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Suggested Citation:"OPTION 9." National Research Council. 1995. The Global Positioning System: A Shared National Asset. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4920.
Page 219
Suggested Citation:"OPTION 9." National Research Council. 1995. The Global Positioning System: A Shared National Asset. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4920.
Page 220

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APPENDIX H 219 widely deployed military P-code receiver "Plugger" will loose its anti-spoofing capability, and intentional jamming of L1 will inhibit two-frequency ionospheric corrections for the military. OPTION 7 Option 7 provides civilian access to a wide-band signal format, as well as excellent dual-frequency wide- laning and ionospheric corrections. As in Option 6, some changes to military software and hardware will be required to handle the mixed P/Y-code situation on L1 and L2. However, this change is compatible with single- frequency military receivers such as the Plugger. Local denial will entail selective jamming and/or C/A-code spoofing on L1, as well as complete jamming/spoofing on the L2 band. In a geographic region of denial the military might be without a dual-frequency capability. OPTION 8 Option 8 emphasizes civilian dual-frequency operation, as well as military A-S operation. Civilians would obtain very good wide-laning capability, but would not get enhanced wide-bandwidth features. Also, the availability of widely spaced frequencies would offer some interference reduction. On the military side, ionospheric correction might be lost in denial-jamming/spoofing situations unless careful cross-aiding from L1 were employed, and the military would not have a signal solely for their purposes. OPTION 9 Option 9 essentially gives to civilians the wide-band, dual-frequency capabilities of the military. Clearly, this option would be highly beneficial to the civilian sector, but it would leave most of the military receiver inventory vulnerable to spoofing or even outright loss of navigation capability in denial environments. The most critical military users would have available a new Y-code signal, perhaps of much wider bandwidth and operating on a higher carrier frequency. Such a Y-code signal upgrade is for the late/post Block IIF time period.


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The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a satellite-based navigation system that was originally designed for the U.S. military. However, the number of civilian GPS users now exceeds the military users, and many commercial markets have emerged. This book identifies technical improvements that would enhance military, civilian, and commercial use of the GPS. Several technical improvements are recommended that could be made to enhance the overall system performance.

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