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Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers (1995)

Chapter: B STATISTICS ON GRADUATE EDUCATION OF SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS

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Suggested Citation:"B STATISTICS ON GRADUATE EDUCATION OF SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
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Page 97

B
STATISTICS ON GRADUATE EDUCATION OF SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS

Michael McGeary
Study Director, Committee on Science,
Engineering, and Public Policy

Contents

OVERVIEW

100

THE GRADUATE STUDENTS

100

Tables:

B-1

Distribution of Science and Engineering Graduate Students, by Field, 1992

101

B-2

Distribution of US and Non-US Students, by Broad Field, 1992

102

B-3

Female Science and Engineering Graduate Students, by Broad Field, 1992

103

B-4

Members of Underrepresented Minorities, by Broad Field, 1992

104

B-5

Increase in Full-Time Graduate Enrollment, by Field and Citizenship, 1982-1992

105

B-6

Trends in First-Year and Beyond-First-Year Full-Time Enrollments in Doctorate-Granting Institutions, 1982-1992

106

B-7

Sources of Major Support for Full-Time Science and Engineering Graduate Students in All Institutions, by Field, 1992

107

B-8

Sources of Major Support for Full-Time Science and Engineering Graduate Students, 1982 and 1992

108

B-9

Federal Sources of Support for Full-Time Science and Engineering Graduate Students in All Institutions, by Field and Agency, 1992

109

Suggested Citation:"B STATISTICS ON GRADUATE EDUCATION OF SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
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Page 98

B-10

Mechanisms of Major Support for Full-Time Science and Engineering Graduate Students in Doctorate-Granting Institutions, 1991

110

B-11

Science and Engineering Graduate Students in Master's Degree Institutions and Doctorate Institutions, by Enrollment Status and Field, 1992

111

THE INSTITUTIONS

112

Tables:

B-12

Number of Academic Institutions with Science and Engineering Programs, by Highest Degree Level, 1991

112

B-13

Concentration of Science and Engineering Degree Awards by Type of Institution, 1991

113

B-14

Concentration of 80 Percent of Science and Engineering PhD Production in the 105 Research Universities, by Field, 1991

114

B-15

Number of Institutions by Highest Degree Level Since 1961, by Decade

114

SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING MASTER'S DEGREES

115

Tables:

B-16

Science and Engineering Master's Degrees, Awarded by Field, 1966-1991

115

B-17

Women as Percentage of Science and Engineering Master's Degree Recipients, by Field, 1991

116

B-18

Members of Underrepresented Minorities as Percentage of Science and Engineering Master's Degree Recipients, by Field, 1977-1991

117

B-19

Science and Engineering Master's Degrees Earned by Students Who Were Not US Citizens, by Field, 1977, 1985, and 1991

118

SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING DOCTORAL DEGREES

119

Tables:

B-20

Science and Engineering Doctorates Awarded, by Field, 1983-1993

119

B-21

Increases in Number of Science and Engineering Doctorates Awarded, by Field, 1988-1993

120

B-22

Women as a Percentage of Science and Engineering Doctorate Recipients, by Field, 1983-1993

121

B-23

Science and Engineering Doctorates Awarded to Women, by Field, 1983 and 1993

122

B-24

Members of Underrepresented Minorities as a Percentage of Science and Engineering Doctorate Recipients, by Field, 1983, 1988, and 1993

123

Suggested Citation:"B STATISTICS ON GRADUATE EDUCATION OF SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×

Page 99

B-25

Share of Science and Engineering Doctorates Earned by Students Who Were Not US Citizens, by Field, 1983 and 1993

124

B-26

Increase in Science and Engineering Doctorates Awarded to Non-US Citizens with Temporary Visas, by Field, 1983 and 1993

125

B-27

Science and Engineering Doctorates Awarded to Non-US Citizens with Temporary Visas, by Field, 1983 and 1993

126

B-28

Region and Country of Origin of Foreign Citizens with Temporary Visas Earning Science and Engineering PhDs, 1983 and 1993

127

B-29

Median Total Time-to-Degree for Doctorate Recipients, 1962-1993

128

B-30

Primary Sources of Support for Science and Engineering Doctorate Recipients, by Broad Field, 1993

131

POSTDOCTORATE EMPLOYMENT PLANS

131

Table:

B-31

Science and Engineering PhD Recipients with Definite Postgraduation Commitments in the United States, by Field and Type of Employer, 1970-1991

132

POSTDOCTORAL STUDY TRENDS

133

Tables:

B-32

Postdoctoral Study Plans of Recipients of Science and Engineering Doctorates from US Universities, 1985-1992

133

B-33

Postdoctoral Study Plans of Recipients of Science and Engineering Doctorates from US Universities, by Field, 1992

133

B-34

Science and Engineering Postdoctoral Appointees in Doctorate-Granting Institutions, by Field, 1982-1992

134

B-35

Trends in Net Growth of Science and Engineering Postdoctoral Appointee Positions in Doctorate-Granting Institutions, by Field, 1982 and 1992

135

B-36

Appointments of Postdoctoral Scientists and Engineers Who Were Not US Citizens in Doctorate-Granting Institutions, by Field, 1982 and 1992

136

B-37

Federally Supported Science and Engineering Postdoctoral Appointees in Doctorate-Granting Institutions, by Field, 1982 and 1992

137

B-38

Sources of Support for Science and Engineering Postdoctoral Appointees in Doctorate-Granting Institutions, by Field, 1992

138

Suggested Citation:"B STATISTICS ON GRADUATE EDUCATION OF SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×

Page 100

OVERVIEW

About 1,500 institutions of higher learning in the United States have programs leading to degrees in science and engineering. Of those, nearly 300 offer doctoral-degree programs in science and engineering. They also offer master's degrees, and more than 400 nondoctoral academic institutions offer master's-degree programs in science and engineering. In 1992, about 430,000 graduate students were in science and engineering programs; 87% of them were at the 300 doctorate-granting institutions.

In 1992, about 80,000 master's degrees and 25,000 doctoral degrees were earned in science and engineering fields. About one-fourth of the doctorates were awarded in each broad field of science and engineering: physical/mathematical sciences, life sciences, social sciences, and engineering. The median time from the bachelor's degree to the PhD was 9.2 years. More than half of the master's degrees and 90% of the PhDs are awarded by the 150 universities that receive 90% of federal academic R&D funding.

About 5% of all science and engineering doctorate recipients in 1993 (14% of life-sciences PhDs) were supported by federal fellowships and traineeships. Another 61 % (including 78% of physical scientists and 69% of engineers) received external support, primarily research assistantships and teaching assistantships. Many of the research assistantships were funded by federal grants. About one-quarter of the science and engineering doctoral recipients (including one-half the social scientists) were self-supporting (including federally guaranteed loans).

More than one-third more doctorates in science and engineering were awarded in 1993 than in 1983. Seven-tenths of the net increase in doctorate awards went to foreign citizens with temporary visas, and most of the remaining increase was to US women. In 1993, nearly 30% of the doctorates were earned by women, up from about 25% in 1983. In 1992, 5.7% of PhDs were earned by members of underrepresented minorities in 1992, up from 4.1 % in 1983; most of the increase was earned by Hispanics. Foreign citizens with temporary visas greatly increased their share of US doctorates, earning 18.5% in 1983 and 32% in 1993; almost all the net increase was accounted for by citizens of Asian countries. Nearly half of the engineering PhDs went to foreign citizens with temporary visas.

THE GRADUATE STUDENTS

In 1992, the National Science Foundation (NSF) estimated that about 431,600 students were enrolled in graduate science and engineering degree programs (NSF, 1994a:Table 1). Most (87%) were enrolled in doctorate-granting institutions, a proportion that has varied only slightly since the NSF survey began in 1975. Most (67%) were full-time students (this proportion was 72% in doctorate-granting institutions).

Suggested Citation:"B STATISTICS ON GRADUATE EDUCATION OF SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
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Page 101

It is not possible to tell which of these graduate students were enrolled in master's degree programs and which in doctoral programs, although many PhD recipients have master's degrees (72% in 1993) (NRC, 1995:Appendix Table A-3).

Table B-1, a comparison of the distribution of science and engineering graduate students among fields by type of institution and enrollment status shows that life-sciences graduate students were somewhat more likely than science and engineering graduate students overall to be at doctorate institutions and to be enrolled full-time. Social sciences and behavioral-science graduate students had the opposite pattern: they were somewhat more likely to be part-time and at master's institutions. Engineering graduate students were slightly more likely to be at doctorate institutions but more likely to be enrolled part-time.

TABLE B-1 Distribution of Science and Engineering Graduate Students, by Field, 1992

Field

All Institutions,
All Students

Doctorate-Granting Institutions

   

All Students

Full-Time Students

TOTAL

431,613 (100%)

374,781 (100%)

270,984 (100%)

Physical/

mathematical sciences

106,548 (25.0%)

93,429 (25.2%)

69,053 (25.8%)

Astronomy

869

869

840

Physics

14,264

13,734

12,432

Chemistry

19,904

18,799

16,611

Physical sciences n.e.c.

459

209

128

Mathematical sciences

20,375

17,890

13,889

Environmental sciences

15,609

13,964

10,567

Computer sciences

36,396

29,042

15,554

Life sciences

66,046 (15.3%)

61,114 (16.3%)

51,676 (19.1%)

Agricultural sciences

11,609

10,891

8,907

Biological sciences

54,437

50,223

42,769

Social/behavioral sciences

139,644 (32.4%)

110,868 (29.6%)

77,464 (28.6%)

Social sciences

85,824

73,170

50,272

Psychology

53,820

37,698

27,192

Engineering

118,047 (27.3%)

108,292 (28.9%)

71,823 (26.5%)

SOURCE: Calculated from Table 1 in NSF, 1994a.

Suggested Citation:"B STATISTICS ON GRADUATE EDUCATION OF SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×

Page 102

Non-US Citizens

Nearly 110,000 (25.3%) science and engineering graduate students were not US citizens in 1992. About 93,000 of them were enrolled full-time. Their distribution among fields differed from that of US-citizen science and engineering graduate students. Table B-2 shows the distribution of full-time science and engineering graduate students by citizenship and broad field in 1992. Those who were not US citizens were more likely to be studying engineering or the physical sciences and less likely to be in life-science or social/behavioral-sciences programs.

