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Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap (2021)

Chapter: Chapter 4 Conclusions & Recommendations

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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 Conclusions & Recommendations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 Conclusions & Recommendations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 Conclusions & Recommendations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 Conclusions & Recommendations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 Conclusions & Recommendations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 Conclusions & Recommendations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 Conclusions & Recommendations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 Conclusions & Recommendations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 Conclusions & Recommendations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 Conclusions & Recommendations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 Conclusions & Recommendations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 Conclusions & Recommendations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 Conclusions & Recommendations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 Conclusions & Recommendations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap 35 C H A P T E R 4 Conclusions & Recommendations The conclusions and recommendations from this research were incorporated into several documents. The process, contents, and status of for these documents are summarized in the following sections. Research Needs Statements In total, 26 RNS were created for this project. As mentioned in Chapter 3, the creation of RNS was a cyclical process, undertaken by both Research Team members and TRB committees. This section describes that process, the resulting RNS, and the outcomes in more detail. Original Seven RNS As discussed in Chapter 3, the original RNS created for this project were completed by the Research Team prior to the Colorado workshop using the information from the environmental scan. There was a short timeline (about a month) between the Colorado workshop and deadline to submit at least five RNS to the AASHTO R&I Committee. Therefore, the objective of creating these RNS for the Colorado workshop was to provide the attendees with an initial set of RNS to react to, as many times it is easier and faster to “redline” an existing draft then it is to “start from scratch.” Based on stakeholder feedback provided at the Colorado workshop, the original seven RNS were either revised or removed from future consideration. In situations where research had already been conducted on one of the seven topics, then the RNS was either discontinued or the topic was adjusted to incorporate/expand the completed research. If the research had not been conducted, then relevant information from the environmental scan was incorporated into the summary details.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap 36 Table 6 shows the original seven RNS titles, the high-level comments from the Colorado workshop, and the outcomes following the workshop. As noted in the table, six of the seven were revised and became known as RNS1-RNS6, while one of the RNS was removed from further consideration. These original seven RNS are presented in Appendix B. RNS Presented to Project Panel Fall 2018 In addition to the revisions made to six of the seven original statements (addressed above and numbered RNS1-RNS6), the Research Team also created an additional fifteen RNS (numbered RNS7-RNS20, RNS24) based on the needs identified by the breakout groups during the Colorado workshop. Due to time and budget constraints, Research Team members were not able to transform all research needs identified at the workshop into RNS. The selection of topics was based on priorities raised at the workshop (mentioned several times or discussed in detail). RNS were developed to cover an array of topics, modes, communities, and stakeholders. Four additional RNS (RNS21-RNS23, RNS25) were submitted to the Research Team for consideration: three by TRB committees (i.e., ADA40, ANB10(7), and AP055) and one by a participant (i.e., Dr. Fred Fravel) in the Colorado Workshop. These 25 resulting RNS are listed in Table 7 and full versions of each are presented in Appendix E. Panel Prioritization On October 11, 2018 the 25 RNS were forwarded to the NCHRP 20-122 Project Panel along with a survey requesting the following information: • Input on whether the topic should be included in the Research Roadmap. • Topic importance ranking using a 5-point Likert