one to two paragraphs) was written to describe each candidate research suggestion. Next Steps Below you will find the information sorted into three pieces for your review: • The top research priorities for this theme (number, research title, rank, subcategory, description, and notes), • The newly proposed research suggestions/titles identified through the Spring Webinar (unprioritized and therefore unranked), and • The remainder of the research suggestions/titles in this theme sorted by category (number, research title, and rank).

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap F-47 At this point in time, the NCHRP 20-122 team needs the TRB research monitor, NCHRP 20-122 panel chair, and/or NCHRP 20-122 panel to review this information and provide the research team with a concise list (3-5) of the top-priority research titles for this theme. While all research titles in this document will be documented in the final report, only the top 3-5 priorities chosen by the panel will be laid out in the actual roadmap graphic and several of these top 3-5 priorities will be drafted into full CRP research needs statements by the research team. Top Research Priorities • (AT-C-01) Document the behaviors, attitudes, and opportunities for rural and small urban residents to support active transportation policy and compare with urban areas. Identify factors affecting public acceptance of investments in active transportation facilities and develop case examples of successful and not-so-successful project-level public outreach for proposed facilities. o Rank: 1, 13 o Subcategory: Culture o Description: Active modes of transportation are needed in rural and small urban areas; however, there are unique barriers and differences to active modes in rural areas. Typically there is a lack of active transportation infrastructure, different topography, longer distances to amenities (e.g., school, stores, work, etc.), preconceived attitudes or “culture” (e.g., feel it is out of place in rural areas, hard to imagine as no previous experience with active transportation networks, or do not see the value), and lack of investment. With rural transportation budgets strapped, any potential investment in rural areas is met with both public acceptance and criticisms. The objective of this project is to identify the existing behaviors, attitudes, acceptance factors (e.g., cost to residents, economic benefits, improvement to safety, number of users, etc.), and opportunities, of rural and small urban residents (both users and non-users) with respect to active transportation barriers, policies, investment, infrastructure, and connectivity. These behaviors and attitudes should then be compared with those from urban areas. Case studies of successful and not-so-successful public outreach should be documented as part of this project. o Notes: Two related research needs were combined to create this item. • (AT-S-01) Document and evaluate low cost and innovative safety improvements for rural bicyclists and pedestrians. o Rank: 2 o Subcategory: Safety o Description: With the fatality rate for pedestrians and bicyclists continuing to increase, the unique needs of rural areas, and a lack of existing research on bicycle safety treatments/interventions in rural areas; there is a need to research, document, and evaluate low cost and innovative safety improvements for rural bicyclists and pedestrians. This project would include fundamental research on design features and other interventions that would help or hinder rural bicycle and

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap F-48 pedestrian safety. This may include in-field performance evaluations, identification of innovative safety improvements, and implementation of an urban countermeasure that is applicable to rural areas but has not yet been deployed in one. (Please note that 4-foot shoulders should be considered as a potential solution.) The project should include case study documentation. o Notes: AT-S-04 should precede this project to assist in identifying the factors leading to rural bicycle/pedestrian crashes • (AT-S-02) Assess rural and small-town pedestrian and/or bicyclist safety needs. o Rank: 3 o Subcategory: Safety o Description: Rural areas and small towns have unique characteristics requiring unique pedestrian and bicyclist infrastructure, policies, enforcement, and safety countermeasures. In this project, the research team will assess user perceptions of safety needs. This could be accomplished through a survey to determine whether rural pedestrians and bicyclists need or want different safety treatments than their urban counterparts. o Notes: This should precede AT-S-06 • (AT-S-03) Evaluate and document safe access for bicyclists and pedestrian users in rural America (e.g., where does it exist, gaps, connectivity). o Rank: 4 o Subcategory: Safety o Description: The majority of rural America does not have dedicated pedestrian/bicycle facilities, including sidewalks. This underinvestment in rural facilities and its underlying causes may have an impact on “safe access.” This project will look at the definition of “safe access” in rural terms. This could include, but is not limited to, access from a bike/pedestrian facility to amenities (e.g. a crosswalk in a local community across a state owned road), access for on-road biking (e.g., wide shoulders, no rumble strips, etc.), multi-modal access (e.g., bike racks on transit, facilities leading to bus, closure of Amtrak stations impacting multi-modal travel), and long distances between communities (how to access larger rural communities for shopping, employment, etc.). This project will also document and evaluate the many unique access challenges in a rural area and provide countermeasures and case studies for addressing these. o Notes: AT-C-01 should precede this project • (AT-Pl-01) Analyze variations in rural and small-town biking and walking rates in relation to climate, terrain, traffic volume, road design, development density, and land use; identify policy implications. o Rank: 5 o Subcategory: Planning o Description: Anecdotally, it is known that the unique characteristics of rural areas impact biking and walking rates, but to what extent? In this proposed

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap F-49 project, researchers would do a quantitative analysis to define the impact certain rural characteristics (e.g., climate, terrain, traffic volume, road design, development density, and land use) having on biking and walking. Once the quantitative impacts are defined, the researchers will compare these to walking and biking policies for rural and small-town areas to determine what changes could be made. o Notes: • (AT-Pl-02) Identify best practices for cross-jurisdictional coordination of pedestrian and bicycle facilities development. o Rank: 6 o Subcategory: Planning o Description: Historically, the development of pedestrian and bicycle facilities has typically been accomplished at the local level. Although cross-jurisdictional coordination occurs with some regularity for the conversion of abandoned rail corridors into bike facilities, the coordination of pedestrian facilities development is often limited. This lack of coordination can limit the usefulness of the resulting facilities and the user typically does not see or know of jurisdictional boundaries. The proposed research will review current practices for cross-jurisdictional coordination of pedestrian and bike facilities development, identify the roles of groups such as regional planning commissions, and document best practices. Additionally, the research will identify and document cost-sharing practices for multijurisdictional ped/bike facilities, including those that cross urban-rural boundaries. o Notes: • (AT-M-01) Document successful methods for creating public and government support for active transportation. o Rank: 7 o Subcategory: Marketing o Description: Active transportation facilities provide opportunities for the public to fit physical activity into their daily routines (walking/biking to work, school, stores, etc.). This human-powered transportation provides significant health benefits to communities. In addition, these facilities are extremely important in low income, minority, and immigrant communities where the residents tend to be car-less. Public and government support is needed to make active transportation and the related facilities a priority in communities. This support leads to better active transportation funding and policies. This project will explore and document successful methods for creating this support (including social marketing) in a guidebook or toolkit, document relevant case studies, and produce a webinar to share the results. The guidebook should provide step by step actions to replicate the methods, as well as, examples of media used. o Notes: • (AT-S-04) Evaluate crash data to identify rural roadway factors that may be hazardous to bicyclists and pedestrians, outdated infrastructure, and effective roadway treatments.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap F-50 o Rank: 7 o Subcategory: Safety o Description: In some cases, crashes involving bicyclists and pedestrians are due to roadway factors or infrastructure deficiencies versus human behavior. With rural areas having unique characteristics and roadway factors from their urban counterparts, a study identifying the rural specific components would be beneficial. A project on this topic would also assist agencies in identifying these factors in their own areas and applying systemic countermeasures. This project would seek to evaluate rural bicycle and pedestrian crash data (starting with the new PBIC database http://www.pedbikedata.org/) to identify the potential roadway factor and outdated infrastructure that may have factored into a crash. To ensure the list is robust (due to crash data often lacking details), the researchers will also review rural bicycle/pedestrian safety audits/assessments and rural bicycle/pedestrian safety plans to identify additional roadway factors and outdated infrastructure. The outcome would be a guidebook or toolkit detailing these factors and recommending rural-specific countermeasures. o Notes: This should precede AT-S-01 • (AT-Po-01) Evaluate the impacts and enforcement of safe passing laws for active transportation. o Rank: 8 o Subcategory: Policy o Description: The safe passing law requires a vehicle to pass another vehicle and/or active transportation users at a “safe distance.” The definition of “safe” is varied and not defined by many of the states, but in cases where it is defined it is generally 3 feet (and may be more for large trucks and buses). For a law to be effective, it also requires education and enforcement. This project would seek to evaluate the impacts and enforcement of safe passing laws in rural areas (including the related issue of whether laws that require drivers to move away from cyclists increase the risk of small-offset frontal collisions between motor vehicles). This may include comparing active transportation crash data before and after the passage of safe passing laws; surveying local active transportation groups to qualitatively evaluate if they feel motorists are abiding by the law and if they feel safer; and surveying local law enforcement to determine that amount of enforcement done on the safe passing law, the number of citations given, and their feelings on the effectiveness. Rural areas showing effective results or enforcement techniques should be documented in case studies. o Notes: • (AT-S-05) Identify best practices for accommodating people with disabilities in active transportation facilities. o Rank: 8 o Subcategory: Safety o Description: There is a need to ensure that active transportation facilities can accommodate all users including those with disabilities (e.g., limited mobility,