As a result, those who were not US citizens constituted relatively high proportions in some fields—46% of all full-time graduate students in engineering and 39% of those in the physical/mathematic sciences—but low proportions in other fields—27 % of all full-time graduate students in the life sciences and 17% of those in the social/behavioral sciences or psychology.

TABLE B-2 Distribution of US and Non-US Citizens, by Broad Field, 1992

Field

Full-Time Science and Engineering Graduate Student, All Institutions

 

US Citizen

Non-US Citizen

TOTAL

198,198 (100.0%)

92,795 (100.0%)

Physical/

mathematical sciences

45,177 (22.8%)

28,983 (31.2%)

Life sciences

39,146 (19.7%)

14,652 (15.8%)

Social/behavioral sciences

73,661 (37.2%)

14,908 (16.1%)

Engineering

40,214 (20.3%)

34,252 (36.9%)

SOURCE: Calculated from Tables 13 and 14 in NSF, 1994a.

Suggested Citation:"B STATISTICS ON GRADUATE EDUCATION OF SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×

Page 103

Female Graduate Students

In 1992, more than 150,000 (35%) science and engineering graduate students were women (up from 25% in 1977). As Table B-3 shows, they were more likely to be enrolled in the life sciences or the social/behavioral sciences and less likely to be in the physical sciences or engineering. In fact, half of all female science and engineering graduate students were in social sciences and psychology programs.

As a result, the majority (54%) of graduate students in the social/behavioral sciences were women, as were 44% of those in the life sciences. Only 15% of engineering graduate students and 27% of those in the natural (physical, environmental, mathematical, and computer) sciences were female.

TABLE B-3 Female Science and Engineering Graduate Students, by Broad Field, 1992

Field

Number

Percentage Distribution Across Fields

Percentage of All Graduate Students

TOTAL

150,411

100.0

34.8

Physical/

mathematical sciences

28,719

19.1

26.6

Life sciences

29,223

19.4

44.2

Social/behavioral sciences

75,311

50.1

53.9

Engineering

17,158

11.4

14.5

SOURCE: Calculated from Table 8 in NSF, 1994a.

Suggested Citation:"B STATISTICS ON GRADUATE EDUCATION OF SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×

Page 104

Members of Underrepresented Minorities

Fewer than 29,000 (9%) of science and engineering graduate students who were US citizens were members of underrepresented minorities—black, Hispanic, or American Indian. Compared with all US-citizen graduate students, they were much more likely to be studying social/behavioral sciences (53 versus 37%) and substantially less likely to be in the life sciences (13% versus 20%). Members of underrepresented minorities constituted 13% of US citizens in the social/behavioral sciences and about 7% of those in the other broad fields (see Table B-4).

TABLE B-4 Members of Underrepresented Minorities, by Broad Field, 1992

Field

Number

Percentage Distribution Across Fields

Percentage of All US-Citizen Graduate Students

TOTAL

28,866

100.0%

9.0

Physical/math sciences

4,917

17.0%

6.7

Life sciences

3,615

12.5%

7.2

Social/behavioral sciences

15,335

53.1%

12.6

Engineering

4,999

17.3%

6.5

SOURCE: Calculated from Table 2 in NSF, 1994a.

Growth Trends in Full-Time Graduate Enrollment Since 1982

In 1992, there were nearly 291,000 full-time science and engineering graduate students, 30.6% more than in 1982. The growth by field is presented in the first column of Table B-5. Much of the net growth came from foreign citizens; as overall enrollment was increasing by almost 2% a year, foreign enrollment was growing by more than 5% a year (NSB, 1993:50). The second and third columns of Table B-5 compare the increases in full-time science and engineering graduate students who were foreign citizens with those who were US citizens in 1982-1992, by field.

Enrollment increases were also driven by the increased participation of women—3 % a year, compared with 1 % among men, during the 1980s. There were absolute decreases in the number of male graduate students in the life, environmental, and social sciences and psychology (NSB, 1993:53).

Suggested Citation:"B STATISTICS ON GRADUATE EDUCATION OF SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×

Page 105

TABLE B-5 Increases in Full-Time Graduate Enrollment, by Field and Citizenship, 1982-1992 (percentages)

 

Citizenship

Field

All

Non-US

US

TOTAL

+30.6

+68.1

+18.4

Physical/

mathematical sciences

+33.7

+90.6

+12.2

Physical sciences

+27.8

+83.9

+7.1

Mathematical sciences

+35.5

+47.8

+28.6

Environmental sciences

-2.5

+63.3

-13.6

Computer sciences

+92.1

+170.3

+50.4

Life sciences

+14.8

+97.6

-0.8

Agricultural sciences

-6.2

+17.3

-14.1

Biological sciences

+20.4

+136.3

+2.3

Social/behavioral sciences

+26.2

+32.4

+25.1

Social sciences

+22.1

+30.1

+19.8

Psychology

+33.2

+53.9

+32.3

Engineering

+48.2

+60.6

+39.6

SOURCES: Calculated from Tables 13 and 14 in NSF, 1994a for 1992; Table B-5 in NSF,
1993a for 1982.

Growth in First-Year and Beyond-First-Year Enrollments, 1982-1992

The NSF survey of graduate students and postdoctorates in science and engineering fields began to collect information on the number of first-year full-time enrollments in 1982. The data indicate that first-year enrollments increased at a lower rate than total full-time enrollments until about 1989, after which they increased more rapidly for several years. During 1982-1992, first-year enrollments increased by 17% and beyond-first-year enrollments by 37% (Table B-6). It is difficult to interpret those data. Are the recent large increases in first-year enrollments the result of reports in the middle to late 1980s of impending shortfalls in the number of PhDs or the tendency of more college graduates to go to graduate school when economic conditions are poor? Also, how much of the higher rate of growth among beyond-first-year graduate students until recently was simply the manifestation of the steadily increasing degree requirements among science and engineering PhDs, and how much was due to graduate students' deliberately delaying completion of their degrees as short-term responses to poor job-market prospects?

Suggested Citation:"B STATISTICS ON GRADUATE EDUCATION OF SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×

Page 106

TABLE B-6 Trends in First-Year and Beyond-First-Year Full-Time Enrollments in Doctorate-Granting Institutions, 1982-1992

Year

First Year

Beyond First Year

1982

70,351

152,419

1983

72,152 (2.6%)

157,786 (3.5%)

1984

70,604 (-1.8%)

160,986 (2.0%)

1985

71,395 (1.1%)

163,100 (1.3%)

1986

73,167 (2.5%)

169,941 (4.2%)

1987

71,255 (-2.6%)

176,265 (3.7%)

1988

70,930 (-0.5%)

180,036 (2.1%)

1989

74,478 (5.0%)

182,677 (1.5%)

1990

76,405 (2.6%)

189,355 (3.7%)

1991

81,140 (6.2%)

196,211 (3.6%)

1992

82,481 (1.7%)

208,512 (6.3%)

SOURCES: Calculated from Tables B-34 and B-35 in NSF, 1992a for 1982; Tables B-24 and
B-25 in NSF, 1993a for 1983-1994; unpublished NSF Tables for 1985-1992.

Sources and Mechanisms of Financial Support

In 1992, science and engineering graduate students were supported in a number of ways by a variety of sources. For each full-time student, the NSF survey asks for the ''major" (i.e., largest) source of support (e.g., federal, institutional, and self) and the type (e.g., fellowship, and/or research assistantship). Table B-7 shows that the sources of support vary considerably from field to field. Although on the average 20% of full-time science and engineering graduate students received their major support from a federal source, this was the largest source of support for 32% of graduate students in biology and nearly 36% of graduate students in the physical sciences. Only 7% of graduate students in the social or behavioral sciences and 10% of those in the mathematical sciences were supported primarily by federal funds. Nearly twothirds of mathematical scientists and half of those in the physical sciences received their major support from their institutions (mostly in the form of research and teaching assistantships), but institutional funds were also an important source of graduate support in the other disciplines—between 32 and 45%. "Own funds" (including, however, federally guaranteed loans) were the major source of support for large fractions of graduate students in some fields—46% of those in computer science and 40% of those in the social and behavioral sciences—but for relatively few in physics, astronomy, and chemistry (6%) or the biological sciences (13%). Only a few percent received foreign support (although those completing the

Suggested Citation:"B STATISTICS ON GRADUATE EDUCATION OF SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
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survey might not always have known whether those funding their own way—thus classified as self-supporting—were receiving foreign support). Finally, about 7% overall were receiving support from industry and domestic sources other than federal and institutional. About 11% of students in engineering and agricultural science were receiving such support.

TABLE B-7 Sources of Major Support for Full-Time Science and Engineering Graduate Students in All Institutions, by Field, 1992

Field

Total No.

Federal

Institu-
tional

Other US

Foreign

Self

             

TOTAL

290,993

20.0%

41.3%

6.9%

2.1%

29.7%

Physical/

mathematical sciences

74,160

25.0%

47.0%

5.8%

1.6%

20.6%

Physical sciences

30,730

35.7%

50.0%

7.0%

1.1%

6.4%

Mathematical sciences

14,663

10.2%

65.1%

2.4%

2.0%

20.3%

Environmental sciences

11,150

30.9%

39.2%

7.1%

2.2%

20.6%

Computer sciences

17,617

15.0%

31.7%

5.9%

1.8%

45.6%

Life sciences

53,798

31.8%

43.4%

7.9%

2.3%

14.5%

Agricultural sciences

9,280

21.1%

38.7%

11.5%

6.2%

22.5%

Biological sciences

44,518

34.0%

44.4%

7.2%

1.5%

12.9%

Social/behavioral sciences

88,569

7.0%

42.0%

3.5%

1.7%

45.7%

Social sciences

54,183

6.3%

45.0%

3.7%

2.7%

42.3%

Psychology

34,386

8.1%

37.4%

3.2%

0.2%

51.1%

Engineering

74,466

22.1%

33.3%

11.4%

2.7%

30.5%

SOURCE: Calculated from Table 11 in NSF, 1994a.

Suggested Citation:"B STATISTICS ON GRADUATE EDUCATION OF SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×

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The pattern of sources of support has not changed much over the last 10 years, as seen in Table B-8; federal, institutional, and other US sources of support were up by several percentage points each, offsetting relative declines in foreign and own sources of support.