scale. • Input on whether the topic should be included in the group of topics that will be presented to AASHTO R&I Committee on October 29, 2018 for “fast tracking.” • If the NCHRP 20-122 Project Panel member is interested in being involved in the further development of the RNS. Twelve members of the NCHRP 20-122 Project Panel participated in the survey. The results of the survey are shown in Table 8. Based on the survey results, the Research Team recommended that the following RNS be expanded into full NCHRP problem statements and be presented to the AASHTO R&I Committee meeting: • RNS1: Bridge & Culvert Vulnerability Assessment Suite. • RNS2: Effectiveness of Zero Tolerance Drug/Alcohol Policies. • RNS4: Multi-Modal Investment Analysis Guide. • RNS17: Rural Tourism Natural Disaster Recovery. • RNS18: Overcoming Smartphone Barriers to Transit Use. Although these were the recommendations based on the survey rankings, the results were discussed with the CRP Project Manager and the NCHRP 20-122 Project Panel Chair, who had the final decision on the projects to be expanded and moved forward. After reviewing the information, the CRP Project Manager and the NCHRP 20-122 Project Panel Chair recommended that a total of seven RNS be submitted to AASHTO R&I Committee for consideration. The CRP Project Manager and the NCHRP 20-122 Project Panel Chair chose these seven RNS as they were representative of the fourteen thematic areas identified in the research at that point. They also concluded that all seven were suitable for AASHTO R&I Committee to consider submitting into the regular NCHRP process for Fiscal Year 2020 funding. Further, RNS23 and RNS25 could be considered by AASHTO R&I Committee for off-cycle funding, as significant progress could be achieved in the next 18-24 months.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap 37 The following RNS were selected: • RNS2: Effectiveness of Zero-Tolerance Drug & Alcohol Policies for Rural Transportation Agencies. • RNS3: Force Multiplier Toolkit for Rural Traffic Safety Enforcement. • RNS4: Trade-off Analysis: A Multi-Modal Guide for Rural Transportation Investment Analysis. • RNS21: Accessing America’s Great Outdoors: Understanding Recreational Travel Patterns, Demand, and Future Investment Needs for Federal, State, and Tribal Transportation Systems. • RNS22: MIRE Data Requirements Supporting Safety Improvements on Unpaved Roads. • RNS23: Development and Implementation of a National Intercity Bus Atlas. • RNS25: Enabling On-demand, Multi-modal Trips to be Booked in Real-time in Rural America. More information is provided in the Problem Statement section of this chapter.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap 38 Table 6: Seven Original Research Need Statements (RNS) RNS Title CO Workshop Notes/Outcomes Outcome Bridge and Culvert Vulnerability Assessment Software Suite • Add non-motorized infrastructure • Topic is a priority • Examples provided in AK and NE Became RNS1 (see Table 7) Rural Transportation Agency Marijuana Policies in the Legalization Era • Generalize to all illegal substances such as opioids • Include alcohol Became RNS2 (see Table 7) Force Multiplier Toolkit for Rural Traffic Enforcement • Consider splitting into two problem statements: one for roadway infrastructure strategies and one for enforcement/education strategies • Add more information about crash data and MUTCD Became RNS3 (see Table 7) A Mode-Neutral Guide for Rural Transportation Investment Analysis • No significant comments Became RNS4 (see Table 7) Effects of Rural Rideshare on Public Transportation • Change the title • Rename rideshare to ride hailing • Rewrite so is not written as an “either/or” paradigm • Focus the effect on citizens and not agencies Became RNS5 (see Table 7) Traffic Management for Rural Tourism Communities • The TRB ADA40 RNS is more of a priority • Revise TRB ADA40 RNS instead Removed and replaced with RNS21 by TRB ADA40 (see Table 7) Cumulative Effects of Underinvestment in Rural Transportation • Needs to be rewritten looking forward • Look at investment not underinvestment Became RNS6 (see Table 7)