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap F-51 wheelchair use, vision loss, cognitive disabilities, hearing loss, etc.). While several documents address design for specific disabilities or specific infrastructure types, there is no comprehensive guide that addresses best practices for all disabilities and all active transportation facilities. There is also a need for fundamental research into the needs and wants of specific users with disabilities for various types of facilities (e.g., do wheelchair users just want to get from their front door to the paratransit van, or would they get on a quad bike and ride five miles?). This project would research and document the needs and wants of users with disabilities, and best practices for accommodating their needs and wants in the multiple different active transportation facility types. It would also provide case study examples. o Notes: • (AT-I-01) Develop geometric design guidance for Advisory Bike Lanes. o Rank: 9 o Subcategory: Infrastructure o Description: Advisory bike lanes (ABLs) are a roadway configuration which allow 2-way traffic and active transportation to co-locate based on striping. It consists of a 2-way center lane for vehicles and edge or advisory lanes on either side for active transportation use. The new FHWA Small Town and Rural Multimodal Networks Guide provides some design guidance on ABLs, but with this being a newer concept in the U.S. (but not internationally), there is a lack of research on its use. The current need is to evaluate U.S. road users’ understanding of the ABL markings to ensure they are correctly understood. This research would be useful in getting ABLs approved in the next MUTCD. o Notes: • (AT-Pl-03) Analyze demographics of rural active infrastructure users. o Rank: 9 o Subcategory: Planning o Description: To efficiently and effectively plan for active transportation infrastructure and policies, communities must first understand who the active transportation users are in a rural area and what needs to be done to make it more attractive. This project would seek to define the demographics of rural users including age, gender, access to a bicycle or car, comfort level with bike riding, type of active transportation infrastructure available, etc. o Notes: • (AT-Pl-04) Evaluate feasibility of bicycle share programs in small towns. o Rank: 9 o Subcategory: Planning o Description: Many times, active transportation facilities are not the only barrier to active transportation. Access to a bicycle can also be a barrier. Bike share systems (whether docked or dockless) have been created to assist with overcoming this barrier. While these systems have become extremely popular

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap F-52 and effective in urban areas, there is also a great need for better access and mobility in rural areas that could be provided by these types of systems. However, there is still a question on how feasible bike share systems can be in a small towns and tourist destinations such as public lands, even with the invention of bicycle libraries (an approach to rural bike share). This project would seek to evaluate the feasibility of bike share programs in small towns and public lands and document case studies of successful deployments. o Notes: • (AT-S-06) Develop a guidebook for evaluating the safety of rural active transportation infrastructure and selecting appropriate fixes including key performance measures for comparison. o Rank: 9 o Subcategory: Safety o Description: Bike-pedestrian safety audits, pedestrian systemic safety analysis, and bicycle-pedestrian safety action plans assist with diagnosing the specific active transportation safety issues in a community. These techniques are typically used once a community knows there is a safety issue to define (audit or systemic analysis) or to address (action plan). And result in site-specific countermeasures and safety tools. However, most of these tools and countermeasures are geared toward urban or small urban communities. This project will examine the methods and procedures for a retrospective analysis and site-specific countermeasures for rural areas. It should include documenting the similarities and differences in rural/small-town pedestrian and bicyclist safety needs and countermeasures from their urban counterparts; case study examples; and a process to assist communities in determining when one of these techniques is needed for evaluating each of their active transportation types for safety. Individual performance metrics (including acceptable ranges) for the different aspects of safety could be created, resulting in an overall safety rating. The result of the project could be a rural guidebook including a checklist for conducting the evaluation, a description of the safety audit process, potential solutions to fix safety issues by infrastructure type, guidance on how to select the most appropriate solution, and resources for creating a bicycle-pedestrian action plan. Lastly, the guidebook should provide recommendations for how often a community should conduct this evaluation. o Notes: Should follow AT-S-02 • (AT-I-02) Develop an expanded guidebook for accommodating bicycles on rural roads with low-cost share the road techniques. o Rank: 14 o Subcategory: Infrastructure o Description: This guidebook would address low-cost share the road techniques specifically for rural roads. It would build off the new document “Designating Scenic Bikeways: A Framework for Rural Road Owners” and incorporate all

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap F-53 share the road techniques applicable to rural including, but not limited to: signage, policies, enforcement, safety campaigns, striping (e.g., Advisory Bike Lanes, etc.). The guidebook should include rural case studies for these techniques and seek to find innovative ideas. A webinar should also be conducted. o Notes: • (AT-D-01) Develop and document techniques for obtaining reliable pedestrian and bicyclists counts in rural areas (including recreational use). o Rank: 15 o Subcategory: Data o Description: Collecting reliable pedestrian and bicycle counts is a difficult task. Several guidebooks have been created to assist agencies in conducting these counts; however, none address the unique characteristics in rural areas. These rural factors affecting reliability can include expense of the technology, incompatibility of technology with the rural landscape (e.g., geography, weather, communication infrastructure), and longer distances to track (e.g., between towns). In many cases, due to the lack of counts existing for rural areas, there is a belief that rural bicyclists do not exist. This project will develop and document techniques for obtaining reliable pedestrian and bicyclist counts in rural areas. The project, at a minimum, should focus on how to collect the data, but if possible, a technique for separating out bicycle user types would be beneficial (e.g. commuters vs recreation vs multi-day travel). The techniques should also consider how to deal with potential vandalism and if there is a way to remotely detect when a system is not counting properly. The techniques should be pilot tested, documented in a report, and case study examples should be provided. o Notes: • (AT-Po-02) Document rural noteworthy practices or strategies for effective non- infrastructure tools to improve the safety and wellbeing of children traveling to/from school. o Rank: 16 o Subcategory: Policy o Description: The Safe Routes to Schools (SRTS) program sets forth to make communities safer for children to walk and bike to school and to encourage students to do so in safe environments. SRTS supports both infrastructure and non-infrastructure techniques for improving active transportation safety. This project would create a noteworthy practice document for the rural, tribal, and small urban non-infrastructure tools being used to improve the safety and wellbeing of children traveling to/from school. This would include programs such as the walking school bus, safety campaigns, trainings, and events. In addition to documenting existing noteworthy practices, this project would

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap F-54 provide recommendations for new and innovative techniques that could be used specifically in rural, tribal, and small urban areas. A pilot of at least one new idea should be included. o Notes: • (AT-M-02) Identify innovative methods to promote active transportation in rural communities. o Rank: 17 o Subcategory: Marketing o Description: Active modes of transportation are needed in rural and small urban communities; however, the unique barriers and attitudes toward active modes in rural areas may lead to lack of use for this mode. This project will examine and document innovative methods that rural and small urban communities are using to promote active transportation in their communities. Promotion should be looked at holistically (e.g., through policies, infrastructure improvements, educational campaigns, etc.). This project should also examine the effects of mass media marketing on active transportation use. o Notes: • (AT-S-07) Evaluate and document safe routes to schools in rural areas (e.g., lighting, signing, visibility, connectivity). o Rank: 17 o Subcategory: Safety o Description: The Safe Routes to Schools (SRTS) program sets forth to make communities safer for children to walk and bike to school and to encourage students to do so in safe environments. While the Safe Routes to Schools program has conducted national evaluations in the past and recommends each community conduct their own evaluation via a 6-step evaluation process; none of these evaluations have focused on rural areas. This project would focus on evaluating and documenting the effectiveness of the rural SRTS programs, evaluating the various countermeasures implemented in rural areas, and document successful rural SRTS case studies. The 2019 Safe Routes Partnership Program census should be used as a starting point. o Notes: New Proposed Research Suggestions/Titles (Unprioritized/Unranked) • Culture o (AT-C-02) Analyze the economic impacts of active transportation in rural communities. • Marketing o (AT-M-03) Evaluate effectiveness of marketing and promoting the use of signature bicycle facilities or bicycling network in rural community(ies) as a method of increasing tourism or economic benefits of such facilities. Many rural

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap F-55 communities want to provide for cyclists as a means to improve their economies, but without a promotion/tourism outreach component to the development of new infrastructure, they may not reap the full rewards. More should be done to study how to promote and market emerging bicycling economies to determine what is effective in increasing visitors and/or bicycling in general in an area or on a facility. • Policy o (AT-Po-03) Develop an estimate of the percentages of small-town streets that are not equipped with sidewalks and not compliant with ADA requirements. • Safety o (AT-S-08) Assess the impact of rumble strips on bicyclists' safety, particularly along known long-distance bicycle routes. o (AT-S-09) Assess distracted driving risks to active transportation users; evaluate whether road design and terrain influences distracted driving behavior (e.g., straight and wide roads vs narrow and curvy roads); and identify successful and unsuccessful (e.g., behavior change) strategies for distracted driving media campaigns. • Infrastructure o (AT-I-03) Review the extent to which the recommendations of the 2011 draft Public Right-of-Way Access Guide (PROWAG) have been implemented in rural communities and the social, economic, and health effects of delayed release of definitive ADA standards.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap F-56 Remainder of the Research Suggestions/Titles for this Theme • Culture o (AT-C-03) Evaluate the difference in bicycle culture and non-bicycle culture. (Rank = 38) o (AT-C-04) Analyze rural bicycle culture and safety differences between U.S. and European countries such as Denmark and the Netherlands. (Rank = 39) • Data o (AT-D-02) Identify surrogate risk measures of pedestrian and bicycle traffic volumes when data from direct observations is unavailable. (Rank = 24) o (AT-D-03) Identify impacts of not having reliable pedestrian and bicycle counts outside of metro areas. (Rank = 27) o (AT-D-04) Develop the effect of lack of bicycle volume data on crash rate calculation. (Rank = 33) • Electric Scooters o (AT-ES-01) Analyze economics of electric scooter rental industry and determine whether scooter-sharing is financially viable in small towns. (Rank = 30) o (AT-ES-02) Identify appropriate design criteria for accommodating electric scooters safely on rural roads and small-town streets, for example when scooters should be separated from pedestrian and/or motorized traffic. (Rank = 34) o (AT-ES-03) Evaluate potential synergies between electric scooters and rural public transportation, along with methods for safely storing scooters during the transit portion of the trip. (Rank = 35) o (AT-ES-04) Identify health and safety benefits and disbenefits (e.g., medical attended injuries) of electric scooter use in rural areas. (Rank = 36) o (AT-ES-05) Analyze rural and small-town electric scooter crashes and determine whether the use of helmets or other personal protective equipment should be mandatory in these areas. (Rank = 40) • Infrastructure o (AT-I-04) Develop rural bicycle infrastructure design strategies for longer distance commuting. (Rank = 19) o (AT-I-05) Develop a Synthesis of Practice on policies and equipment for transporting bicycles on rural transit vehicles and providing bike parking at transit stops. (Rank = 19) o (AT-I-06) Evaluate the assumption that signing for bike routes tells drivers that bicyclists are there. (Rank = 25) o (AT-I-07) Evaluate road user comprehension of Advisory Bike Lanes. (Rank = 26) o (AT-I-08) Identify best practices for providing bicycle access and parking at rural tourism/recreational sites. (Rank = 30) • Marketing o (AT-M-04) Develop marketing tools for parental acceptance of walking to school. (Rank = 36)