TABLE B-8 Sources of Major Support for Full-Time Science and Engineering Graduate Students, 1982 and 1992

Year

Total No.

Federal

Institu-
tional

Other US

Foreign

Self

1982

208,954

19.3%

41.5%

6.6%

4.0%

28.6%

1992

290,993

20.0%

41.3%

6.9%

2.1%

29.7%

SOURCES: Calculated from Table C-18 in NSFa, 1992 for 1982; and Table 11 in NSF, 1994a for 1992.

The sources of federal support for full-time science and engineering graduate students also varied by field (see Table B-9), although the pattern has not changed since 1982 (compare NSF, 1992: Table C-18).

National Institutes of Health (NIH) NIH is the primary source of support for nearly 70% of federally supported graduate students in the biological sciences and also accounts for one-third (34%) of federally funded graduate students in psychology. Overall, NIH is the major source of support for more than one-fourth of the federally supported science and engineering graduate students. Other Health and Human Services (DHHS) agencies pick up a few percent more.

United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) The majority (55%) of federally supported agricultural-science students are funded by USDA. USDA is the primary supporter of few other graduate students (a little more than 5% of federally funded students).

Department of Defense (DoD) Nearly half (45%) of those with major federal support in the computer sciences and more than one-fourth of those in the mathematical sciences are funded by DoD. Overall, DoD is the major source of support for 15% of federally funded graduate students.

National Science Foundation (NSF) Almost one-third of the graduate students in physical sciences who receive their major support from federal sources are funded by NSF. Overall, NSF supports more than a one-fifth of the federally funded graduate students.

Other Other federal agencies are the major source of support for 29% of federally supported graduate students, especially in the social (44%) and environmental (44%) sciences. The only fields that do not receive much support from other federal agencies are the biological (8%) and the computer (14%) sciences.

Suggested Citation:"B STATISTICS ON GRADUATE EDUCATION OF SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×

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TABLE B-9 Federal Sources of Support for Full-Time Science and Engineering Graduate Students in All Institutions, by Field and Agency, 1992

Field

Total No.

DoD

NIH

Other HHS

NSF

USDA

Federal Sources

TOTAL

58,309

15.0%

25.6%

2.2%

22.7%

5.4%

29.1%

 

Physical/mathematical sciences

18,539

17.5%

12.1%

0.8%

34.2%

1.0%

34.4%

Physical sciences

10,956

10.8%

18.6%

1.2%

32.9%

0.6%

35.9%

Mathematical sciences

1,499

25.8%

4.1%

0.5%

30.5%

1.7%

37.6%

Environmental sciences

3,449

13.7%

1.2%

0.2%

38.4%

2.6%

43.9%

Computer sciences

2,635

45.3%

3.7%

0.2%

36.3%

0.2%

14.3%

Life sciences

17,102

1.5%

61.9%

2.8%

8.3%

12.8%

12.7%

Agricultural sciences

1,961

0.9%

1.5%

0.1%

4.3%

55.0%

38.2%

Biological sciences

15,141

1.5%

69.8%

3.1%

8.8%

7.3%

9.4%

Social/behavioral sciences

6,193

5.9%

19.9%

9.1%

14.7%

6.7%

43.8%

Social sciences

3,408

6.7%

8.6%

3.6%

18.3%

11.6%

51.1%

Psychology

2,785

4.8%

33.7%

15.7%

10.2%

0.7%

34.9%

Engineering

16,475

29.7%

5.2%

0.6%

27.7%

2.2%

34.6%

SOURCE: Calculated from Table 11 in NSF, 1994a.

As for the mechanisms of support (including nonfederal), the latest detailed data by field are for 1991 (Table B-10).

Fellowships Fellowships are awarded to individual graduate students on the basis of merit. Table B-10 shows that about 10% of the 259,000 full-time science and engineering graduate students were supported by fellowships in 1991, and fellowship support was spread fairly evenly across the disciplines (about one-fourth of the fellowships were federally funded).

Traineeships Traineeship programs are competitively awarded to universities, which select the graduate students to support. About 4% of science and engineering graduate students were trainees, most of them in the biological sciences. (About 60% of the trainees were federally supported; 30% were institutionally funded.)

Research Assistantships About 30% of full-time science and engineering graduate students were supported as research associates on research grants awarded to faculty supervisors. The proportion varied by field. Graduate students in the some of the physical sciences and the life sciences were more likely to be research associates; those in the mathematical sciences and

Suggested Citation:"B STATISTICS ON GRADUATE EDUCATION OF SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×

Page 110

social and behavioral sciences were less likely. (About half the research assistants were supported by federal funds and one-third by institutional funds.)

Teaching Assistantships More than one-fifth (23 %) of graduate students were supported primarily as teaching assistants. Graduate students in mathematics and in the physical sciences were especially likely to be teaching assistants; those in engineering and agricultural sciences were less likely than average to have teaching assistantships.

Other Support "Other support" includes loans, personal funds, and tuition payments by industry and government agencies. It accounts for more than a third (33 %) of graduate students. It was especially important in some fields; about half those in computer science, psychology, and social sciences were supported other than by fellowships, traineeships, and research or teaching assistantships. Graduate students in biology or the physical sciences were less likely to rely on other types of support.

TABLE B-10 Mechanisms of Major Support for Full-Time Science and Engineering Graduate Students in Doctorate-Granting Institutions, 1991

Field

Total No.

Fellowships

Traineeship

Research Assistantships

Teaching Assistantships

Other Types of Support

TOTAL

259,484

9.6%

3.9%

30.4%

23.3%

32.8%

 

Physical/mathematical sciences

67,352

8.6%

1.8%

31.0%

36.3%

22.3%

Physical sciences

29,364

9.1%

2.6%

41.0%

38.9%

8.4%

Mathematical sciences

13,525

9.9%

1.6%

9.4%

55.2%

23.9%

Environmental sciences

9,880

9.1%

0.9%

42.5%

22.9%

24.5%

Computer sciences

14,583

5.8%

0.8%

23.3%

22.6%

47.5%

Life sciences

50,075

10.3%

10.3%

42.6%

18.1%

18.6%

Agricultural sciences

8,793

4.9%

0.9%

55.4%

9.0%

29.9%

Biological sciences

41,282

11.5%

12.3%

39.9%

20.1%

16.2%

Social/behavioral sciences

73,132

11.3%

3.8%

14.0%

21.9%

49.0%

Social sciences

47,080

14.0%

3.4%

13.5%

22.7%

46.3%

Psychology

26,052

6.4%

4.4%

14.8%

20.5%

53.8%

Engineering

68,925

8.1%

1.6%

38.4%

15.9%

36.0%

SOURCE: Calculated from Tables C-19 and C-20 in NSF, 1993a.

Suggested Citation:"B STATISTICS ON GRADUATE EDUCATION OF SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×

Page 111

Science and Engineering Graduate Students in Master's-Granting Institutions

In 1992, nearly 57,000 science and engineering graduate students were in institutions whose highest degree is the master's. Most of them (65%) were enrolled part-time. Table B- 11 gives their distribution and enrollment status by field and compares them with graduate students at doctorate-granting institutions. The table indicates that graduate students in master's degree institutions were much more likely to be in the social sciences and psychology and much less likely to be in the life sciences. In fact, 26% of all graduate students in the social sciences and psychology were in master's-degree institutions, compared with 11% of the remaining science and engineering graduate students.

TABLE B-11 Science and Engineering Graduate Students in Master's Degree Institutions and Doctorate Institutions, by Enrollment Status and Field, 1992

 

Master's-Granting Institution

Doctorate-Granting Institution

Field

All Students

Full-Time

All Students

Full-Time

TOTAL

56,832

20,009

374,781

270,984

 

Physical/mathematical sciences

13,369 (24%)

4,139 (21%)

94,507 (25%)

70,021 (26%)

Physical sciences

1,885

719

33,611

30,011

Mathematical sciences

2,485

774

17,890

13,889

Environmental sciences

1,645

583

13,964

10,567

Computer sciences

7,354

2,063

29,042

15,554

Life sciences

4,932 (9%)

2,122 (11%)

61114 (16%)

51,676 (19%)

Agricultural sciences

718

373

10,891

8,907

Biological sci

4,214

1,749

50,223

42,769

Social/behavioral sciences

28,776 (51%)

11,105 (56%)

110,868 (30%)

77,464 (29%)

Social sciences

12,654

3,911

73,170

50,272

Psychology

16,122

7,194

37,698

27,192

Engineering

9,755 (17%)

2,643 (13%)

108292 (29%)

71.823 (27%)

SOURCE: Calculated from Tables 20 and 21 in NSF, 1994a.

Suggested Citation:"B STATISTICS ON GRADUATE EDUCATION OF SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×

Page 112

THE INSTITUTIONS

In 1991, there were 3,611 institutions of higher education in the United States; they enrolled 14 million students and granted 1.9 million degrees, of which about one-fourth (470,000) were in science and engineering fields (NSB, 1993:38). The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching has classified those institutions into categories according to the size of their bachelor's-degree and graduate programs, amount of research funding, and—for liberal-arts colleges—selectivity of admissions. Table B-12 shows how many institutions were in each category in 1991.

TABLE B-12 Number of Academic Institutions with Science and Engineering Programs, by Highest Degree Level, 1991

Carnegie Foundation

Science and Engineering Program

Category

Bachelor's

Master's

Doctorate

TOTAL

1,448

738

299

Research I

67

68

71

Research II

34

34

34

Doctorate-Granting I

46

48

48

Doctorate-Granting II

56

57

53

Comprehensive I

419

318

36

Comprehensive II

167

50

1

Liberal Arts I

138

30

4

Liberal Arts II

389

42

0

Two-Year

20

0

0

Specialized

94

69

38

Other

15

20

13

Not classified

3

2

1

SOURCE: Calculated from Appendix Table 2-6 in NSB, 1993.