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap 39 Table 7. Proposed Early-Action RNS Item Project ID Description Source RNS1 WC-IR-03 Bridge and Culvert Vulnerability Assessment Software Suite A RNS2 LE-ML-02 Effectiveness of Zero-Tolerance Drug & Alcohol Policies for Rural Transportation Agencies A RNS3 LE-TE-06 Force Multiplier Toolkit for Rural Traffic Safety Enforcement A RNS4 FP-EI-02 Trade-off Analysis: A Multi-Modal Guide for Rural Transportation Investment Analysis A RNS5 TAM-RV- 02 Modern Approaches to Ride Hailing Services for Rural Communities A RNS6 FP-EI-03 Cumulative Effects of Investment in Rural Transportation A RNS7 S-SSM-07 Simplified Centerline Marking for Two-lane Paved Rural Highways A RNS8 Winter Maintenance of Unpaved Roads: Existing Practices A RNS9 RPM-TC- 03 Traffic Impacts of Energy Development on Rural Roadways A RNS10 WC-Ge-06 Structural & Seismic Risks to Rural Roads and Bridges in Petroleum and Natural Gas Extraction Areas A RNS11 Rural Transit Funding Policy Review A RNS12 PT-F-01 Innovative Revenue Sources for Rural Transit Systems A RNS13 Autonomous Vehicles and the Non-Driving Functions of Rural Public Transit Operators A RNS14 FP-GF-10 Making the Rural to Urban Transit Transition A RNS15 LE-HT-06 Human Trafficking Intervention Guide for Rural and Tribal Transportation Agencies A RNS16 S-DD-02 Trends and Characteristics of Distracted Driving Crashes on Rural “Non-Occupants” A RNS17 WC-OR-06 Bouncing Back from Natural Disasters in Tourism-Dependent Rural Communities A RNS18 DE-EEL-02 Overcoming Smartphone-Related Barriers to Ride Hailing and Public Transportation for Elderly A RNS19 DE-YEL-07 Effects in Rural Areas of Generational Changes in Obtaining Driver’s Licenses A RNS20 PT-PR-01 Exploring the Value of Passenger Rail Service in Rural Network Access A RNS21 EDT-FR- 01 Accessing America’s Great Outdoors: Understanding Recreational Travel Patterns, Demand, and Future Investment Needs for Federal and State Transportation Systems B RNS22 RI-UR-06 MIRE Data Requirements Supporting Safety Improvements on Unpaved Roads C RNS23 PT-IB-01 Development and Implementation of a National Intercity Bus Atlas D RNS24 PT-IB-08 Innovative Business Models for Rural Intercity Passenger Transportation A RNS25 TAM-MM- 04 Development and Implementation of Multi-Modal Trip Planning and Booking, Merging Fixed-Route to Demand-Response Services E

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap 40 Table 7 Source Codes: A: NCHRP 20-122 Research Team B: TRB Committee on Transportation Needs of National Parks and Public Lands (ADA40) C: TRB Subcommittee on Rural Road Safety Policy ((ANB10(7)) D: Dr. Fred Fravel E: TRB Committee on Rural and Intercity Bus Transportation (APO55) Table 8: Results of RNS Rankings by Project Database As mentioned throughout Chapter 3, all research needs collected through the environmental scan, literature review, stakeholder workshops, and TRB committees were input into a database. This database was sorted by rural transportation theme. The research needs were then reviewed for: • Duplications. • Needs not rural specific. • Issues that were not research at all, but rather indicated a need for wider dissemination of existing research results. • Existing or ongoing research on the topic. • Relevance (specifically the ones gathered from the RNS database which could have been older). Research needs were then combined, removed, or revised as needed. Many research needs were also recategorized into different themes and subcategories to create consistency. The information from this database was then used for the Portfolios discussed further in the next section. Statement # Title Include in Roadmap (Yes+Not Sure) Mean Importance Score Include in Early Action (Yes + Not Sure) Weighted Rank RNS4 Multi-Modal Investment Analysis Guide 92% 4.09 91.0% 1 RNS2 Effectiveness of Zero Tolerance Drug/Alcohol Policies 67% 4.38 88.0% 2 RNS1 Bridge & Culvert Vulnerability Assessment Suite 50% 4.17 83.0% 3 RNS18 Overcoming Smartphone Barriers to Transit Use 58% 4.29 71.4% 4 RNS17 Rural Tourism Natural Disaster Recovery 83% 4.10 70.0% 5 RNS22 MIRE Data Requirements - Unpaved Roads 92% 3.82 81.8% 6 RNS6 Cumulative Effects of Rural Transportation Investment 67% 4.13 63.0% 7 RNS3 Rural Enforcement Force Multiplier Toolkit 75% 3.89 67.0% 8 RNS15 Human Trafficking Intervention Guide 83% 3.70 60.0% 9 RNS21 Recreational Travel Patterns and Needs 100% 3.82 58.3% 10 RNS11 Rural Transit Funding Policy Review 83% 3.90 50.0% 11 RNS5 Ride Hailing for Rural Communities 67% 3.50 63.0% 12 RNS16 Distracted Driving Crashes - Non-Occupants 83% 3.80 60.0% 13 RNS25 Multi-Modal Trip Planning/Booking Fixed Rte & Demand Response 67% 3.38 62.5% 14 RNS24 Innovative Rural Intercity Bus Business Models 75% 3.33 55.6% 15 RNS7 Simplified Rural Centerline Marking 67% 3.63 50.0% 16 RNS23 Intercity Bus Atlas 83% 3.20 50.0% 17 RNS20 Value of Rural Passenger Rail Service 75% 3.33 55.6% 18 RNS14 Making the Rural to Urban Transit Transition 75% 3.25 38.0% 19 RNS12 Innovative Revenue Sources for Rural Transit 67% 3.88 38.0% 20 RNS8 Unpaved Roads Winter Maintenance 83% 3.20 40.0% 21 RNS10 Seismic & Structural Effects of Energy Development 67% 3.13 38.0% 22.5 RNS9 Traffic Impacts of Energy Development 67% 3.13 38.0% 22.5 RNS19 Generational Change - Rural Driver Licensing 50% 2.50 33.3% 24 RNS13 AVs and Non-Driving Functions of Rural Transit Operators 50% 2.75 13.0% 25