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap F-57 • Planning o (AT-Pl-05) Identifying travel sheds for rural pedestrian facilities. (Rank = 19) o (AT-Pl-06) Determine the nature and extent of concerns (i.e. parents, school system, country roads department, law enforcement) about children walking/biking to school and identify appropriate physical and policy countermeasures. (Rank = 22) o (AT-Pl-07) Identifying traditional and non-traditional stakeholder groups for rural pedestrian facilities. (Rank = 22) • Policy o (AT-Po-04) Identify public policy benefits and disbenefits of shifting more revenue into investments in active transportation. (Moved from Funding & Policy where it was ranked #6) o (AT-Po-05) Conduct periodic (e.g., biennial) surveys of local elected officials to track trends in acceptance and funding for ADA compliance and pedestrian safety investments in small towns. (Rank = 29) o (AT-Po-06) Identify and document methods for funding sidewalk installation/upgrades and maintenance obligations that do not require property tax special-assessments. (Rank = 32) • Safety o (AT-S-10) Analyze non-motorized road user conflicts with All-Terrain Vehicles and possible countermeasures. (Rank = 28) o (AT-S-11) Identify best practices for the design of roadway crossings for horseback riders (Moved from Economic Development & Tourism where it was ranked #37) o (AT-S-12) Analyze nature and extent of equestrian (horseback-rider) crashes on rural highways. (Rank = 41) o (AT-S-13) Identify consequences of discontinuing funding eligibility for non- infrastructure Safe Routes to Schools projects. (Moved from Funding & Policy where it was ranked #59) o (AT-S-14) Develop a generalized rural non-motorized road user safety model that supports systemic risk analysis and project prioritization. (Rank = NA) o (AT-S-15) Identify best practices for Safe Routes to Schools programs. (Rank = NA) o (AT-S-16) Evaluate the effectiveness of high intensity Fresnel lamps to improve the conspicuity of bicycles and assess the costs and benefits of mandating their use when riding on high-speed rural highways. (Rank = NA) o (AT-S-17) Develop a unified national technical standard for portable mobile telephony applications and DSRC devices that would give motorists advance notice as they approach rural non-motorized road users, e.g. in areas with limited visibility. (Rank = NA) o (AT-S-18) Identify best practices for assuring the safety of children who walk or bike to school along high-speed two-lane rural highways. (Rank = NA)

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap F-58 • Tribal o (AT-T-01) Evaluate land use and roadway features on tribal reservations to identify obstacles to pedestrian and bicyclist safety. (Rank = NA) o (AT-T-02) Develop a guidebook to assist tribal planners with identification of non-motorized road user hazards and prioritization of countermeasures including roadway design, speed management, road user behavior, and vehicle safety inspection. (Rank = NA)

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap F-59 This is an uncorrected draft as submitted by the contractor. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied herein are those of the contractor. They are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the Academies, or the program sponsors. Theme: Connected/Automated Vehicles, Electric Vehicles & Emerging Technology Ranking Methodology The ranks shown below were calculated based on two prioritization exercises: (1) the TRB Workshop dot exercise and (2) the Spring Webinar ranking exercise. For the TRB Workshop, all research suggestions generated prior to the workshop were printed on posters, and participants were asked to identify high-priority items by marking the most important items with dots. The resulting “dot count” was then tallied. For the Spring Webinar, participants were asked to rate each research suggestion by providing one of six possible responses: extremely important, very important, moderately important, slightly important, not important, or no opinion. Responses were then converted to a 5-point scale, with “extremely important” corresponding to 5 points and “not important” corresponding to 1 point. To assure that respondents did not feel pressured to rate items that were outside their technical expertise, “no opinion” responses were excluded from the scoring. To allow the Spring Webinar and TRB Workshop rankings to be compared directly; the TRB Workshop dot rankings were mathematically converted to an equivalent 5-point scale. In both cases, participants were also given the opportunity to comment on the wording and content of each item, and an opportunity to provide additional research suggestions. Therefore, some research suggestions had multiple rankings (from both TRB Workshop and Spring Webinar), while newer items added during the TRB Workshop had only one score. The higher of the two scores was then used to create the final rankings within each of the research themes. After the research suggestions were sorted into rank order based on the higher of the two scores (TRB Workshop or Spring Webinar), the team looked for natural breaks in the rankings to identify a workable number of research priorities within each theme (typically about the top 10% of the research suggestions). Where possible, related items were consolidated and an overview (generally one to two paragraphs) was written to describe each candidate research suggestion. Next Steps Below you will find the information sorted into three pieces for your review: • The top research priorities for this theme (number, research title, rank, subcategory, description, and notes), • The newly proposed research suggestions/titles identified through the Spring Webinar (unprioritized and therefore unranked), and

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap F-60 • The remainder of the research suggestions/titles in this theme sorted by category (number, research title, and rank). At this point in time, the NCHRP 20-122 team needs the TRB research monitor, NCHRP 20-122 panel chair, and/or NCHRP 20-122 panel to review this information and provide the research team with a concise list (3-5) of the top-priority research titles for this theme. While all research titles in this document will be documented in the final report, only the top 3-5 priorities chosen by the panel will be laid out in the actual roadmap graphic and several of these top 3-5 priorities will be drafted into full CRP research needs statements by the research team. Top Research Priorities • (CAV-MP-01) Develop educational materials to help agency fleet managers determine which advanced vehicle technologies to specify when procuring vehicles. o Suggested Title: Procuring Advanced Vehicles for Public Fleets in Rural Communities and Small Towns o Rank: 1 o Subcategory: Marketing and Public Outreach o Description: A broad array of new motor vehicle technologies are poised to become available in the near future, including low-emissions, electric and alternative fuel vehicles; advanced vehicle safety systems; and varying levels of vehicle automation. The rapid pace of technical developments presents challenges for government fleet managers—especially in rural communities and small towns where vehicle procurement may be only a small part of an employee’s duties. This guide will identify sources for objective information about the performance of new vehicle technologies and principles for making rational decisions that balance high-level policy goals and end-user preferences with fleet operating costs and technical risks. o Notes: • (CAV-RB-01) Identify barriers to connected and automated vehicle (CAV) implementation in rural areas and solutions so rural areas are not marginalized by technological advances. o Suggested Title: Rural Connected and Automated Vehicle (CAV) Implementation Problems, Opportunities, Obstacles, and Solutions o Rank: 1 o Subcategory: Rural Barriers o Description: Rapid advancements in connected and automated vehicle (CAV) technology have spurred extensive speculation about CAV impacts on local communities, but there is often a shortage of hard information about the problems and opportunities CAVs will present for rural communities. This project will conduct a scan of what is known and unknown about CAV effects on rural roadway systems. This information will analyzed to identify potential benefits, opportunities, and adverse impacts; knowledge gaps that can be resolved through further research; and areas where the technology is not yet mature enough to identify likely outcomes. The project will also identify barriers to rural CAV