Suggested Citation:"B STATISTICS ON GRADUATE EDUCATION OF SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×

Page 113

Although comprehensive and liberal-arts institutions were the majority of institutions granting science and engineering bachelor's and master's degrees, the research and doctorate institutions accounted for large fractions of the degrees granted: 54% of all science and engineering bachelor's degrees and 53% of the master's degrees. Degree production is especially concentrated at the doctoral level (see Table B-13): nearly two-thirds of the science and engineering PhDs awarded in 1991 came from the 71 Research I universities, four-fifths from the 105 Research I and II universities; and nine-tenths from the 153 Research I and II and Doctorate I universities. The same set of 153 universities also receives 90% of all academic R&D funding (NSB, 1993:40; Appendix Table 2-5).

TABLE B-13 Concentration of Science and Engineering Degree Awards by Type of Institution, 1991

 

Total No. and Cumulative Percentage of Science and Engineering Degrees Awarded

Carnegie Foundation Category

Bachelors

Masters

Doctorate

TOTAL

337,675

78,368

23,979

Research I

29.3

37.6

65.2

Research II

39.1

49.2

79.5

Doctorate-Granting I

47.2

59.0

89.4

Doctorate-Granting II

53.7

68.0

94.7

Comprehensive I

83.5

91.4

96.2

Comprehensive II

87.0

93.2

96.2

Liberal Arts I

93.6

94.3

96.4

Liberal Arts II

97.7

95.3

96.4

Two-Year

97.9

95.3

96.4

Specialized

99.3

98.1

98.4

Other

99.9

99.9

99.9

Not classified

100.0

100.0

100.0

SOURCE: Calculated from Appendix Table 2-6 in NSB, 1993.

Suggested Citation:"B STATISTICS ON GRADUATE EDUCATION OF SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×

Page 114

The 105 Research I and II universities produce nearly 80% of the science and engineering doctorates awarded each year (see Table B-14). This concentration of PhD production differs some by broad field, although the 71 Research I institutions accounted for at least the majority of PhDs granted in each.

TABLE B-14 Concentration of 80 Percent of Science and Engineering PhD Production in the 105 Research Universities, by Field, 1991

Carnegie Foundation Category

Natural Sciences

Math & Computer Sciences

Social & Behavioral Sciences

Engineering

TOTAL

10,152

1,837

6,778

5,212

Research I (n=71)

67.3%

70.3%

55.4%

71.9%

Research II (n=34)

81.9%

84.5%

71.0%

84.2%

SOURCE: Calculated from Appendix Table 2-5 in NSB, 1993.

There was substantial growth in the number of institutions with graduate degree programs since 1961 (see Table B-15). The number of institutions granting doctorates doubled between 1961 and 1991; the number of master's-degree institutions more than doubled.

TABLE B-15 Number of Institutions by Highest Degree Level Since 1961, by Decade

 

Highest Degree Granted

Year

Master's

Doctorate

1961

189

153

1971

287

229

1981

361

293

1991

442

299

SOURCE: Calculated from Appendix Table 5-1 in NSB, 1985 for 1961-1981; and Appendix
Table 2-6 in NSB, 1993 for 1991.

Suggested Citation:"B STATISTICS ON GRADUATE EDUCATION OF SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×

Page 115

SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING MASTER'S DEGREES

Master's Degrees in Science and Engineering

The number of master's degrees awarded in science and engineering has grown every year since 1966 except in the 1979-1981 period (Table 1 in NSF, 1994b). In 1991, over 78,000 science and engineering master's degrees were awarded, up from 41,000 in 1966. Science and engineering master's degrees were 29% of all master's degrees awarded in 1966, a percentage that declined to less than 21 in 1976, increased to 25% in 1987, and fell again to 23% in 1991.

According to Table B-16, about one-third of science and engineering master's degrees are awarded in the social and behavioral sciences, three-tenths in engineering, one-fourth in the natural sciences, and one-tenth in the life sciences (NSF, 1994b). (Compared with 1966, the social/behavioral sciences increased their share by almost 9 percentage points, gaining 5 points from the life. sciences, 3 from engineering, and 1 from the natural sciences.)

TABLE B-16 Science and Engineering Master's Degrees Awarded, by Field, 1966-1991

Field

1966

1971

1976

1981

1986

1991

TOTAL

41,059 (100.0%)

56,454

65,007

64,366

71,831

78,368(100.0%)

Physical/

mathematical sciences

9,975 (24.3%)

13,131

11,927

12,029

17,124

18,232 (23.3%)

Physical sciences

4,275

5,115

3,880

3,366

3,649

3,777

Mathematical/

computer sciences

5,010

6,789

6,466

6,787

11,241

12,956

Environmental sciences

690

1,227

1,581

1,876

2,234

1,499

Life sciences

5,865 (14.3%)

7,604

9,223

9,107

8,027

7,406 (9.5%)

Agricultural sciences

1,641

1,848

2,602

3,092

2,983

2,600

Biological sciences

4,224

5,756

6,621

6,015

5,044

4,806

Social/behavioral sciences

11,514 (28.0%)

19,352

27,812

26,779

25,584

28,717 (36.6%)

Social sciences

9,091

14,914

19,953

18,740

17,221

18,915

Psychology

2,423

4,438

7,859

8,039

8,363

9,802

Engineering

13,705 (33.4%)

16,367

16,045

16,451

21,096

24,013 (30.6%)

SOURCE: Calculated from Table 1 in NSF, 1994b.

Suggested Citation:"B STATISTICS ON GRADUATE EDUCATION OF SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×

Page 116

Women

Women earned 13.3% of the science and engineering master's degrees in 1966, a percentage that increased steadily to nearly 36% in 1991 (see Table B-17). This varied by field.

The number of science and engineering master's degrees per 1,000 24-year-old women in the US population increased from 4 in 1966 to 15 in 1991 (NSF, 1994b:Table 57). Meanwhile, the number going to men went from more than 30 per 1000 in 1969-1970 to 26 in 1991 (after reaching a high of 32 in 1970 and a low of 21 in the early 1980s). Overall, in 1991, 21 master's degrees in science and engineering were awarded for every 1000 24-year-olds in the US population, up from 15 in 1966.

TABLE B-17 Women as Percentage of Science and Engineering Master's-Degree Recipients, by Field, 1991

Field

1966

1971

1976

1981

1986

1991

TOTAL

13.3

18.3

23.1

29.3

32.3

35.6

Physical/

mathematical sciences

15.5

19.3

21.1

24.3

29.0

31.3

Physical sciences

11.4

14.4

15.6

20.1

25.0

28.4

Math/computer sciences

20.3

24.9

26.1

27.2

31.4

32.8

Environmental sciences

6.1

9.5

13.9

21.6

23.1

25.6

Life sciences

20.8

27.1

26.8

33.4

41.7

46.3

Agricultural sciences

4.4

6.2

14.1

22.8

31.2

36.2

Biological sciences

27.2

33.8

31.8

38.9

47.9

51.8

Social/behavioral sciences

22.8

28.7

34.0

43.2

48.9

53.7

Social sciences

20.2

26.2

29.0

36.8

41.2

45.6

Psychology

32.9

37.2

46.7

58.1

64.9

69.5

Engineering

0.6

1.1

3.5

8.1

11.4

14.0

SOURCE: Calculated from Table 18 in NSF, 1994b.

Suggested Citation:"B STATISTICS ON GRADUATE EDUCATION OF SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×

Page 117

Underrepresented Minorities

NSF has collected information on the race, ethnicity, and citizenship of master's degree recipients biennially since 1977. Table B-18 shows that the proportion of science and engineering master's degrees awarded to members of underrepresented minorities (i.e., blacks, Hispanics, and American Indians) has increased slowly in the natural sciences and engineering, offset by declines in psychology and the social sciences, fields that traditionally have registered the largest shares of underrepresented minorities.

TABLE B-18 Members of Underrepresented Minorities as Percentage of Science and Engineering Master's Degree Recipients, by Field, 1977-1991

Field

1977

1981

1987

1991

TOTAL

7.8

7.5

7.0

7.3

Physical/

mathematical sciences

4.1

3.7

4.0

4.4

Physical/

 

environmental sciences

3.4

3.6

3.7

3.4

Mathematical/

computer sciences

5.1

4.5

4.1

5.3

Life sciences

4.2

4.4

5.4

5.3

Agricultural sciences

3.5

3.9

4.2

4.1

Biological sciences

4.6

4.8

6.1

6.0

Social/

behavioral sciences

11.3

11.1

10.2

11.1

Social sciences

11.6

11.7

10.8

11.7

Psychology

10.3

8.4

8.4

9.1

Engineering

3.2

3.4

4.5

3.9

SOURCE: Calculated from Table 4 in NSF, 1994c.

Non-US Citizens

Non-US citizens with temporary visas received almost 20% of the science and engineering master's degrees in 1991, almost double their share in 1977 (see Table B-19). Most

Suggested Citation:"B STATISTICS ON GRADUATE EDUCATION OF SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×

Page 118

were in physical or mathematical science and engineering programs, where they constituted about 30% of all master's-degree students. They were relatively unlikely to be in social-science or psychology programs.

TABLE B-19 Science and Engineering Master's Degrees Earned by Students Who Were Not US Citizens, by Field, 1977, 1985, and 1991

Field

1977 No.

%

1985 No.

%

1991 No.

%

TOTAL

8,282

9.9

13,256

6.3

18,013

19.5

Physical/

mathematical sciences

1,392

11.8

3,492

22.1

5,382

29.5

Physical/

environmental sciences

656

12.3

1,098

18.9

1,504

28.5

Mathematical/

computer sciences

736

11.3

2,394

24.0

3,878

29.9

Life sciences

1,141

10.5

1,080

13.1

1,352

18.2

Agricultural sciences

664

17.8

606

19.2

603

23.0

Biological sciences

477

6.7

474

9.3

749

15.6

Social/

behavioral sciences

2.204

5.0

2,866

8.0

3,583

8.7

Social sciences

2,033

5.6

2,570

9.5

3,270

10.3

Psychology

171

2.1

296

3.5

317

3.2

Engineering

3,545

21.8

5,818

26.7

7,692

30.5

SOURCE: Calculated from Table 4 in NSF, 1994g.