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap 41 Portfolios of Themed Research As the objective of the Roadmap was to identify critical rural transportation issues that can be addressed by research through NCHRP and other research programs, there was a need to provide this information in a usable format. The database (as described in Chapter 3) provided an easy way to continue to update the Roadmap information. However, it was not a user-friendly method or format for distributing the research needs to those (e.g., TRB committees, state DOTs, AASHTO committees, and universities) who may be willing to expand them into RNS and PS for funding submissions. Therefore, the Research Team created “portfolios” of themed research for each of the fifteen rural transportation themes, using the process described in the following sections. Project Identification Every research need provided in the portfolio was given a number, name, rank, and subcategory. 1. Numbers - assigned as three separate parts. The first part is an abbreviation of the theme/portfolio name, the second part is an abbreviation of the subcategory name, and the third part is a number assigned based on rank order. For example, the top priority in the Rural Public and School Transportation Portfolio was RNS23, Development and Implementation of a National Intercity Bus Atlas. The number assigned to this project is PT-IB-01. This correlates to: – Portfolio Name = Rural Public and School Transportation = PT – Subcategory Name = Intercity Bus = IB – Number Assigned by Rank Order = 01 2. Research need - describes the research need and in many cases was the original phrase submitted to the Research Team. As these needs are developed into RNS or PS, the name should be changed to a more descriptive title. 3. Rank – assists with the prioritization of research needs and was calculated based on two prioritization exercises: (1) the TRB Workshop dot exercise and (2) the Spring Webinar ranking exercise. For the TRB Workshop, all research suggestions generated prior to the workshop were printed on posters, and participants were asked to identify high-priority items by marking the most important items with dots. The resulting “dot count” was then tallied. For the Spring Webinar, participants were asked to rate each research suggestion by providing one of six possible responses: extremely important, very important, moderately important, slightly important, not important, or no opinion. Responses were then converted to a 5-point scale, with “extremely important” corresponding to 5 points and “not important” corresponding to 1 point. To assure that respondents did not feel pressured to rate items that were outside their technical expertise, “no opinion” responses were excluded from the scoring. To allow the Spring Webinar and TRB Workshop rankings to be compared directly; the TRB Workshop dot rankings were mathematically converted to an equivalent 5-point scale. In both cases, participants were also given the opportunity to comment on the wording and content of each item, and an opportunity to provide additional research suggestions. Therefore, some research suggestions had multiple rankings (from both TRB Workshop and Spring Webinar), while newer items added during the TRB Workshop had only one score. The higher of the two scores was then used to create the final rankings within each of the research themes. 4. Subcategory – while each of the 15 rural transportation themes is unique, there was a need to further subcategorize these. In some cases, the same subcategory is used in multiple themes.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap 42 Table 9: Subcategories Part 1 Rural Transportation Themes Subcategories Active Transportation Culture Data Electric Scooters Infrastructure Marketing Planning Policy Safety Tribal Aviation Essential Air Service Frontier and Remote Communities General Aviation Ground Transportation Operations Cross-cutting Funding, Planning, & Policy Issues Economic Impact/Performance Metrics Frontier and Remote Areas General Funding General Policy Planning Driver Education & Licensing Elderly – Education & Licensing Youth – Education & Licensing Economic Development & Tourism Community and Economic Development Data Design Economic Impact/Performance Measures Forecasting Rural Travel Demand Partnerships Technology Tribal Communities Visitor Transportation Intersection of Health and Transportation EMS Planning Social Issues Technology Transportation for Healthcare Law Enforcement, Crime and Drugs Human Trafficking Illicit Drugs Marijuana Legalization Traffic Enforcement in Rural Areas Traffic Incident Management