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap F-61 implementation and suggest methods for minimizing downside risks concurrent while resolving barriers that impede beneficial outcomes. o Notes: A closely-related project was completed in 2017 by ITS America and the US DOT Joint Program Office (JPO). The groups interviewed several rural ITS practitioners and published a report titled, “Rural Connected Vehicle Gap Analysis: Factors Impeding Deployment and Recommendations for Moving Forward.” Examples of general barriers mentioned in the report include rural communications infrastructure limitations, slow fleet turnover, funding, questions about the cost-effectiveness of rural V2I deployments, public skepticism of new technology, and general distrust of government. According to the report, “Recommended action items to address the rural connected vehicle deployment challenges include: rural communities to develop connected vehicle sustainability plans, support of rural connected vehicle deployment trials (to demonstrate benefits in a number of identified high need rural areas, include freight demonstrations), innovative approaches to funding, and to enact a sustainable outreach and benefit education effort.” The report did not look at specific deployment scenarios. • (CAV-DPP-01) Implement demonstration/pilot projects to test the functionality of connected and automated vehicles (CAVs) in rural terrains and assure that rural communities are not marginalized by CAV deployments. o Suggested Title: Developing a Rural Testing Program for Connected and Automated Vehicles (CAVs) o Rank: 3 o Subcategory: Demonstration/Pilot Projects o Description: Rural driving environments such as two-lane undivided highways present unique technical challenges for connected and automated vehicles (CAVs). Many rural transportation practitioners are concerned that rural areas will be a low priority for auto-industry research and development, possibly exacerbating economic and social marginalization of rural areas. For example, as of 2019 most vehicle automation systems determine lane positioning using optical sensors, but many paved rural highways do not have lane lines, and optical sensing could be unreliable on dusty unpaved roads. This project will begin by conferring with rural transportation users to determine which advanced transportation technologies are seen as having the most value to rural residents and businesses. Based on this information, the project will identify methods for encouraging industry and the research community to address rural CAV obstacles. This could include establishing a sequence of increasingly difficult combinations of rural driving tasks and environments that might be addressed through CAV development contests or demonstration projects. o Notes: • (CAV-Pl-01) Develop a timeline of anticipated future technological advancements relevant to rural transportation.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap F-62 o Suggested Title: Understanding the Timing of Rural Transportation Technology Advancements o Rank: 3 o Subcategory: Planning o Description: There are many uncertainties in the timelines for future technological advancements that affect rural transportation. This project will explore the current status of technologies that are likely to impact the supply, demand, and modal preferences of rural transportation system users, including but not limited to the effects of connected and automated vehicles. Major technical challenges will be identified. Best-case, most likely, and worst-case forecasts will be developed to anticipate the sequencing of technologies to overcome rural deployment obstacles. o Notes: • (CAV-DPP-02) Identify and pilot technologies to decrease response time for rural emergency responders. o Suggested Title: Developing a Pilot Program for Expediting Rural Emergency Response o Rank: 5 o Subcategory: Demonstration/Pilot Projects o Description: Rural first responders (police, fire, emergency medical services, and towing) often need to cover large geographical areas with limited staff and equipment, resulting in response times that are often considerably longer than their urban counterparts. Traditional solutions to these issues include adding response units or sub-stations, optimizing deployment locations, allocating staff and vehicles as efficiently as possible, and pre-positioning personnel and equipment near high-risk locations. Previous studies have identified the potential for new technologies to reduce response times by optimizing first responder routing, automatically alerting drivers who are approaching an incident scene, providing additional communication infrastructure and roadway data, and applying connected vehicle technologies to stage responder resources efficiently at incident scenes. The feasibility of implementing both traditional and technology-based solutions is influenced by variables such as population density, terrain, communications infrastructure, staffing levels, the location of existing emergency management infrastructure such as fire stations, organizational culture, and organizational structures. Thus, there is interaction between technology and the way first responder groups are organized and managed. This project will confer with rural public officials and first responders to identify solutions aimed at reducing response times through demonstration technology deployments and combinations of technology and organizational charges. The project will identify a series of potential pilot projects that could test relevant technologies and supporting organizational methods in a series of increasingly demanding rural environments. o Notes:

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap F-63 • (CAV-EV-01) Evaluate the technical and business requirements for providing publicly accessible electric vehicle (EV) charging infrastructure in rural areas, including methods of cost recovery and the potential for integrating EV charging sites into rural tourism/economic development plans. o Suggested Title: Public Fast-Charging Stations for Electric Vehicles in Rural and Tourism Areas o Rank: 5 o Subcategory: Electric Vehicles o Description: The availability of electric vehicle charging stations in rural communities could allow EV owners to extend the useful range of their vehicles. The proposed research will evaluate current market research regarding EV use for rural and recreational trips, summarize the technical requirements for EV charging stations, and identify potential strategies for charging station implementation by rural communities, including possible partnerships with local businesses and electric utilities. The research should also consider the potential integration of EV charging sites with rural economic development efforts, for example allowing longer-distance travelers to recharge while visiting local restaurants, attractions, etc. Sustainable cost recovery methods should be considered to assure that charging stations developed with public resources are not seen as competing unfairly with the private sector. o Notes: US Department of Energy has developed some related technical materials: o https://afdc.energy.gov/pev-readiness.html o https://afdc.energy.gov/fuels/electricity_charging_public.html o https://afdc.energy.gov/files/pdfs/51227.pdf o https://www.transportationandclimate.org/sites/default/files/EVSE_Planni ng_and_Policy_Tool_Guide.pdf o https://luskin.ucla.edu/sites/default/files/Non- Residential%20Charging%20Stations.pdf • (CAV-IM-01) Analyze the economics of building and maintaining connected vehicle infrastructure in rural areas. o Suggested Title: Cost-Effectiveness of Rural Connected Vehicle Infrastructure o Rank: 5 o Subcategory: Infrastructure and Maintenance o Description: This study will review the major connected vehicle use cases relevant to rural areas and identify the costs and cost-effectiveness of rural connected vehicle infrastructure deployments for the most prominent near-term use cases. o Notes: • (CAV-Da-01) Identify methods to capture the costs, return on investment, and metrics for rural technology demonstration projects. o Suggested Title: Managing the Risks of Rural Transportation Technology Demonstration Projects o Rank: 8

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap F-64 o Subcategory: Data o Description: Most rural transportation technology demonstration projects involve significant costs and risks, often with payoffs that are difficult to quantify. In all sectors of the economy, some demonstration projects fail, and many have inconclusive outcomes or indicate a need for refinement of the technology. Private-sector R&D projects are often cloaked in secrecy, allowing failures to be downplayed and successes to be trumpeted. The public sector is subject to greater levels of disclosure, making it easier for critics to seize on even minor technical setbacks to castigate a public agency—which can result in disincentives for risk- taking. This project will review potential approaches to overcoming these challenges, including econometric analysis, risk-sharing, and communications strategies that support informed discussion of the risks and rewards for rural transportation technology demonstration projects. o Notes: • (CAV-RB-02) Develop a technical primer for rural transportation practitioners that describes what is currently known and unknown about the technical requirements for vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) devices, including an objective description of the implications of interim and unresolved technical standards (e.g., DSRC vs 5G wireless). Analyze relationships between rural broadband services and transportation applications of broadband. Evaluate regulatory, institutional, and commercial barriers to broadband expansion. o Suggested Title: Technical, Regulatory, and Implementation Issues for Telecommunications Supporting Rural Connected Vehicle Deployments o Rank: 8, 38 o Subcategory: Rural Barriers o Description: Currently there are competing technical visions for connected and automated vehicles (CAVs), with some stakeholders favoring the use of Dedicated Short-Range Communications (DSRC) and others favoring the use of commercial wireless broadband networks. The latter approach is often linked with development of Fifth-Generation [5G] wireless, a set of technologies that is itself currently in the early stages of development. Since many rural areas currently have spotty mobile broadband infrastructure, some rural transportation practitioners are concerned that broadband-only standards could inhibit the use of CAVs in rural areas. This project will review the status of CAV technology and standards, identify rural vehicle-to-infrastructure applications that require broadband, and determine the extent to which specific policy interventions may be necessary to assure that CAVs can operate safely in rural areas. o Notes: Two related research suggestions were combined into this item. • (CAV-MP-02) Document the effectiveness of programs aimed at helping elderly drivers understand and use the technology in their vehicles. o Suggested Title: Effectiveness of Vehicle Technology Education Programs for Rural Senior Drivers o Rank: 10

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap F-65 o Subcategory: Marketing and Public Outreach o Description: It can be difficult for consumers to keep up with the rapid changes in motor vehicle technology, such as advanced vehicle safety systems. In addition, the marketing terms used to describe these systems often vary by manufacturer, and in some cases operating controls or user interfaces also differ. A few public outreach programs have been implemented to help seniors understand and use the features of their existing vehicles, or to help guide new vehicle purchasing decisions. This project will review the vehicle information needs of age 65+ drivers who live in rural areas, evaluate the effectiveness of existing outreach programs, and develop recommended practices for future activities aimed at helping elderly drivers understand and apply advanced vehicle technologies. o Notes: • (CAV-Pl-02) Identify methods for identifying and predicting connected and automated vehicle (CAV) effects on rural travel patterns. o Suggested Title: Rural Travel Demand Scenarios for Connected and Autonomous Vehicles o Rank: 10 o Subcategory: Planning o Description: The probable effects of connected and automated vehicles (CAVs) on rural travel demand are not well understood. Although automation could facilitate longer commutes that result in population growth for rural communities at the fringes of urban areas, there are also concerns that CAV usability limitations in rural areas could lead to economic and social marginalization. The latter concern is supported to a degree by automotive industry sources: although 2017 was a year of bold predictions about the future of CAVs, by early 2019 prominent industry leaders began publicly expressing doubt that fully autonomous operation is feasible in all driving environments. Mobility-as-a-service (MAAS) models are seen as a method for spreading the cost of CAVs amongst multiple users, but might not be profitable in rural areas. Laws governing the use of CAVs could also influence on travel patterns: for example, commuting distances could differ depending on whether it is legal to watch movies while the vehicle is in autonomous driving mode. To assess possible CAV effects on rural travel patterns, this project will conduct consumer preference research with rural residents and develop a set of rural travel demand planning scenarios representing varying levels of CAV technical performance, regulation, cost, and market acceptance. o Notes: • (CAV-Pl-03) Identify vehicle-to-infrastructure technologies relevant to rural areas and small communities. Determine costs, benefits and legal liabilities associated with deployment or non-deployment. Develop guidance on deployment thresholds and funding of operation and maintenance. o Suggested Title: Implementation Guide for Near-Term Rural and Small-Town Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I) Technologies