Suggested Citation:"B STATISTICS ON GRADUATE EDUCATION OF SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×

Page 119

SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING DOCTORAL DEGREES

Doctorates in Science and Engineering

The number of science and engineering PhDs awarded annually tripled between 1958 and 1968 to about 18,000. Between 1968 and 1974, the number leveled off or fell in various fields, although the aggregate number peaked in 1971-1973 at nearly 19,400 per year, and fell to fewer than 18,000 per year by 1977, where it remained through 1981. Table B-20 shows the numbers of science and engineering PhDs awarded during 1983-1993 period.

TABLE B-20 Science and Engineering Doctorates Awarded, by Field, 1983-1993

Field

1983

1984

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

TOTAL

18,393

18,514

18,713

19,253

19,710

20,748

21,534

22,688

23,787

24,454

25,184

Physical/

mathematical sciences

4,426

4,452

4,531

4,807

5,030

5,309

5,455

5,859

6,279

6,502

6,496

Physics/Astronomy

1,043

1,080

1,080

1,187

1,237

1,302

1,274

1,393

1,411

1,537

1,543

Chemistry

1,759

1,765

1,836

1,903

1,975

2,015

1,970

2,100

2,193

2,214

2,139

Mathematics

701

698

688

729

740

749

859

892

1,039

1,058

1,146

Computer/

information sciences

286

295

310

399

450

515

612

705

800

869

878

Environmental sciences

637

614

617

589

628

728

740

769

836

824

790

Life sciences

4,756

4,877

4,904

4,804

4,815

5,127

5,203

5,503

5,719

5,861

6,059

Agricultural sciences

1,015

997

1,111

997

976

1,015

1,088

1,176

1,074

1,063

969

Biological sciences

3,741

3,880

3,793

3,807

3,839

4,112

4,115

4,327

4,645

4,798

5,090

Social/

behavioral sciences

6,430

6,272

6,112

6,266

6,153

6,125

6,333

6,432

6,574

6,652

6,933

Social sciences

3,083

3,015

2,994

3,140

2,980

3,051

3,125

3,150

3,324

3,388

3,514

Psychology

3,347

3,257

3,118

3,126

3,173

3,074

3,208

3,282

3,250

3,264

3,419

Engineering

2,781

2,913

3,166

3,376

3,712

4,187

4,543

4,894

5,215

5,439

5,696

SOURCE: Calculated from Table 1 in NSF, 1994b.

In 1982, the number of science and engineering doctorates awarded annually rose above 18,000 for the first time since 1976. The growth rate was still low—about 2% per year—until 1988, when the increase was more than 5% over 1987. The number increased by around 3 % per year from 1988 through 1993. Table B-21 shows the increases from 1988 to 1993 by field

Suggested Citation:"B STATISTICS ON GRADUATE EDUCATION OF SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×

Page 120

TABLE B-21 Increases in Numbers of Science and Engineering Doctorates Awarded, by Field, 1988-1993

 

Increase

Field

1988

1993

No.

Percentage

TOTAL

20,748

25,184

4,436

21.4%

Physical/

mathematical sciences

5,309

6,496

1,187

22.4

Physics/Astronomy

1,302

1,543

241

18.5

Chemistry

2,015

2,139

124

6.2

Mathematics

749

1,146

397

53.0

Computer sciences

515

878

363

70.5

Environmental sciences

728

790

62

8.5

Life sciences

5,127

6,059

932

18.2

Agricultural sciences

1,015

969

-46

-4.5

Biological sciences

4,112

5,090

978

23.8

Social/behavioral sciences

6,125

6,933

808

13.2

Social sciences

3,051

3,514

463

15.2

Psychology

3,074

3,419

345

11.2

Engineering

4,187

5,696

1,509

36.0

SOURCE: Calculated from Table 1 in NSF, 1994f.

Suggested Citation:"B STATISTICS ON GRADUATE EDUCATION OF SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×

Page 121

Women

The number of women awarded science and engineering PhDs increased from 4,624 in 1983 to 7,537 in 1993, or 63.0%. As a result, the proportion of PhD awards to women increased from 25.1% in 1983 to 29.9% in 1993. They varied from field to field (see Table B22).

TABLE B-22 Women as a Percentage of Science and Engineering Doctorate Recipients, by Field, 1983-1993

Field

1983

1984

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

TOTAL

25.1

25.4

25.7

26.4

26.6

26.9

27.9

27.8

28.7

28.6

29.9

Physical/

mathematical sciences

13.9

14.8

15.8

16.1

16.5

16.6

18.9

18.3

18.7

19.7

20.7

Physics/Astronomy

7.1

7.3

9.4

9.2

9.7

10.0

9.3

10.8

11.1

12.1

12.6

Chemistry

16.9

18.1

19.7

20.8

20.6

21.2

25.3

24.0

23.6

26.2

27.3

Mathematics

16.1

16.5

15.4

16.6

16.9

16.2

18.0

17.7

19.2

19.4

23.0

Computer sciences

12.6

12.5

10.6

12.0

14.4

10.9

17.6

15.6

14.6

13.8

15.6

Environmental sciences

15.2

17.3

18.0

17.0

18.2

19.9

20.3

19.4

22.1

23.4

20.8

Life sciences

28.7

27.6

28.7

30.2

31.8

33.0

34.0

33.8

34.6

35.2

37.6

Agricultural sciences

13.1

13.3

15.4

17.3

17.5

18.3

21.0

21.0

19.5

21.9

23.5

Biological sciences

33.0

31.3

32.6

33.6

35.4

36.6

37.5

37.3

38.1

38.2

40.3

Social/

behavioral sciences

39.1

40.6

40.8

42.0

42.8

44.5

44.8

45.9

48.7

47.1

49.0

Social sciences

29.8

30.4

31.7

33.0

31.4

34.3

33.2

33.0

36.3

35.6

37.1

Psychology

47.7

50.1

49.4

51.2

53.5

54.7

56.1

58.3

61.4

59.1

61.1

Engineering

4.5

5.2

6.3

6.7

6.5

6.8

8.3

8.5

9.0

9.3

9.1

SOURCE: Calculated from Tables 1 and 2 in NSF, 1994b.

Women earning science and engineering PhDs were concentrated in particular fields. In 1993, nearly half (45%) were in the social and behavioral sciences, and 30% were in the life sciences (see Table B-23). The concentration in social and behavioral sciences was reduced over the previous 10 years, however, as more awards to women were made in the physical and mathematical sciences and engineering. Overall, the shift was 4.5 percentage points (to nearly 18%). The number of women receiving PhDs in the physical and mathematical sciences more than doubled from 1983 to 1993 (from 617 to 1,344). The number in engineering quadrupled (from 124 to 521), but fewer than 7% of women PhDs were in engineering.

Suggested Citation:"B STATISTICS ON GRADUATE EDUCATION OF SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×

Page 122

TABLE B-23 Science and Engineering Doctorates Awarded to Women, by Field, 1983 and 1993

 

1983

1993

Field

Number

Percentage

Number

Percentage

TOTAL

4,624

100.0

7,537

100.0

Physical/

mathematical sciences

617

13.3

1,344

17.8

Physics/astronomy

74

1.6

194

2.6

Chemistry

297

6.4

585

7.8

Mathematics

113

2.4

264

3.5

Computer sciences

36

0.8

137

1.8

Environmental sciences

97

2.1

164

2.2

Life sciences

1,366

29.5

2,278

30.2

Agricultural sciences

133

2.9

228

3.0

Biological sciences

1,233

26.7

2,050

27.2

Social/behavioral sciences

2,517

54.4

3,394

45.0

Social sciences

920

19.9

1,305

17.3

Psychology

1,597

34.5

2,089

27.7

Engineering

124

2.7

521

6.9

SOURCE: Calculated from Table 2 in NSF, 1994f.

Suggested Citation:"B STATISTICS ON GRADUATE EDUCATION OF SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×

Page 123

The percentage of science and engineering doctorates awarded to members of underrepresented minorities—American Indians, blacks, and Hispanics—has been very low and has increased slowly (see Table B-24). In fact, the percentage of doctorates received by black citizens declined during the last half of the 1980s.

TABLE B-24 Members of Underrepresented Minorities as a Percentage of Science and Engineering Doctorate Recipients, by Field, 1983, 1988, and 1993

 

1983

1988

1993

Field

No.

Percentage

No.

Percentage

No.

Percentage

All US Citizens

13,403

100.0

13,218

100.0

14,708

100.0

Underrepresented

547

4.1

628

4.8

843

5.7

Minorities

American Indian

27

0.2

41

0.3

41

0.3

Black

283

2.1

260

2.0

363

2.5

Hispanic

237

1.8

327

2.5

439

3.0

SOURCE: Calculated from Table 3 in NSF, 1994f.

Suggested Citation:"B STATISTICS ON GRADUATE EDUCATION OF SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×

Page 124

Non-US Citizens

In 1993, more than 8,000 science and engineering PhDs went to foreign citizens with temporary visas—nearly one-third of all the doctorates awarded by US universities (see Table B-25). Only 18.5% of PhDs awarded in 1983 went to foreign citizen with temporary visas. In 1993, they received just under half of the new doctorates in engineering, up from 42% 10 years earlier. They were awarded more than one-third (36%) of the PhDs in the physical and mathematical sciences and more than one-fourth (28%) of those in the life sciences.

TABLE B-25 Share of Science and Engineering Doctorates Earned by Students Who Were Not US Citizens, by Field, 1983 and 1993

 

1983 Doctorates Awarded

1993 Doctorates Awarded

 

All

Temporary Visa

All

Temporary Visa

Field

 

No.

Percentage

 

No.

Percentage

TOTAL

18,393

3,400

18.5

25,184

8,087

32.1

Physical/

mathematical sciences

4,426

926

20.9

6,496

2,363

36.4

Physics/astronomy

1,043

256

24.5

1,543

583

37.8

Chemistry

1,759

283

16.1

2,139

674

31.5

Mathematics

701

209

29.8

1,146

517

45.1

Computer sciences

286

72

25.2

878

349

39.7

Environmental

sciences

637

106

16.6

790

240

30.4

Life sciences

4,756

629

13.2

6,059

1,694

28.0

Agricultural sciences

1,015

307

30.2

969

448

46.2

Biological sciences

3,741

322

8.6

5,090

1,246

24.5

Social/

behavioral sciences

6,430

675

10.5

6,933

1,247

18.0

Social sciences

3,083

596

19.3

3,514

1,099

31.3

Psychology

3,347

79

2.4

3,419

148

4.3

Engineering

2,781

1,170

42.1

5,696

2,783

48.9

SOURCE: Calculated from Table 4 in NSF, 1994f.