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap 43 Table 10: Subcategories Part 2 Rural Transportation Themes Subcategories Roadway Infrastructure and Balancing Capacity with Demand Asset Management Bridges Design Finance General Geometric Design Maintenance Unpaved Roads Rural Public & School Transportation Funding Human Resources Intercity Bus Marketing Modeling and Forecasting NEMT Passenger Facilities Passenger Rail Performance Measures Planning Policy School Transportation Tribal Vehicle Technology Rural Transportation Safety Distracted Driving Environment Funding Rural Safety Improvements Geometric Design of Rural Roads – Motor Vehicle Traffic Geometric Design of Rural Roads - Motorized Vehicles Not Intended for Highway Use Geometric Design of Rural Roads - Non-motorized Traffic Impaired Driving Multi-modal Roadway Environment Safety Culture/Behavioral Safety Safety Data & Safety Management Safety Education Safety Planning Seat Belts Signaling, Signing & Marking Speed Tribal Transportation Access and Mobility Multi-Modal Concept Ridesourcing and Volunteers Shared-Use Specific User Types

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap 44 Table 11: Subcategories Part 3 Rural Transportation Themes Subcategories Technology Including Connected and Automated Vehicles Applications Data Demonstration/Pilot Projects Electric Vehicles Infrastructure and Maintenance Marketing and Public Outreach Planning Rural Barriers Technical Standards Transporting Rural Products to Market Coordination Maritime Freight Oversize/Overweight Loads on Highways Rail and Intermodal Freight Safety Social Issues Trends and Competitiveness Truck Freight Weather, Climate, Resilience and Environment Context Sensitive Design Environmental Impact Management Geotechnical Infrastructure Resilience Maintenance Operations/Recovery Planning Prediction Transportation Health and Safety Tribal Workforce Development Technical Capacity Transportation Agency Recruitment/Retention

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap 45 Portfolio Layout The portfolio provided to the Project Panel was separated into three sections. 1. Top research priorities for this theme – after the research suggestions were sorted into rank order based on the higher of the two scores (TRB Workshop or Spring Webinar), the team looked for natural breaks in the rankings to identify a workable number of research priorities within each theme (typically about the top 10% of the research suggestions). As it was most likely that the Project Panel would be choosing the top 3-5 projects for expansion from this list, more details were provided for these top projects than for others. In addition to the information provided for all projects (i.e., number, name, rank, and subcategory), these projects also included a description which was generally a one to two paragraph overview of the research suggestion. 2. Newly proposed research suggestions/titles – these research needs were new ones identified through the Spring Webinar (unprioritized and therefore unranked). 3. Remainder of the research suggestions/titles – this category provided remaining research needs (not already included in sections 1 or 2), listed in rank order by subcategory. Original Portfolio Methodology The original plan was to provide the portfolios to the CRP Project Manager, NCHRP 20-122 panel chair, and NCHRP 20-122 panel for review and prioritization of this information. While all research needs in the document were expected to be documented in the final report, the initial vision was to identify a concise list (3-5) of the top-priority research needs for each critical need category, which could be displayed in a Roadmap graphic and drafted into RNS by the Research Team. This methodology was tested with the Rural Public and School Transportation Portfolio. Based on the review, in May 2019 the Project Panel chose, by consensus, three research needs as the top priorities out of 116 needs considered in the theme. These three priorities were recommended for PS creation. The Rural Public and School Transportation Portfolio was accepted by the panel in May 2019 and distributed to relevant staff at AASHTO, American Public Transportation Association (APTA), TRB, CTAA, National Rural Transit Assistance Program (RTAP), and other organizations for sharing with interested committees and councils, for their use. The CRP Project Manager also briefed the TCRP Oversight and Project Selection (TOPS) Committee in June 2019. More information is provided in the Problem Statement section of this chapter. This portfolio can be found in Appendix F. Updated Portfolio