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap F-66 o Rank: 10 o Subcategory: Planning o Description: This project focuses on the sub-set of vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) technologies that are suitable for rural and small-town driving environments. It will provide guidance to practitioners on establishing priorities for basic infrastructure required to support rural V2I deployments and V2I deployments themselves. The guidance will discuss deployment thresholds, funding of operation and maintenance, and the costs, benefits and legal liabilities associated with deployment or non-deployment. o Notes: • (CAV-RB-03) Create an implementation plan for selectively building up broadband across America to assist with traveler information and crisis communication in a disaster. o Suggested Title: Rural Traveler Information and Crisis Communication and the National Broadband Plan o Rank: 10 o Subcategory: Rural Barriers o Description: Rural telecommunications infrastructure in the United States is implemented through a complicated combination of private funding and subsidies from public programs such as the Universal Service Fund. In 2010, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) published a National Broadband Plan (NBP) aimed at guiding broadband improvements nationwide. Although the plan sets out ambitious goals for improving rural telecommunication, it was never fully funded. Drawing from the NBP and other sources, the proposed project would identify a subset of projects that are high priorities in the context of rural traveler information and disaster/crisis communication. The project would also conduct outreach with telecom companies, the FCC, and other state and national decision makers to explore methods for implementing high-priority projects. o Notes: • (CAV-RB-04) Assess potential impacts of in-vehicle technology on driving safety for rural elders. o Suggested Title: Identify Potential In-Vehicle Technology Impacts on Driving Safety for Rural Elders o Rank: 13 o Subcategory: Rural Barriers o Description: This project will conduct outreach with rural elders and law enforcement officers to identify actual and perceived concerns about the safety of in-vehicle equipment used by people age 65+. Based on this information, the project will identify safety research needs for consideration by vehicle manufacturers, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), and other organizations. o Notes: Moved from Human Capital where it was ranked #13. • (CAV-DPP-03) Create a central location to document all rural connected and automated vehicle (CAV) demonstration projects.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap F-67 o Suggested Title: A Clearinghouse for Rural Connected and Automated Vehicle Demonstrations and Research o Rank: 14 o Subcategory: Demonstration/Pilot Projects o Description: This project will develop and maintain a website with links to information about connected and automated vehicle (CAV) demonstration projects and research relevant to rural areas. o Notes: • (CAV-MP-03) Identify characteristics of successful programs for communicating benefits and limitations of connected and automated vehicle (CAV) technologies in rural areas and driving differences in rural and urban areas. o Suggested Title: Communicating Connected & Automated Vehicle (CAV) Benefits and Limitations to Rural Road Users o Rank: 14 o Subcategory: Marketing and Public Outreach o Description: This project will identify best practices for public outreach campaigns aimed at explaining to rural road users the benefits and limitations of connected and autonomous vehicles (CAVs). o Notes: • (CAV-Da-02) Identify data sources and describe methods of accounting for variations in fleet turnover rates when computing the benefits and costs of rural safety improvements and connected and automated vehicle (CAV) deployments. o Suggested Title: Sources and Methods for Estimating Rural Fleet Turnover Rates o Rank: 16 o Subcategory: Data o Description: The average age of automobiles and trucks in operation in the United States has been increasing steadily, reaching 11.6 years in 2016 according to a private market research firm (the 2017 National Household Travel Survey reports a slightly different figure, 10.3 years). Fleet turnover rates potentially differ in urban and rural areas. The proposed research would identify fleet turnover data sources and describe methods for estimating future fleet age and accounting for variations in fleet turnover rates when computing the benefits and costs of rural safety improvements and CAV deployments. o Notes: Fleet age data can be obtained from the National Household Travel Survey, state motor vehicle registration databases, and private market research companies. • (CAV-Da-03) Evaluate the need for publicly-subsidized high-definition digital mapping to support connected deployments in rural areas. o Suggested Title: Rural Transportation Agency Roles in High-Definition Digital Roadway Mapping for Autonomous Vehicles (AVs) o Rank: 16 o Subcategory: Data

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap F-68 o Description: High-definition digital maps are a key enabling technology for autonomous vehicles, allowing vehicle control systems to anticipate the downstream roadway geometry and focus searches for collision hazards. These maps are expected to require high locational accuracy and very frequent updates to reflect changes in roadway features such as geometry, signage, and permitted/restricted movements. For example, if a new commercial driveway is added or an existing one is moved, this might need to be mapped within hours. To support rural CAV deployments, this project will explore the appropriate roles and responsibilities of various stakeholders in the map development process, including vehicle manufacturers, private navigation mapping companies, property owners, and public agencies at the state, county, and local levels. The project will also consider methods for sharing the cost of developing and maintaining high- definition maps for rural areas. o Notes: • (CAV-DPP-04) Identify innovative methods for ITS devices to enhance safety in the rural context. o Rank: 16 o Subcategory: Demonstration/Pilot Projects o Description: The 2018 Rural Intelligent Transportation System Toolkit includes 42 rural transportation critical need fact sheets, including 12 crash countermeasures and several techniques that have potential rural operational safety benefits. This project would identify rural ITS safety technologies that require additional testing and develop recommendations for application-driven field research. o Notes: • (CAV-Pl-04) Initiating the systems engineering process for rural connected vehicle corridors (NCHRP 08-120). o Rank: 16 o Subcategory: Planning o Description: State and local transportation agencies are preparing their infrastructure for the integration of connected vehicle technologies. To date, most connected vehicle research has focused on applications in urban areas, but agencies also need long-term planning to assess resource needs required for deploying, operating, and maintaining connected vehicle technology infrastructure on rural corridors. The objectives of this research are to identify (1) connected vehicle applications that will be most relevant on rural corridors; (2) scalable ways connected vehicles may be integrated into transportation agencies’ traffic operations and management plans; (3) the requirements of connected vehicles and cyber-physical infrastructure within rural corridors; (4) the anticipated roles and responsibilities of agencies in authorizing, deploying, operating, and maintaining ITS and other transportation systems management and operations (TSMO) technologies within rural corridors; and (5) the related staffing and resource needs.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap F-69 o Notes: This project has been funded and a contractor has been selected. New Proposed Research Suggestions/Titles (Unprioritized/Unranked) • (CAV-TS-01) Identify site selection criteria and design standards for emergency stopping areas that will be used when a vehicle is unable to proceed in automated mode and the driver fails to take manual control. o Suggested Title: Establishing Rural Emergency Stopping Sites for Automated Vehicles o Subcategory: Technical Standards o Description: A 2016 video produced by Volvo clearly identifies the need for locations where automated vehicles (AVs) can safely stop in the event of a technical fault. This need is amplified by recent crash reports indicating that human drivers sometimes fail to take manual control promptly when a vehicle is no longer able to proceed in automated mode. Since many rural roads lack full safety shoulders, this project will identify criteria for the selection and spacing of roadside safety stop locations, with relevant dimensioning and design information. The research will also determine whether AV safety stops should be designed to double as emergency parking for conventional vehicles. The Volvo video is online at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2q00jIBhkq4 ; safety stops are discussed in the segment from timestamps 1:48 to 2:10. Remainder of the Research Suggestions/Titles for this Theme • Applications o (CAV-Ap-01) Identify and document the benefits of SAE Level 1 automation for rural transit and paratransit operations. (Rank = 32) o (CAV-Ap-02) Identify and document the benefits of SAE Level 2 automation for rural transit and paratransit operations. (Rank = 23) o (CAV-Ap-03) Identify and document the benefits of SAE Level 3 automation for rural transit and paratransit operations. (Rank = 32) o (CAV-Ap-04) Identify and document the operation and maintenance costs and cost-effectiveness of electric vehicles utilized for rural transit/paratransit fleets. (Rank = 32) • Data o (CAV-Da-04) Document emerging data resources and how they can be collected and applied in rural areas. (Rank = 23) o (CAV-Da-05) Identify strategies to integrate data collection systems between regional partners to foster coordination and performance standards. (Rank = 23) • Demonstration/Pilot Projects o (CAV-DPP-05) Identify automation experiences from the agricultural sector that are relevant to on-highway connected and automated vehicle (CAV) deployments. (Rank = 23) o (CAV-DPP-06) Identify equity issues affecting rural connected and automated vehicle (CAV) deployments. (Rank = 32)