Suggested Citation:"B STATISTICS ON GRADUATE EDUCATION OF SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×

Page 125

The number of non-US citizens with temporary visas increased 138% over a decade—from 3,400 in 1983 to 8,087 in 1993 (Table B-26). That increase was greater in the physical and mathematical sciences and in the life sciences. The rate of growth was lower than average in the social and behavioral sciences.

TABLE B-26 Increase in Science and Engineering Doctorates Awarded to Non-US Citizens with Temporary Visas, by Field, 1983 and 1993

 

Difference

Field

1983

1993

No.

Percentage

TOTAL

3,400

8,087

4,687

137.9

Physical/

mathematical sciences

926

2,363

1,437

155.2

Physics/astronomy

256

583

327

127.7

Chemistry

283

674

391

138.2

Mathematics

209

517

308

147.4

Computer sciences

72

349

277

384.7

Environmental sciences

106

240

134

126.4

Life sciences

629

1,694

1,065

169.3

Agricultural sciences

307

448

141

45.9

Biological sciences

322

1,246

924

287.0

Social/

behavioral sciences

675

1,247

572

84.7

Social sciences

596

1,099

503

84.4

Psychology

79

148

69

87.3

Engineering

1,170

2,783

1,613

137.9

SOURCE: Calculated from Table 4 in NSF, 1994f.

Table B-27 shows the distribution of foreign citizens with temporary visas, by field. In 1993, roughly one-third were in engineering, and another one-third were in the physical/mathematical sciences. Around 15-20% were in each of the life sciences and the social sciences. Compared with 1983, temporary-visa holders moved away from the social sciences (by about 4.5 percentage points) and into the physical/mathematical sciences (by about 2 points) and the life sciences (by about 2.5 points).

Suggested Citation:"B STATISTICS ON GRADUATE EDUCATION OF SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×

Page 126

TABLE B-27 Science and Engineering Doctorates Awarded to Non-US Citizens with Temporary Visas, by Field, 1983 and 1993

Field

1983

1993

TOTAL

3,400

8,087

Physical/mathematical sciences

27.2%

29.2%

Physics/astronomy

7.5%

7.2%

Chemistry

8.3%

8.3%

Mathematics

6.1%

6.4%

Computer sciences

2.1%

4.3%

Environmental sciences

3.1%

3.0%

Life sciences

18.5%

20.9%

Agricultural sciences

9.0%

5.5%

Biological sciences

9.5%

15.4%

Social/behavioral sciences

19.9%

15.4%

Social sciences

17.5%

13.6%

Psychology

2.3%

1.8%

Engineering

34.4%

34.1%

SOURCE: Calculated from Table 4 in NSF, 1994f.

Suggested Citation:"B STATISTICS ON GRADUATE EDUCATION OF SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×

Page 127

The country of origin of temporary-visa holders shifted during the 1980s (see Table B28). Citizens from eastern Asia increased their share of science and engineering PhDs awarded to temporary-visa holders from one-fourth to more than a half. Nearly all this increase was accounted for by students from the People's Republic of China, who increased their share from near zero in 1982 to 22% of all the science and engineering PhDs earned by temporary-visa holders in 1992.

TABLE B-28 Region and Country of Origin of Foreign Citizens with Temporary Visas Earning Science and Engineering PhDs, 1983 and 1993

Country

1983

1993

TOTAL

3,400 (100.0%)

8,087 (100.0%)

East Asia

958 (28.2%)

4,335 (53.6%)

Taiwan

438 (12.9%)

1,055 (13.0%)

PRC

3 (0.1%)

1,745 (21.6%)

Korea

136 (4.0%)

1,027 (12.7%)

West Asia

935 (27.5%)

1,538 (19.0%)

India

308 (9.1%)

789 (9.8%)

Africa

385 (11.3%)

374 10.4%)

Europe

314 (9.2%)

838 (10.4%)

Other

808 (23.8%)

1,002 (12.4%)

SOURCE: Calculated from Table 5 in NSF, 1994f.

The annual reports of the Survey of Earned Doctorates conducted by the National Research Council for NSF have documented a substantial increase since 1970 in the time it has taken to obtain a PhD, whether measured in years since the bachelor's degree or in years registered in graduate school. According to these reports, which calculate the median time-to-degree (TTD) of all those obtaining PhDs each year, the figure has increased by about 30% over the last 20 years.

According to the latest report of the Survey of Earned Doctorates, total TTD (years from bachelor's degree to doctorate), or TTTD, went up by 29.6% from 1967 to 1993, from 8.1 to 10.5 years (Table B-29). The trend in registered time-to-degree (RTTD) was similar—31.5% (from 5.4 to 7.1 years). However, 1967 was near the postwar total-TTD low of 8 years reached in 1970. TTTD increased for decades (from 7 years in 1920 to 9 in 1962), fell during the 1960s to the low of 8 years in 1970, and then resumed its upward trend after 1970 (Bowen and Rudenstine, 1992:Figure 6.3).

Suggested Citation:"B STATISTICS ON GRADUATE EDUCATION OF SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×

Page 128

Those figures are for all PhDs in all fields, including humanities, education, and the professional (which have had the highest TTDs historically). The patterns vary widely by field, even within the sciences and engineering. Engineering and physical sciences have always had shorter than average completion times; social sciences, longer.

The increase in TTD has slowed considerably since about 1987, even though the recession of the early 1990s might have increased the incentive to stay in school a year or two longer.

TABLE B-29 Median Total Time-to-Degree for Doctorate Recipients, 1962-1993 (selected years)

Field

1962

1967

1972

1977

1982

1987

1992

1993

All fields (including humanities)

Registered

5.4

5.4

5.7

6.1

6.5

6.9

7.1

7.1

Total

8.8

8.1

8.2

8.7

9.6

10.4

10.5

10.5

All Science and Engineering

Registered

       

6.4

6.7

6.7

 

Total

       

8.6

9.1

9.2

 

Physical sciences

Registered

5.1

5.1

5.6

5.7

5.8

6.0

6.5

6.5

Total

6.5

6.0

6.5

6.9

6.9

7.4

8.1

8.3

Life sciences

Registered

5.3

5.4

5.5

5.7

6.0

6.5

6.7

6.8

Total

7.8

7.2

7.0

7.3

7.6

8.8

9.4

9.4

Social sciences

Registered

5.4

5.2

5.6

5.9

6.7

7.2

7.5

7.4

Total

9.0

7.7

7.5

8.0

9.2

10.4

10.6

10.4

Engineering

Registered

5.0

5.2

5.5

5.6

5.7

5.8

6.2

6.3

Total

7.1

7.2

7.5

7.5

8.0

8.1

8.7

8.8

SOURCE: Calculated from Table 6 in NRC, 1995.

In conducting the research for their recent book In Pursuit of the PhD, Bowen and Rudenstine (1992:113-119), noticed that TTD figures were lower for their sample of 10 schools. They consulted demographers who suggested a different method for determining TTD that should be more accurate. The method used by the Office of Scientific and Engineering

Suggested Citation:"B STATISTICS ON GRADUATE EDUCATION OF SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×

Page 129

Personnel (OSEP) and others determines the median number of TTD years for all those receiving their doctorates in a particular year. The demographers pointed out that this permits a bias if the cohorts entering graduate school are increasing or decreasing in size over time. Each entering class of PhD candidates has some fast finishers and some slow finishers. In a period such as the late 1950s and 1960s, when the number entering PhD programs was growing every year, the proportion of fast finishers showing up for their degrees a few years later increased and made the decreases in TTD larger than they would have been if cohorts had been steady. Similarly, when cohort sizes decrease, as they did in 1974-1984, the proportion of fast finishers getting their degrees a few years later goes down, increasing the apparent TTD. More recently, enrollments have gone up again, and that accounts for at least part of the decrease in TTD medians in the past several years.

Bowen and Rudenstine corrected for that bias by calculating average TTD of entering cohort, rather than graduating cohort. They asked, how long on the average, did it take those entering a PhD program (or getting their bachelor's degrees in year X to get their doctorates? They found that use of the entering-cohort method gave an increase in TTD of about 10% over the preceding 15-20 years, not 30%. They admitted that any lengthening in the already-long TTD is a serious problem but said that its magnitude and newness had been exaggerated.

A study of TTD by staff of OSEP reviewed the literature on the causes of increasing TTD (Tuckman, et al., 1990). They found that earlier studies had looked at sociological, demographic, economic, and institutional factors, although few had looked at them all and undertaken a causal analysis. They developed a model of TTD with five vectors of variables: family background characteristics, individual abilities and interests, tuition and financial aid, institutional environment and policies, and economic and social forces. They tested the model in 11 fields using data from the Survey of Earned Doctorates and found a variety of factors that affected registered time-to-degree (RTTD) or total time-to-degree (TTTD), including the availability and form of student support, labor-market conditions, sociodemographic characteristics of the doctorate recipients, and characteristics of the undergraduate and graduate institutions. Yet no factor or set of factors consistently explained the general upward trend in TTD. That might be because TTD is poorly measured (the study was based on the graduating, rather than the entering, cohort), or because the data are inadequate. They are aggregate data, and some measure the variables of interest only indirectly; other variables, such as increasing complexity of subject matter or the incentive for faculty to keep students longer as cheap labor on research projects, are not measured at all.

As for negative consequences, the following have been mentioned (Tuckman, et al., 1990):

· The increasing time spent in graduate school increases the time it takes for the supply of PhDs to respond to shifts in market demand, and that has both social and individual costs (if demand goes up, there are not enough qualified people; if it falls, highly capable people cannot be employed in their field of training).

Suggested Citation:"B STATISTICS ON GRADUATE EDUCATION OF SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×

Page 130

· Increasing TTD will discourage some highly qualified candidates from staying in science (perhaps some of the most qualified students, who can more easily find attractive alternatives).

· Delayed start of career reduces the total years of productivity for society and the return on investment for the individual.