Methodology After the methodology was piloted with the Rural Public and School Transportation Portfolio, five more portfolios were provided to the Project Panel for review in August 2019: • Transporting Rural Products (Freight) to Market. • Weather, Climate, Resilience and Environment. • Active Transportation. • Connected and Automated Vehicles and Emerging Technologies. • Economic Development & Tourism. At that time, it was decided that (1) the Project Panel did not have the expertise in all the remaining critical needs categories to continue prioritizing the research needs as was done with the Rural Public and School Transportation Portfolio, (2) it was more appropriate for the relevant AASHTO committees to have a final say in the priorities, and (3) even if the panel could prioritize the top three projects, the project budget did not allow for the creation of additional PS. Therefore, the Project Panel decided to just review and revise these five portfolios. These portfolios can be found in Appendix F.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap 46 Final Roadmap Portfolios To ensure that the information is provided in an easy-to-use way, the portfolios were revised to only be separated by subcategory and the overall project rankings were removed due to the Project Panel concern that these ranking may not be current. These portfolios are expected to be utilized for distribution during implementation of this project. All final portfolios in the Roadmap can be found in Appendix G. Problem Statements In total, 13 PS were created for this project. More details can be found below. Problem Statements Presented to the AASHTO R&I Committee As mentioned previously in the RNS section, seven of the RNS were chosen to present to AASHTO R&I. These RNS were then turned into problem statements by putting them into the CRP format and adding budgets and timelines to them. The problem statement title, budget, and timeline are shown in Table 12. As noted previously, three of the above were created by the Research Team and four were created by TRB committees or other outside sources. On October 29, 2018, the CRP Project Manager, NCHRP 20-122 Project Panel Chair, and Research Team presented to the AASHTO R&I Committee. The presentation included an overview of the project, definition of rural and the rural transportation themes, progress to date, key issues, next steps, and a description of each of the seven PS. Results The AASHTO R&I Committee chose to move all seven PS though for potential FY2019 funding. In addition, one of the state DOT members on the AASHTO R&I Committee was so interested in RNS21 on “Accessing America’s Great Outdoors: Recreational Travel Patterns, Demands, & Needs” that this DOT later became a sponsor for that problem statement. While all seven moved forward in the process, in the end, two of these projects were selected for NCHRP funding. • Assessing America’s Great Outdoors: Recreational Travel Patterns, Demands, and Needs– this project is now known as NCHRP 08-132. The contract effective date is August 5, 2020. Additional information can be found at: https://apps.trb.org/cmsfeed/ TRBNetProjectDisplay.asp?ProjectID=4744. • National Intercity Bus Atlas Development and Implementation – this project is now known as NCHRP 08-133. The contract effective date is February 5, 2021. Additional information can be found at: https://apps.trb.org/cmsfeed/ TRBNetProjectDisplay.asp?ProjectID=4745. • During the 2020 TRB Annual Meeting, the TRB Subcommittee on Rural Road Safety Policy ((ANB10(7)) also announced plans to modify the PS on MIRE Data Requirements Supporting Safety Improvements on Unpaved Roads (previously RNS22) and resubmit it to the AASHTO Committee on Safety for further NCHRP consideration.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap 47 Table 12: Problem Statements Presented to AASHTO R&I Committee NCHRP 20-122 ID Number Problem Statement Title Scale LE-ML-02 Effectiveness of Zero-Tolerance Drug & Alcohol Policies for Rural Transportation Agencies $400,000 18 months. LE-TE-06 Force Multiplier Toolkit for Rural Traffic Safety Enforcement $250,000 18 months FP-EI-02 Trade-off Analysis: A Multi-Modal Guide for Rural Transportation Investment Analysis $500,000 30 months EDT-FR-01 Accessing America’s Great Outdoors: Understanding Recreational Travel Patterns, Demand, and Future Investment Needs for Federal and State Transportation Systems $450,000 24 months RI-UR-06 MIRE Data Requirements Supporting Safety Improvements on Unpaved Roads $300,000 12-18 months PT-IB-01 Development and Implementation of a National Intercity Bus Atlas $600,000 18 months TAM-MM-04 Development and Implementation of Multi-Modal Trip Planning