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap F-70 • Electric Vehicles o (CAV-EV-02) Identify best practices for transitioning public fleets from conventional vehicles to new technologies. (Rank = 23) o (CAV-EV-03) Identify typical distances driven for everyday rural trips and compare to the range characteristics of electric vehicles. (Rank = 23) • Infrastructure and Maintenance o (CAV-IM-02) Evaluate the economics of maintaining connected vehicles and automated vehicles in rural and remote communities. (Rank = 23) o (CAV-IM-03) Identify emerging automation technologies that can support road maintenance and post-disaster recovery. (Moved from Theme 15 where it was ranked #61) • Marketing and Public Outreach o (CAV-MP-04) Identify characteristics of successful public outreach programs to help rural consumers determine which technologies to purchase when buying new vehicles. (Rank = 32) o (CAV-MP-05) Evaluate rural public attitudes toward connected and autonomous vehicles to identify possible barriers to CAV acceptance. (Rank = 32) • Planning o (CAV-Pl-05) Create a rural connected vehicle sustainability plan pilot, template, and training. (Rank = 21) o (CAV-Pl-06) Evaluate the impact that connected and automated vehicles (CAV) and other emerging technologies will have on tribal and Federal lands (including national parks), including barriers, benefits, costs, and planning recommendations. (Rank = 21) • Rural Barriers o (CAV-RB-05) Document methods to provide traveler information on low technology to benefit remote areas and emergency/natural disaster communications. (Rank = 30) Note: Similar to item WC-OR-04 in the Weather & Climate theme. o (CAV-RB-06) Develop a process for creating periodic snapshots of rural broadband connectivity. Analyze this data to predict areas that are unlikely to obtain broadband coverage in the absence of regulatory interventions or subsidies. (Rank = 38) o (CAV-RB-07) Develop case studies of agencies and projects that have deployed telecommunications infrastructure to rural/remote areas in parallel with highway improvements. (Rank = 38) • Technical Standards o (CAV-TS-02) Evaluate the feasibility of using communications alternatives such as 4G or 5G wireless in lieu of DSRC for V2I, I2V and V2V data transfers, and backhaul infrastructure to support roadside equipment (especially in rural areas) (AHB15). (Rank = 30)

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap F-71 o (CAV-TS-03) Develop design standards for platoon marshalling areas that will be used for assembly and dispersal of groups of automated trucks operated on rural highways. (Rank = 38) o (CAV-TS-04) Identify need for possible supplemental navigational aids supporting CAV operations in rural areas. (Rank = 38) o (CAV-TS-05) Since automated vehicles cannot hear train horns, develop a system for reliable electronic transmission of train presence information to automated vehicles approaching rural railroad crossings. (Moved from Safety where it was ranked #75)

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap F-72 This is an uncorrected draft as submitted by the contractor. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied herein are those of the contractor. They are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the Academies, or the program sponsors. Theme: Economic Development and Tourism Ranking Methodology The ranks shown below were calculated based on two prioritization exercises: (1) the TRB Workshop dot exercise and (2) the Spring Webinar ranking exercise. For the TRB Workshop, all research suggestions generated prior to the workshop were printed on posters, and participants were asked to identify high-priority items by marking the most important items with dots. The resulting “dot count” was then tallied. For the Spring Webinar, participants were asked to rate each research suggestion by providing one of six possible responses: extremely important, very important, moderately important, slightly important, not important, or no opinion. Responses were then converted to a 5-point scale, with “extremely important” corresponding to 5 points and “not important” corresponding to 1 point. To assure that respondents did not feel pressured to rate items that were outside their technical expertise, “no opinion” responses were excluded from the scoring. To allow the Spring Webinar and TRB Workshop rankings to be compared directly; the TRB Workshop dot rankings were mathematically converted to an equivalent 5-point scale. In both cases, participants were also given the opportunity to comment on the wording and content of each item, and an opportunity to provide additional research suggestions. Therefore, some research suggestions had multiple rankings (from both TRB Workshop and Spring Webinar), while newer items added during the TRB Workshop had only one score. The higher of the two scores was then used to create the final rankings within each of the research themes. After the research suggestions were sorted into rank order based on the higher of the two scores (TRB Workshop or Spring Webinar), the team looked for natural breaks in the rankings to identify a workable number of research priorities within each theme (typically about the top 10% of the research suggestions). Where possible, related items were consolidated and an overview (generally one to two paragraphs) was written to describe each candidate research suggestion. Next Steps Below you will find the information sorted into three pieces for your review: • The top research priorities for this theme (number, research title, rank, subcategory, description, and notes), • The newly proposed research suggestions/titles identified through the Spring Webinar (unprioritized and therefore unranked), and • The remainder of the research suggestions/titles in this theme sorted by category (number, research title, and rank).

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap F-73 At this point in time, the NCHRP 20-122 team needs the TRB research monitor, NCHRP 20-122 panel chair, and/or NCHRP 20-122 panel to review this information and provide the research team with a concise list (3-5) of the top-priority research titles for this theme. While all research titles in this document will be documented in the final report, only the top 3-5 priorities chosen by the panel will be laid out in the actual roadmap graphic and several of these top 3-5 priorities will be drafted into full CRP research needs statements by the research team. Top Research Priorities • (EDT-FR-01) Assessing America’s great outdoors: develop a deeper understanding of recreational travel patterns, demand, forecasting, and future investment needs for federal and state transportation systems (RNS21). o Rank: 1 o Subcategory: Forecasting Rural Travel Demand o Description: This study has three primary objectives: 1) to document and describe recreational and tourism travel demand and the related data gap within key states of interest; 2) to identify and begin to explore which factors (economic, demographic, geographical, etc.) drive recreational travel volumes and patterns (both within and between public lands); and 3) to develop a model to project recreational travel demand on state and country roads to allow those jurisdictions to make better informed decisions about investments in economic development, transportation and other issues that may affect quality of life for residents and experience for visitors. o Notes: Selected for NCHRP funding in FY 2020 as NCHRP 08-132 • (EDT-CED-01) Expand rural tourism economic impact studies to compare and contrast the impact of transportation on rural tourism areas. o Rank: 2 o Subcategory: Community and Economic Development o Description: Rural tourism encompasses a wide range of locations and activities, from beachside resorts to scenic bicycle tours, wine country driving tours, mountain ski resorts, and wilderness adventures. The many types of rural tourism place highly divergent demands on local transportation systems: some are aviation-intensive, some depend on good highway access, some are based on non- motorized transportation, some require specialized infrastructure such as snowmobile or ATV trails, and few rural tourism sites are bolstered by their accessibility via intercity bus or passenger rail. Currently, practitioners hoping to stimulate rural economic development face difficulty determining when and how much to invest in tourism-oriented rural transportation. Previous (mainly European) studies have explored relationships between distances to population centers and the sustainability of rural tourism from an energy/emissions perspective. Building on prior work, this project will review the variables that affect the transportation needs for various types of rural tourism. The research will also evaluate previous U.S. rural transportation investments intended to stimulate tourism, explore whether they were successful in generating tourism

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap F-74 activity, and whether the economic value created was proportionate to the costs of required transportation infrastructure. The project will also consider the potential for transportation projects such as bypasses to relocate or even reduce visitors, with neutral or negative effects on tourism employment. Thus, the ultimate goal of the project is to develop insights/guidance that will help state and local officials determine which types of rural transportation investments are cost-effective generators of living-wage rural tourism employment, and which should be avoided. o Notes: • (EDT-CED-02) Identify the impact of multimodal personal transportation facilities on economic development for rural communities. o Rank: 3 o Subcategory: Community and Economic Development o Description: Intercity passenger rail, commuter rail, intercity buses, commuter buses, bicycling, and walking/hiking contribute to economic activity in numerous rural communities. For example, commuter rail connections to downtown Chicago boost the vitality of several rural communities in McHenry County, Illinois, and a considerable number of visitors use Amtrak to travel to Glacier National Park. Official tourism publications from the state of Minnesota heavily promote the state’s 1000+ miles of bike routes, and the 2180 mile Appalachian Trail helps attract visitors to small towns in 14 states. Bicycle, pedestrian and multi-use paths are also seen as amenities that can help rural communities attract and retain visitors, residents, and investors. This project will review the roles of non-highway/non-aviation modes in supporting community economic development in the United States. If possible, the project will also develop case examples of successful and not-so-successful efforts to link investments in alternative modes with rural community and economic development. o Notes: • (EDT-FR-02) Investigate the potential impacts that the lack of technology in rural areas will have on recreational travel demand. o Rank: 5 o Subcategory: Forecasting Rural Travel Demand o Description: It is likely that complex relationships exist between recreational travel demand and the telecommunications infrastructure and other technology available in rural areas. While some visitors clearly welcome opportunities to unplug from the hubbub of modern life, others find it necessary to remain accessible to colleagues and family members. Additionally, visitors in very remote areas often find it reassuring to have telecommunications available in case of a mishap. It is also possible that visitors posting details of their trips on social media help promote rural recreational destinations. Thus, it is possible that some types of rural tourism benefit strongly from access to technology, while others do not. This project will conduct market research to better understand the