Bowen and Rudenstine (1992) also studied the effects of financial support in some detail in their 10-school sample. They found that it mattered. Students who received financial aid had much higher completion rates and shorter TTD than students who relied on their own resources. In the sciences, the form of the aid had an effect on completion and TTD; research assistantships had the best effect, fellowships a close second, and teaching assistantships the worst effect. They also found that the NSF fellowship program had been very successful in reducing median TTD (4.9 years versus 5.6 years for those who were not NSF fellows in an eight-university group). Interpreting such findings is problematic, however. Did the NSF fellows finish earlier because of the fellowship form of support itself or because they were selected through a rigorous process that selected more-motivated students?

In conclusion, both RTTD and TTTD have been increasing for a long time, with the exception of the 1960s. Presumably, the increases are caused in part by the increasing complexity of knowledge and techniques to be mastered in doctorate programs and in part by less-desirable or less-excusable reasons (e.g., an increase in tuition costs and a decrease in federal aid, which force students to work more during graduate school, or a desire of faculty to keep students working on research projects). They are also caused in part by the increasing participation of women and minority-group members, who generally have longer TTDs.

According to Bowen and Rudenstine, having outside aid does improve completion and TTD rates. The form of the aid—fellowships, research assistantships, or teaching assistantships—might have little independent effect.

Source of Support

The Survey of Earned Doctorates (SED) administered yearly by OSEP for NSF asks new PhDs to list their primary source of support during graduate school. The data for 1993 are displayed in Table B-30. It should be noted, however, that the nonresponse rate to this question was 34%, for unknown reasons (it was 23% in 1991, and 30% in 1992). It also should be noted that federally funded research assistantships are listed with other research assistantships under ''university" because students often do not know the source of support for their research assistantships. Federal loans are listed under "personal." "Other" includes national fellowships, employer funds, and support from foreign governments, state governments, and other nonspecified sources. The "life sciences" include "health science" PhDs as well as the biological and agricultural scientists listed in the other tables in this appendix.

Suggested Citation:"B STATISTICS ON GRADUATE EDUCATION OF SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×

Page 131

A brief analysis of the table shows that a relatively large percentage of the PhD recipients in social sciences are self-supporting—nearly half, compared with 10-15% of those in the physical sciences and engineering and a fifth of those in the life sciences.

PhDs in the life sciences receive the most direct federal support, probably resulting from the large fellowship and traineeship programs of the National Institutes of Health.

Most PhDs in the physical sciences and engineering, and to a lesser extent the life sciences, receive their primary support from their universities. That includes federally funded research assistantships, as well as other research and teaching assistantships.

TABLE B-30 Primary Sources of Support for Science and Engineering Doctorate Recipients, by Broad Field, 1993 (percentages)

Field

Personal

University

Federal

Other

TOTAL

23.8

61.4

7.5

7.3

Physical sciences

12.1

77.9

4.5

5.4

Life sciences

21.4

56.8

14.4

7.4

Social sciences

47.8

41.6

5.0

5.6

Engineering

14.7

69.3

4.9

11.1

SOURCE: Calculated from Table 11 in NRC, 1995.

POSTDOCTORATE EMPLOYMENT PLANS

According to the SED, among new science and engineering PhDs who had definite postgraduation plans, the percentage planning to work in academe (college or university) was 48% in the early 1960s (NRC, 1978:Table 30). That figure increased to 57.0% in 1970 before falling steadily to 44.1% in 1980 (NSF, 1993b:Table 15) and 40.4% in 1993 (NSF, 1994f:Table 7). Meanwhile, the proportion of new science and engineering PhDs going to business and industry grew from about 22% in the 1960s to 26.5% in 1970 and 36.2% in 1993.

Note that Table B-31 does not include those with definite plans for postdoctoral study in the United States, almost all at universities. These numbered 2,789 in 1970, 3,571 in 1980, 4,676 in 1990, and 5,739 in 1993 (NSF, 1993b:Table 15, 1994f:Table 7).

It also should be noted that the percentage of science and engineering PhDs who had definite plans at the time of the SED survey fell from 76.6% in 1970 to 72.0% in 1980, 64.0% in 1990, and 60.1% in 1993 (NSF, 1993b:Table 15, 1994f:Table 7).

Suggested Citation:"B STATISTICS ON GRADUATE EDUCATION OF SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×

Page 132

TABLE B-31 Science and Engineering PhD Recipients with Definite Postgraduation Commitments in the United States, by Field and Type of Employer, 1970-1991

 

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1991

Field

No.

Percentage

 

No.

Percentage

TOTAL

9,216

100.0

8,187

7,285

6,614

7,175

7,403

100.0

College/university

5,263

57.1

4,287

3,228

2,851

2,952

3,099

41.9

Elementary/

secondary school

44

0.5

99

113

95

81

111

1.5

Government

1,015

11.0

1,365

1,142

885

871

890

12.0

Nonprofit

organization

408

4.4

443

537

502

493

492

6.6

Industry/business

2,399

26.0

1,886

2,139

2,099

2,452

2,488

33.6

Self-employed

48

0.5

71

101

145

240

229

3.1

Other and unknown

39

0.4

36

25

37

86

94

1.3

SOURCE: Calculated from Table 5 in NSF, 1993b.

Suggested Citation:"B STATISTICS ON GRADUATE EDUCATION OF SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×

Page 133

POSTDOCTORAL STUDY TRENDS

TABLE B-32 Postdoctoral Study Plans of Recipients of Science and Engineering Doctorates from US Universities, 1985-1992

PhD Recipients

1985

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

TOTAL

19,164

20,203

21,411

22,294

23,440

24,543

25,248

Postdoctoral plans

5,941

6,728

7,216

7,268

8,087

8,811

9,316

Fellowship

49.0%

48.0%

48.7%

49.7%

49.0%

49.9%

50.7%

Research associate

41.3%

42.9%

43.0%

40.5%

41.7%

41.5%

41.2%

Traineeship

4.5%

3.6%

3.9%

4.0%

4.1%

3.9%

3.3%

Other

5.2%

5.1%

4.4%

5.5%

4.9%

5.0%

5.1%

SOURCE: Calculated from Appendix Table A-3 in NRC, 1993.

TABLE B-33 Postdoctoral Study Plans of Recipients of Science and Engineering Doctorates from US Universities, by Field, 1992

PhD Recipients

Physical Sciences

Engineering

Life Sciences

Social Sciences

Total Science and Engineering

TOTAL

6,498

5,437

7,108

6,205

25,248

Postdoctoral plans

3,022

1,202

4,066

1,036

9,316

Fellowship

53.1%

34.4%

57.5%

64.7%

50.7%

Research associate

42.8%

58.8%

32.3%

19.2%

41.2%

Traineeship

2.2%

4.1%

2.6%

9.6%

3.3%

Other

1.9%

3.2%

7.7%

6.6%

5.1%

SOURCE: Calculated from Appendix Table A-3 in NRC, 1993.

Suggested Citation:"B STATISTICS ON GRADUATE EDUCATION OF SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×

Page 134

TABLE B-34 Science and Engineering Postdoctoral Appointees in Doctorate-Granting Institutions, by Field, 1982-1992

Field

1982

1983

1984

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

All Science and Engineering

14,672

15,657

16,168

16,920

17,901

18,760

19,759

20,962

21,604

23,018

24,024

Science, Total

13,694

14,556

14,974

15,573

16,505

17,319

18,075

19,054

19,661

20,781

21,680

Physical sciences

4,281

4,444

4,386

4,517

4,843

4,953

5,187

5,355

5,507

5,623

5,772

Physics

1,326

1,350

1,320

1,342

1,527

1,548

1,578

1,678

1,715

1,763

1,954

Chemistry

2,805

2,973

2,906

2,995

3,151

3,246

3,429

3,462

3,580

3,627

3,573

Environmental Sciences

335

415

488

375

417

420

499

459

605

645

709

Mathematical Sciences

194

170

203

226

201

228

280

223

247

206

201

Computer Sciences

46

82

63

74

74

100

91

78

71

157

149

Agricultural Sciences

279

307

375

373

409

441

454

512

529

574

634

Biological sciences

7,756

8,355

8,707

9,164

9,722

10,346

10,752

11,518

11,799

12,648

13,287

Psychology

520

435

422

495

517

454

493

535

457

503

521

Social sciences

283

348

330

349

322

377

319

374

446

425

407

Engineering, Total

978

1,101

1,194

1,347

1,396

1,441

1,684

1,908

1,943

2,237

2,344

Chemical engineering

174

198

245

273

295

309

423

466

551

578

554

Materials

166

204

168

245

250

283

325

323

370

401

458

Mechanical

130

182

196

207

239

216

216

302

218

329

355

Electrical

176

174

171

176

172

175

186

193

241

300

307

SOURCE: Calculated from Table C-25 in NSF, 1992a; and, for 1991 and 1992, NSF, unpublished tables.

Suggested Citation:"B STATISTICS ON GRADUATE EDUCATION OF SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×

Page 135

TABLE B-35 Trends in Net Growth of Science and Engineering Postdoctoral Appointee Positions in Doctorate-Granting Institutions, by Field, 1982 and 1992

 

Growth, 1982-1992

Percentage Distribution of Postdoctoral Positions Among All Fields

Field

1982

1992

Difference

Percentage

1982

1992

All Science and Engineering

14,672

24,024

9,352

63.7

100.0

100.0

Science, Total

13,694

21,680

7,986

58.3

93.3

90.2

Physical sciences

4,281

5,772

1,491

34.8

29.2

24.0

Physics

1,326

1,954

628

47.4

9.0

8.1

Chemistry

2,805

3,573

768

27.4

19.1

14.9

Environmental Sciences

335

709

374

111.6

2.3

3.0

Mathematical Sciences

194

201

7

3.6

1.3

0.8

Computer Sciences

46

149

103

223.9

0.3

0.6

Agricultural Sciences

279

634

355

127.2

1.9

2.6

Biological sciences

7,756

13,287

5,531

71.3

52.9

55.3

Psychology

520

521

1

0.2

3.5

2.2

Social sciences

283

407

124

43.8

1.9

1.7

Engineering, Total

978

2,344

1,366

139.7

6.7

9.8

Chemical engineering

174

554

380

218.4

1.2

2.3

Materials

166

458

292

175.9

1.1

1.9

Mechanical

130

355

225

173.1

0.9

1.5

Electrical

176

307

124

74.4

1.2

1.3

SOURCE: Calculated from Table C-25 in NSF, 1992a; and, for 1991 and 1992, NSF, unpublished tables.