and Booking, Merging Fixed-Route to Demand-Response Services $700,000 24 months Transit PS After the Project Panel prioritized the top three research needs from the Rural Public & School Transportation Portfolio, the Research Team then developed these into PS for possible submission to the FY 2020 Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) program if a champion was identified. The NCHRP 20-122 ID number, problem statement title, budget, and timeline are shown in Table 13. Table 13: Transit PS Created NCHRP 20-122 ID Number Problem Statement Title Scale PT-NEMT-01 Policy Coordination to Improve Rural Non- Emergency Medical Transportation (NEMT) Patient Care and Reduce Fiscal Risk $750,000 24 months. PT-MF-01 Design Guide for Rural Deviated Fixed Route Transit Systems $650,000 36 months PT-IB-02 and PT-IB-04 Guidebook for Improving Connectivity to Intercity Bus Services $500,000 unknown timeline In the end, one of these projects was submitted by Community Transportation Association of America (CTAA) and selected for partial FY2020 TCRP funding: • Design Guide for Rural Deviated Fixed Route Transit Systems. This project was partially funded by TCRP, which provided $100,000 to begin the project. NCHRP funded the $500,000 remainder of the project budget. This project is now known as TCRP Project number B-49. Additional information can be found at https://apps.trb.org/cmsfeed/TRBNetProjectDisplay.asp?ProjectID=4884 In light of this, the Project Panel chose to send the “Policy Coordination to Improve Rural Non- Emergency Medical Transportation (NEMT) Patient Care and Reduce Fiscal Risk” problem statement to the TRB Executive Committee as one of four submitted policy projects as described in more detail below.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap 48 It should also be noted that the “Guidebook for Improving Connectivity to Intercity Bus Services” was not funded due to NCHRP funding the “National Intercity Bus Atlas Development and Implementation” Project in FY2020. The Transit PS can be found in Appendix H. Policy PS As mentioned in Chapter 3, during the 2019 TRB Annual Meeting, the NCHRP 20-122 Project Panel was invited to submit policy PS to the TRB Executive Committee Policy Director for funding consideration. Based on this invitation, the NCHRP 20-122 Project Panel reviewed all policy related research needs at their October 2019 Project Panel Meeting. During this meeting, the Project Panel prioritized three policy research needs and asked the Research Team to create PS. The topics from the aviation, economic development, and active transportation themes. In addition, the Project Panel would like to also submit the Transit Policy PS “Policy Coordination to Improve Rural Non-Emergency Medical Transportation (NEMT) Patient Care and Reduce Fiscal Risk” as discussed above. More information on the four PS can be found in Table 14. Table 14: Policy PS Created NCHRP 20-122 ID Number Problem Statement Title Scale Av-EA-01, Av-EA-02, Av-EA-03, and Av_EA-04 Sustainability and Mode Choice in the Essential Air Service (EAS) Program. $750,000 24 months RI-Ge-02, EDT-CED-01, and EDT-CED-03 Clarifying Relationships Between Rural Economic Development and Transportation Investments. $750,000 24 months AT-S-03, AT-Po-02, AT-Po-05, and AT-Po-06 Realistic Solutions for Funding Rural and Small- town Pedestrian Infrastructure. $500,000 24 months PT-NEMT-01 Policy Coordination to Improve Rural Non- Emergency Medical Transportation (NEMT) Patient Care and Reduce Fiscal Risk $750,000 24 months. These RNS can be found in Appendix F. The next steps for theses RNS are: • Project Panel review, revision, and acceptance. • CRP Project Manager presents the PS to the Policy Director of the TRB Executive Committee. • Project Panel submits PS to the appropriate AASHTO committees for consideration. The Policy PS can be found in Appendix I.

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Although only 19% of the population lives in rural areas, more than 70% of the U.S.’s four million miles of roadways are in rural areas. The rural transportation system also includes numerous airports; railways; inland and coastal waterways; rural and intercity buses; and bicycle, pedestrian, and multi-use paths and trails. In addition, approximately 47% of the nation’s motor vehicle fatalities occur in rural areas.

The TRB National Cooperative Highway Research Program's pre-publication draft of NCHRP Research Report 988: Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap is designed to assist state departments of transportation and other public agencies and help inform policy–driven investment decisions.

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