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap F-75 relationships between access to telecommunications technology and consumer willingness to engage in various types of rural tourism activities. o Notes: • (EDT-EI-01) Identify rational approaches for determining when the supply of rural transportation is adequate and when the provision of additional infrastructure and services can foster economic development. o Rank: o Subcategory: Economic Impact/Performance Metrics o Description: Mainstream economists have traditionally regarded transportation as a “derived demand” in the sense that economic activities such as manufacturing and agricultural production generate the need to transport workers, raw materials, and finished products. Conversely, many policy makers have taken a “build it and they will come” approach to rural economic development, arguing that transportation infrastructure investments that reduce travel time will stimulate rural tourism and make items produced in the rural U.S. more competitive in national and international markets. The latter view was particularly prevalent in the Midwest in the late 1990s and early 2000s, but more recently has been offset by concerns that reducing freight costs can make local products less price-competitive with foreign imports. This project will review the objective evidence about relationships between travel time/cost and economic activity for various industry sectors. The project will then develop practical guidance to help practitioners understand which industries are the most sensitive to transportation costs, analyze the positive and negative effects of faster/cheaper transportation on existing businesses/industries, determine when transportation infrastructure deficiencies inhibit economic growth, and identify situations where the cost of infrastructure investments exceeds their net benefit to state and local economies. o Notes: Moved from Funding & Policy where it was ranked #6 • (EDT-VT-01) Analyze generational preferences for alternative transportation systems and investigate transportation’s impact on visitor experience for tourist areas and public lands. o Rank: 5, 14 o Subcategory: Visitor Transportation o Description: Visitors to tourist areas often appear to be willing to use travel modes that are not part of their daily routine. One notable example is Mackinac Island, Michigan, a resort where motor vehicles have been prohibited since 1898, and the dominant travel modes are bicycles and horse-drawn carriages. At Glacier National Park and Denali National Park, motor vehicles have been restricted to reduce congestion, with shuttle bus systems providing access to points of interest. Pedestrianized zones are common in tourism areas, such as the Landing Zone development in Branson, Missouri. Some rural tourism communities host unusual transportation modes such as steam trains, funiculars (diagonal outdoor elevators), overhead cableways, or zip lines. This project will

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap F-76 research modal preferences for various types of rural tourism sites and investigate the extent to which these preferences vary based on age or other demographic factors. In addition, the project will evaluate the extent to which the presence or absence of specific modes affects customer choices about which tourism areas/public lands are visited, willingness to visit again, and the frequency and duration of visits. o Notes: This project combines two related research themes. • (EDT-Pa-01) Analyze the economic impact of public lands transportation systems on gateway communities and identify transportation planning partnerships to enhance national parks, gateway communities, and other public lands. o Rank: 7 and 19 o Subcategory: Partnerships o Description: This project will examine the operational and economic relationships between public lands (including major state and national parks) and adjoining “gateway” communities. The project will review economic interdependencies between public lands and gateway communities, including the influence of various types of visitor transportation systems. The project will conduct surveys and/or focus groups to assess gateway community satisfaction with visitor transportation plans as perceived by citizens, business owners, and public officials. These metrics will then be compared with the transportation strategies and community planning/outreach methods used by the corresponding public land management group. Based on this information, the project will develop guidance on methods for strengthening collaboration between gateway communities and public lands managers, including best practices for reconciling conflicts between visitor transportation and other community goals. o Notes: This item combines two related research needs. • (EDT-VT-02) Detail best practices, lessons learned, and case studies for traffic management, congestion management, and parking management in rural tourism areas. o Rank: 7 o Subcategory: Visitor Transportation o Description: Many tourism areas have limited street/roadway capacity, and often the topographical features or cultural resources that make the area attractive to visitors also inhibit roadway expansion. As a result, a number of tourist areas have developed special strategies for managing traffic and parking, such as park-and-ride systems that combine outlying parking lots with shuttles to attractions. This project will review and compare the congestion management systems used in various types of tourism areas and develop guidance and best practices for planning and implementing such systems. o Notes: • (EDT-FR-03) Identify methods for predicting trends in rural tourism and their effects on transportation infrastructure and services, including changes in visitor demographics and related transportation needs for various types of tourism/recreational areas. o Rank: 10, 12

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap F-77 o Subcategory: Forecasting Rural Travel Demand o Description: There are many methods for forecasting tourism-related travel, yet these are often unfamiliar to rural transportation practitioners and can be quite problematic in terms of accuracy. Tourist/recreational travel demand is often volatile due to fluctuations in household income, fuel prices, and exchange rates, along with competition from other activities and destinations. This project will review the available tourism forecasting methods and identify those that are best suited for application at the local, county, and state levels in the rural United States. In addition, the project will develop guidance on methods for determining the impacts of growth or decline in tourism travel on rural transportation infrastructure needs, including methods for dealing with uncertainty in forecasted outcomes. o Notes: This project combines two related themes. • (EDT-Da-01) Develop and describe low-cost applications of crowdsourced data for transportation planning and management in public lands and other tourist/recreational areas. o Rank: 10 o Subcategory: Data o Description: This project will develop a practitioner oriented toolkit that describes methods for using crowdsourced data and “big data” to help manage transportation for public lands and rural tourism/recreational communities. Examples include using Bluetooth detectors or commercial GPS data to monitor and predict traffic conditions in tourism/recreational communities, using Bluetooth device re-identification to determine trip patterns, and using Bluetooth detection as a surrogate measure of pedestrian volumes. o Notes: • (EDT-EI-02) Identify sustainable rural economic development models that reduce dependency on long-distance travel for employment, goods and services while supporting quality-of-life in rural communities. o Rank: 15 o Subcategory: Economic Impact/Performance Metrics o Description: Many rural communities are heavily dependent on their connections to larger places, resulting in high consumption of fuel and transportation services. For example, many rural residents commute long distances to urban/suburban jobs, and rural businesses are often highly dependent on customers from distant cities. These dependencies can make communities vulnerable to transportation system disruptions and spikes in energy prices. Nevertheless, a few communities have been successful in limiting dependencies. Building on previous research on decoupling economic growth from growth in travel demand, this project will explore the characteristics of relatively self-sufficient rural communities—places where residents are employed close to home and products are consumed near the point of production. These situations will be analyzed to identify factors that contribute

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap F-78 to sustainable, low-travel rural communities while supporting high quality of life. o Notes: Moved from Funding & Policy where it was ranked #15 • (EDT-CED-03) Inventory the state of the practice and compile best practices to link economic and community investments (e.g., workforce development, education, downtown revitalization, etc.) with transportation investments and policy priorities to maximize impact. o Rank: 13 o Subcategory: Community and Economic Development o Description: Transportation investments are often part of a package of projects and policies designed to stimulate economic growth and support the vitality of rural communities. While a number of studies have looked at the roles of individual project/policy elements in supporting economic development goals, it is much more challenging to understand the interactions (and purported synergies) between the elements of a multi-part package. This project will review successful and not-so-successful examples of rural economic development investment packages implemented in a variety of rural communities in the United States, and if possible search for comparisons between jurisdictions where a policy package was implemented and similar areas where no government action was taken. Thus, the project will help practitioners better understand how much transportation contributes to economic vitalization when it is part of a larger policy and investment package that also includes activities such as workforce development, education, downtown revitalization, etc. o Notes: • (EDT-TC-01) Evaluate the role of transportation in sustainable tourism development for Native American, Alaska Native, and Pacific Islander communities. o Rank: 15 o Subcategory: Tribal Communities o Description: Transportation is an important factor in the tourism-related economic development opportunities available to Native American, Alaska Native, and Pacific Islander communities. Several Native American tribes with convenient transportation to urban areas have developed tourism enterprises such as casinos, though such projects have often been accompanied by concerns about potential loss of traditional cultural identity. At the other extreme, indigenous communities in frontier and remote areas may find it very difficult to attract visitors due to distance, limited infrastructure, and transportation costs. For example, portions of American Samoa and the Northern Mariana Islands are accessible only by air or water charters, and even where scheduled air service to the U.S. mainland is available (as in Guam), transportation costs can deter visitors. Difficult access is compounded by seasonal limitations for many Alaska Native communities. The proposed research will review the role of transportation in successful and not-so-successful tourism projects for Native

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap F-79 American, Alaska Native, and Pacific Islander communities in the greater United States, with the objective of identifying situations where transportation investments contributed to sustainable development. o Notes: • (EDT-VT-03) Analyze generational differences in reliance on technology any related impacts on transportation in tourist areas. o Rank: 16 o Subcategory: Visitor Transportation o Description: This project will explore possible relationships between visitor age and the technology used to plan, book, and manage travel in and around tourist/recreational areas. The project will help local officials and public lands managers better understand the transportation needs of visitors and the extent to which travel-related information needs to be provided through multiple media channels. The project will also determine which types of assistive devices are frequently used by elderly customers with vision or hearing loss and the associated technical requirements for electronic, print, and on-site media disseminating tourism-related transportation information. o Notes: • (EDT-CED-04) Develop case examples of rural communities that have modified the location of transportation facilities to support community development, for example moving a transit hub closer to the central business district or changing zoning to allow major employers to locate within walking distance of residential areas. o Rank: 17 o Subcategory: Community and Economic Development o Description: Rural communities often find it challenging to assure that development patterns remain compact, walkable, and efficient in terms of transportation and other public services. New developments at the edges of rural communities often lead to physical expansion while older properties closer to the central business district become underutilized. This project will look for case examples of communities that have modified the location of transportation facilities to minimize the need for motorized travel, such as moving a transit hub closer to the central business district or changing zoning to allow major employers to locate within walking distance of residential areas. The project will also document methods rural communities have used to encourage redevelopment of brownfield sites in support of compact, walkable neighborhoods. Underlying factors such as the extent of coordination with neighboring jurisdictions will be explored. o Notes: • (EDT-CED-05) Analyze the effect of non-availability of telework and telecommunications technologies on attracting new industries and/or residents to rural areas and/or reducing rural travel demand. o Rank: 17 o Subcategory: Community and Economic Development

