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Table A.4.6-5 Summarized Life Cycle Costs (LCC) . _ MTBF tHr) Failures/ Availability Downtime Procurement Ten~year Total year Hourslyear cost ($) Operating CosVyear Cost Linear 806.8 10.9 99.5°/O 43.7$3.7M $4.5M $445,673 Ring 1 ,335,942 10.9 99.9°/O .04__ $3.9M $4.1 M $413,652 ~ Parallel ~3.3~1C ~21.7 ~99.9°>, ~1.55*10~ $/.1M ~$7.4M ~ $73,,504 The conclusions are: · The fault tolerant ring has the lowest lO-year cost: $200,000 more to procure but $400,000 less including lO-year operating costs. The linear and ring systems suffer about Me same number of failures per year, but the ring is down less than one hour per year due to its redundancy. In reality, the ring and the parapet system operate many years between unavailability failures of more Man a few seconds (resulting from switching to parapet circuits). The parallel system is $2.4M more expensive to operate Man Me linear system. If geography does not permit a cost-effec~ve ring, a parallel system is much more expensive. To justify Me redundancy and lower downtime, operations benefits should be $54,920~our (=$2.4M / 43.7 fur). A.4.7 References and Standards References I. Reliability Evaluation of Engineering Systems: Concepts and Techniques, Roy Billinton and Ronald N. Allan, Plenum, 1992. 2. System Reliability Evaluation & Prediction in Engineering, AJ~ Pages and Michel Gondran, Springer Veriag, 1986. 3. "A System Approach to Reliabilitr and L`ife-Cycle Cost," Mars Bodsberg and Per Hokstad, [EKE Transactions on Reliability, Vo} 44, No.2, June 1995, pp 170-~86. L:\NCHRP\Phase2.rprY NCHRP3-51 · Phase2Fi - Report A4-53
4. "Predicting Me Reliability of Electronic Equipment," Proceedings of IEEE, Vol. 82, #7, July, 1994, pp 992-1004. (Excellent references included.) 5. Reliability Prediction of Electronic Equipment, ~-HKBK 217F, U.S. Government Plindng Office, Dec., 1991. 6. Reliability Prediction Procedure of Electronic Equipment, Bellcore TR-TSY-000332, Issue 2, July, 1988. 7. llh;'s "Traffic Signal InstaBabon and Maintenance Manual," Prentice Had, 1989. 8. "Management of Traffic Signal Maintenance," NCHRP Synthesis of Highway Practice ]14, Peter S. Parsonson,(12/84~. 9. "Genetic AIgor~ms in Optimization of System Reliability," Laura Patnton and lames Campbell, IEEE Transactions on Reliability, Vo] 44, No.2, June 1995, pp 172-178. 10. Value Engineering in the Construction Industry, 3rd edition, Alphonse I. DeR'Isola, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1982. Technical Requirements and Specifications Related to Maintainability (pa ~ of 6) Be//core Specifications and Technical Requirements Specification Number Title FR-NWT-000484 Documentation, Training and Supplier Support Generic Requirements SR-STS-001 665 SR-TSU-002338 SR-TSY-000963 TA-NWT-000820 Network Monitoring and Analysis: Generic Requirement Network Surveillance and Control Functions Supporting Robust Networks and Operations Network Switching Element Outage Performance Monitoring Procedure Network Maintenance: Transport Surveillance Generic Digital Transmission Surveillance L;\.NCHRP`Phase2.rp ~NCHRP3-S1 · Phase2FmalRepoIt A4-54