Suggested Citation:"B STATISTICS ON GRADUATE EDUCATION OF SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×

Page 136

TABLE B-36 Appointments of Postdoctoral Scientists and Engineers Who Were Not US Citizens in Doctorate-Granting Institutions, by Field, 1982 and 1992

 

Growth, 1982-1992

Percentage of All Postdocs within Field

Percentage of All Non-US Science and Engineering Postdocs

Field

1982

1992

Difference

Percentage

1982

1992

1982

1992

All Science and Engineering

5,961

12,627

6,666

111.8

40.6

52.6

100.0

100.0

Science, Total

5,304

11,053

5,749

108.4

38.7

51.0

89.0

87.5

Physical sciences

2,367

3,506

1,139

48.1

55.3

60.7

39.7

27.8

Physics

673

1,099

426

63.3

50.8

56.2

11.3

8.7

Chemistry

1,661

2,311

650

39.1

59.2

64.7

27.9

18.3

Environmental Sciences

121

276

155

128.1

36.1

38.9

2.0

2.2

Mathematical Sciences

126

109

-17

-13.5

64.9

54.2

2.1

0.9

Computer Sciences

12

50

38

316.7

26.1

33.6

0.2

0.4

Agricultural Sciences

116

275

159

137.1

41.6

43.4

1.9

2.2

Biological sciences

2,397

6,574

4,177

174.3

30.9

49.5

40.2

52.1

Psychology

65

127

62

95.4

12.5

24.4

1.1

1.0

Social sciences

100

136

36

36.0

35.3

33.4

1.7

1.1

Engineering, Total

657

1,574

917

139.6

67.2

67.2

11.0

12.5

Chemical engineering

133

415

282

212.0

76.4

74.9

2.2

3.3

Materials

138

331

193

139.9

83.1

72.3

2.3

2.6

Mechanical

100

211

111

111.0

76.9

59.4

1.7

1.7

Electrical

94

186

92

97.9

53.4

60.6

1.6

1.5

NOTE: Includes permanent residents and those with temporary visas.

SOURCE: Calculated from Table C-30 in NSF, 1992a; and, for 1991 and 1992, NSF, unpublished tables.

Suggested Citation:"B STATISTICS ON GRADUATE EDUCATION OF SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×

Page 137

TABLE B-37 Federally Supported Science and Engineering Postdoctoral Appointees in Doctorate-Granting Institutions, by Field, 1982 and 1992

Field

Growth, 1982-1992

Percentage of All Postdocs within Field

Percentage of All Federally Supported Postdocs

 

1982

1992

Difference

Percent

1982

1992

1982

1992

All Science and Engineering

11,119

17,660

6,541

58.8

75.8

73.5

100.0

100.0

Science, Total

10,447

16,050

5,603

53.6

74.8

74.0

94.0

90.9

Physical sciences

3,600

4,589

989

27.5

64.1

79.5

32.4

26.0

Physics

1,156

1,641

485

42.0

87.2

84.0

10.4

9.3

Chemistry

2,307

2,730

423

18.3

82.2

76.4

20.7

15.5

Environmental Sciences

255

556

301

118.0

76.1

78.4

2.3

3.1

Mathematical Sciences

46

143

97

210.9

23.7

71.1

0.4

0.8

Computer Sciences

25

113

88

352.0

54.3

75.8

0.2

0.6

Agricultural Sciences

166

417

251

151.2

59.5

65.8

1.5

2.4

Biological sciences

5,825

9,695

3,870

66.4

75.1

73.0

52.4

54.9

Psychology

392

358

-34

-8.7

75.4

68.7

3.5

2.0

Social sciences

138

179

41

29.7

48.8

44.0

1.2

1.0

Engineering, Total

672

1,610

938

139.6

68.7

68.7

6.0

9.1

Chemical engineering

100

340

240

240.0

57.5

61.4

0.9

1.9

Materials

121

284

163

134.7

72.9

62.0

1.1

1.6

Mechanical

94

250

156

166.0

72.3

70.4

0.8

1.4

Electrical

118

229

111

94.1

67.0

74.6

1.1

1.3

NOTE: These are postdoctoral appointees for whom federal agencies and programs are "the source of the largest amount of their support" (those supported by federal loans are not included).

SOURCE: Calculated from Table C-27 in NSF, 1992a; and, for 1991 and 1992, NSF, unpublished tables.

Suggested Citation:"B STATISTICS ON GRADUATE EDUCATION OF SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×

Page 138

TABLE B-38 Sources of Support for Science and Engineering Postdoctoral Appointees in Doctorate-Granting Institutions, by Field, 1992

 

Federal Sources

 

Field

Total

Total

Fellowships (%)

Traineeships(%)

Research Grants(%)

Non Federal Sources

All Science and Engineering

24,024

17,660

11.1

7.6

81.3

6,364

Science, Total

21,680

16,050

11.8

8.2

80.0

5,630

Physical sciences

5,772

4,589

7.5

0.8

91.7

1,183

Physics

1,954

1,641

4.4

0.2

95.4

313

Chemistry

3,573

2,730

8.5

1.2

90.3

843

Environmental Sciences

709

556

7.9

1.1

91.0

153

Mathematical Sciences

201

143

16.1

4.2

79.7

58

Computer Sciences

149

113

1.8

0.9

97.3

36

Agricultural Sciences

634

417

9.8

0.5

89.7

217

Biological sciences

13,287

9,695

13.9

11.9

74.2

3,592

Psychology

521

358

14.2

23.5

62.3

163

Social Sciences

407

179

27.4

14.5

58.1

228

Engineering, Total

2,344

1,610

3.7

1.1

95.2

734

Chemical engineering

554

340

0.9

0.9

98.2

214

Materials

458

284

1.1

0.0

98.9

174

Mechanical

355

250

4.4

2.4

93.2

105

Electrical

307

229

3.5

0.0

96.5

78

SOURCE: Calculated from NSF unpublished data.

Suggested Citation:"B STATISTICS ON GRADUATE EDUCATION OF SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×
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Suggested Citation:"B STATISTICS ON GRADUATE EDUCATION OF SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
×
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Suggested Citation:"B STATISTICS ON GRADUATE EDUCATION OF SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
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Suggested Citation:"B STATISTICS ON GRADUATE EDUCATION OF SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
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Suggested Citation:"B STATISTICS ON GRADUATE EDUCATION OF SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
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Suggested Citation:"B STATISTICS ON GRADUATE EDUCATION OF SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
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Suggested Citation:"B STATISTICS ON GRADUATE EDUCATION OF SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
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Suggested Citation:"B STATISTICS ON GRADUATE EDUCATION OF SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
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Suggested Citation:"B STATISTICS ON GRADUATE EDUCATION OF SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
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Suggested Citation:"B STATISTICS ON GRADUATE EDUCATION OF SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
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Suggested Citation:"B STATISTICS ON GRADUATE EDUCATION OF SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
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Suggested Citation:"B STATISTICS ON GRADUATE EDUCATION OF SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
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Suggested Citation:"B STATISTICS ON GRADUATE EDUCATION OF SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
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Suggested Citation:"B STATISTICS ON GRADUATE EDUCATION OF SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
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Suggested Citation:"B STATISTICS ON GRADUATE EDUCATION OF SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
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Suggested Citation:"B STATISTICS ON GRADUATE EDUCATION OF SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
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Suggested Citation:"B STATISTICS ON GRADUATE EDUCATION OF SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
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Suggested Citation:"B STATISTICS ON GRADUATE EDUCATION OF SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
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Suggested Citation:"B STATISTICS ON GRADUATE EDUCATION OF SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
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Suggested Citation:"B STATISTICS ON GRADUATE EDUCATION OF SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
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Suggested Citation:"B STATISTICS ON GRADUATE EDUCATION OF SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
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Suggested Citation:"B STATISTICS ON GRADUATE EDUCATION OF SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
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Suggested Citation:"B STATISTICS ON GRADUATE EDUCATION OF SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
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Suggested Citation:"B STATISTICS ON GRADUATE EDUCATION OF SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
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Suggested Citation:"B STATISTICS ON GRADUATE EDUCATION OF SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
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Suggested Citation:"B STATISTICS ON GRADUATE EDUCATION OF SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
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Suggested Citation:"B STATISTICS ON GRADUATE EDUCATION OF SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
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Suggested Citation:"B STATISTICS ON GRADUATE EDUCATION OF SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
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Suggested Citation:"B STATISTICS ON GRADUATE EDUCATION OF SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
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Suggested Citation:"B STATISTICS ON GRADUATE EDUCATION OF SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
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Suggested Citation:"B STATISTICS ON GRADUATE EDUCATION OF SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
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Suggested Citation:"B STATISTICS ON GRADUATE EDUCATION OF SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
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Suggested Citation:"B STATISTICS ON GRADUATE EDUCATION OF SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
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Suggested Citation:"B STATISTICS ON GRADUATE EDUCATION OF SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
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Suggested Citation:"B STATISTICS ON GRADUATE EDUCATION OF SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
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Suggested Citation:"B STATISTICS ON GRADUATE EDUCATION OF SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
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Suggested Citation:"B STATISTICS ON GRADUATE EDUCATION OF SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
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Suggested Citation:"B STATISTICS ON GRADUATE EDUCATION OF SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
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Suggested Citation:"B STATISTICS ON GRADUATE EDUCATION OF SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
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Suggested Citation:"B STATISTICS ON GRADUATE EDUCATION OF SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
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Suggested Citation:"B STATISTICS ON GRADUATE EDUCATION OF SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
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Suggested Citation:"B STATISTICS ON GRADUATE EDUCATION OF SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4935.
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Are we producing too many PhDs? Does the current graduate education system adequately prepare science and engineering students for today's marketplace? How do foreign students enter the picture? What should be the PhD of the future? These and other questions are addressed in this book by a blue-ribbon panel of scientists and engineers. Recommendations are aimed at creating a new PhD that would retain the existing strengths of the current system while substantially increasing the information available, the potential versatility of students, and the career options afforded to them by their PhD education.

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