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap F-80 o Description: The relationships between telecommunications, rural development, and travel demand are not clearly understood. The availability of telework and teleconferencing can make it possible for people with specialized skills to reside in rural areas while maintaining connections with urban clients, but the prevalence of this work style and its ability to support rural community development are not well documented. Many companies established call centers in rural areas in the 1990s, but there is limited information about how well these jobs were sustained over subsequent decades given the technical developments in customer service automation and competition from urban and overseas call centers. E-commerce has made it easier for rural businesses to sell their products in national and international markets, while also making it easier for distant companies to sell goods and services to rural consumers. In recent years, some state and local governments have heavily incentivized the construction of data centers (server farms) in exurban areas, but some of these projects have been criticized for providing relatively few jobs. This project will attempt to reconcile these seemingly mixed effects to provide transportation practitioners with guidance for predicting the net effects of telecommunications technologies on rural employment patterns and the resulting changes in travel demand. o Notes: • (EDT-EI-03) All-modes analysis of the economic impacts of rural transportation infrastructure investments o Rank: 20 o Subcategory: Economic Impact/Performance Metrics o Description: This project will develop a practitioner-oriented meta-analysis of the documented economic benefits and disbenefits of infrastructure improvements across multiple modes: which types of transportation investments have the greatest impact on economic growth, and which adversely impact rural economies by making it cheaper to bring in products made elsewhere? o Notes: Moved from Funding & Policy where it was ranked #20 • (EDT-EI-04) Influence of transportation infrastructure on rural industrial location decisions o Rank: 20 o Subcategory: Economic Impact/Performance Metrics o Description: This project will develop an overview of the economic literature to help transportation practitioners understand the role of transportation in industrial location decisions and the transportation assets that are of interest to specific industries. o Notes: Moved from Funding & Policy where it was ranked #20 • (TED-TC-02) Best practices for consistent consultation and outreach with Native American and Alaska Native communities across all transportation modes. o Rank: 20 o Subcategory: Tribal Communities

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap F-81 o Description: This project will evaluate and compare the techniques and extent of consultation and outreach with Native American and Alaska Native communities for various transportation modes (aviation, highway, transit, rail, non-motorized, etc.). Based on this information, the project will identify best- practices that could be adopted to assure consistent approaches across modes. o Notes: • (EDT-CED-06) Effects of state rail bank programs on motorized and non-motorized transportation and economic development o Rank: 68 o Subcategory: Community and Economic Development o Description: Deregulation of the railroad industry in the 1980s immediately led to abandonment of numerous rail lines that formerly served rural areas and small communities. In response, many states collaborated with the Surface Transportation Board to establish rail bank programs that purchased abandoned rail lines for possible re-use. Subsequently, a large amount of railbanked infrastructure was converted into bike/pedestrian trails, some was put back in service for freight rail or public transportation; considerable mileages are still “mothballed” for future use. This project will review state rail bank programs and identify the extent to which they have been successful in preserving abandoned corridors and supporting non-motorized transportation, local rail transit, passenger rail, freight rail, and public utility infrastructure. The project will also analyze the programs’ effects on community economic redevelopment. Based on this analysis, the project will evaluate the need for policy updates. o Notes: Moved from Theme 15 were it was ranked #68 New Proposed Research Suggestions/Titles (Unprioritized/Unranked) • Community and Economic Development o (EDT-CED-07) Identify potential transportation agency roles in supporting the expansion of rural broadband telecommunications, such as preinstallation of empty fiber optic cable ducts when rural roads are reconstructed. o (EDT-CED-08) Identify successful linkages between tourism industry development and rural culture and traditions (popcorn festivals, apple pressing, etc.) to support community economic and social vitality. o (EDT-CED-09) Review the Economic Impact of Scenic Byways Programs. Description: Federal, state, and regional transportation agencies along with private organizations have implemented a wide range of scenic byways programs. These range from simply installing route marker signs to deeper ties with tourism marking programs. Several previous studies have evaluated the economic impacts of scenic byways, but many of these studies are now quite dated. The goal of this project is to identify factors that contribute to public awareness of scenic byway designations, assess the extent to which scenic route designations affect consumer decisions about recreational destinations and discretionary spending, examine the demographics of travelers attracted by scenic byways, and help identify factors that make scenic byways programs effective.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap F-82 o (EDT-CED-10) Estimate the impacts of future changes in economic productivity on rural travel demand. Description: Vehicle miles travelled (VMT) has historically been highly correlated with total economic output, but recent research suggests this relationship is weakening. Recent European research has explored methods to decouple economic growth from travel demand growth as a means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and it is asserted that decoupling transport demand from economic development is the only way to deliver true long-term sustainability. A related line of research has attempted to determine whether highway projects that increase productivity have an impact on economic growth and VMT, but a 2012 study by Rand Corporation for FHWA found that the relationship was inconclusive. This project will revisit the relationships between productivity and rural VMT in light of ongoing structural changes in the economy. o (EDT-CED-11) Engaging the private sector to fill in transportation gaps. • Data o (EDT-Da-02) Evaluate the effects of the National Highway Freight Program (NHFP) and “Critical Rural Freight Corridor” designations on state transportation agency expenditures and priorities. • Forecasting Rural Travel Demand o (EDT-FR-04) Identify and describe proprietary data sources to supplement trip types and volumes in non-urbanized areas. • Tribal Communities o (EDT-TC-03) Identify relationships between economic development and transportation specific to Tribal communities, including value capture approaches, non-tourism economic development, and the effects of variations in terrain, resources, and openness to external cultural influences. Remainder of the Research Suggestions/Titles for this Theme • Community and Economic Development o (EDT-CED-12) Develop guidance on integrating long-range transportation planning, land use planning, and NEPA (PEL) to support economic development in rural areas, i.e., making a high-quality natural environment an economic asset. (Rank = 25) o (EDT-CED-13) Evaluate the extent to which small urban areas that have big city transportation offerings are able to maintain vibrancy and community investment, and retain/attract young adults. (Rank = 26) o (EDT-CED-14) Identify best practices for incorporating big city transportation offerings into small urban areas. (Rank = 31) o (EDT-CED-15) Inventory and assess transit willingness-to-pay in tourist areas, national parks, and public lands. (Rank = 32) o (EDT-CED-16) Identify a new economic development approach to transportation for the future based on changing trends. (Moved from Funding & Policy where it was ranked #59 )

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap F-83 o (EDT-CED-17) Review programs aimed at repopulating and attracting highly- skilled people to rural areas, such as Canada's Rural & Northern Immigration Programme and Australia's Regional Sponsored Migration Scheme. Identify whether these strategies are transferrable to U.S. rural communities and their potential effects on demand for transportation infrastructure and services. (Moved from Funding & Policy where it was ranked # 63) • Data o (EDT-Da-03) Develop transportation performance measures that are relevant to rural tourism areas. (Rank = 21) • Design o (EDT-De-01) Develop a guidebook on green infrastructure applications for rural tourism communities. (Rank = 35) o (EDT-De-02) Analyze the cumulative safety effects of relaxing road design standards for public lands. (Rank = 36) • Economic Impact/Performance Metrics o (EDT-EI-05) Develop case examples and guidance to assist agencies in evaluating the resilience and sustainability of transportation investments intended to address economic development objectives. (Rank = 32 in Funding & Policy) o (EDT-EI-06) Identify methods for making rural transportation systems more of an economic engine. (Rank = 32 in Funding & Policy) o (EDT-EI-07) Identify transportation impacts of changing economic and social conditions in rural communities and innovative methods for responding to these changes. (Rank = 42 in Funding & Policy) o (EDT-EI-08) Assess the relationship between access to global markets in rural areas and socioeconomic outcomes. (Rank = 54 in Funding & Policy) • Forecasting Rural Travel Demand o (EDT-FR-05) Identify and predict trends in travel demand related to resource extraction. (Rank = 23) • Technology o (EDT-Te-01) Evaluate the impacts of connected and automated vehicles (CAV) on tourism and natural environment areas. (Rank = 30) o (EDT-Te-02) Analyze the differences and similarities between these public lands, urban/suburban, and rural deployments for connected and automated vehicles (CAV). (Rank = 33) • Visitor Transportation o (EDT-VT-04) Identify emerging technologies such as bike share and their potential applications on public lands. (Rank = 24) o (EDT-VT-05) Document best practices for accommodating pedestrians with disabilities or limited mobility in tourist areas. (Rank = 26) o (EDT-VT-06) Identify strategies for reducing the cost of transit operations and maintenance in public lands and other tourism areas. (Rank = 26)

Next: Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios »
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Although only 19% of the population lives in rural areas, more than 70% of the U.S.’s four million miles of roadways are in rural areas. The rural transportation system also includes numerous airports; railways; inland and coastal waterways; rural and intercity buses; and bicycle, pedestrian, and multi-use paths and trails. In addition, approximately 47% of the nation’s motor vehicle fatalities occur in rural areas.

The TRB National Cooperative Highway Research Program's pre-publication draft of NCHRP Research Report 988: Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap is designed to assist state departments of transportation and other public agencies and help inform policy–driven investment decisions.

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