Technical Requirements and Specifications Related to Maintainability (pa 2 of 6} gel/core Specifications and Technical Requirements Specification Number TA-Nvvr-ooo821 TA-STS-001054 TA-TSY-000841 TR-ISA-000325 TR-Nvvr-ooo473 TR-NWT-000474 TR-NWT-000475 TR-NWT-000476 TR-Nvvr-ooo478 TR-NVVr-000801 TR-NWT-000818 TR-NWT-000822 Title Network Maintenance: Additional Transport and Transport-Based Surveillance Computer Self-Maintenance Support: Generic Requirements Customer Owned Premise Wiring Acceptance Test: Requirements J Equipment Information Required from Suppliers for Operations Systems Network Maintenance: Generic Requirements Network Maintenance: Network Elements Network Maintenance: Transport Surveillance Network Maintenance: Access and Testing Measurements and Data Generation: Generic Requirements Generic Operations Interfaces using Open System Institute (OSI) Tools Generic Test Architecture Network Maintenance: Accessing and Testing, Switched Circuits, POTS, Loops and Public Packet Switched Networks; Generic Requirements ~mCHR~Phasc:.'p~\ NCHRP3-51 · Phase2F~nalReport A4-55
Technical Requirements and Specifications Related to Maintainability (pg 3 of 6) Be//core Specifications and Technica/ Requirements Specification Number Title TR-NWT-000823 Network Maintenance: Access and Testing, ISDN; Generic Requirements TR-NWT-000833 Network Maintenance: Network Element and Transport Surveillance Messages TR-NWT-000834 TR-NWT-000840 TR-NWT-001 1 48 TR-NWT-001 213 TR-NTW-001 323 TR-NTW-001 359 TR-NWT-001 465 TR-OPT-000330 TR-OPT-000839 TR-TSY-1 91 TR-TSY-000454 TR-TSY-000473 L.\NC}~Phast2Jpt\ Network Maintenance: Access and Testing Messages Supplier Support, Generic Requirements Maintenance Requirements to Assure System Availability Objectives for the Maintenance User Interface of Switching Systems and Transport Systems Supplier Data, Comprehensive; Generic Requirements Supplier Data Basic; Generic Requirements Automatic Board-to-Board Testing: Generic Requirements Circuit Access Point Data: Generic Requirements Supplier Provided Training: Generic Requirements Alarm Indication Signals: Requirements and Objectives Supplier Documentation for Network Elements Network Maintenance NCHRP 3-51 · Phase 2 Fmal Report A4-56
Technical Requirements and Specifications Related to Maintainability (pg 4 of 6) Be/Icore Specifications and Technics/ Requirements Specification Number TR-TSY-000474 TR-TSY-000509 TR-TSY-00051 6 Title Network Maintenance: Network Element Maintenance: Generic Requirements Network Management: Generic Requirements for Switching Systems TR-TSY-000519 Documentation: Generic Requirements for Switching Systems TR-TSY-000820 TR-TSY-000821 32-1972 62.36-1 991 62.41 -1991 62.45-1992 62.47-1992 132.9-1972 Generic Digital Transmission System Surveillance Network Maintenance: Additional Transport Based Surveillance; Generic Requirements Test Procedures for Neutral Grounding Devices Test Methods for Surge Protectors Used in Low-voltage Data Communications and Signaling Circuits Recommended Practice on Surge Voltages in Low Voltage AC Power Circuits Guide on Surge Testing for Equipment Connected to Low Voltage Power Circuits Guide on Electrostatic Discharge Graphic Symbols for Electrical Wiring and Layout Diagrams Used in Architecture and Building Construction ~:~NC~P~ase:~p ~NCHRP3-51 · Phase2F~nalReport A4-57
Technical Requirements and Specifications Related to Maintainability (pa 5 of 6} Belicore Specifications and Technical Requirements Specification Number Title 142-1991 Recommended practice for Grounding of Industrial and Commercial Power Systems 200-1975 Standard Reference Designations for Electrical and Electronic Parts and Equipment 241-1 990 31 5-1 975 446-1 987 488.1/2-1 987 991 -1 986 660-1 986 1003.3-1991 1 003.8-1 993 1 008.1987 1016-1987 Recommended Practice for Electrical Power Systems in Commercial Buildings Standard Graphic Symbols for Electrical and Electronic Diagrams Recommended Practice for Emergency and Standby Power Systems Standard Digital Interface for Programmable Instrumentation Standard for Logic Circuit Diagrams Standard for Semiconductor Memory Test Pattern Test Methods for Measuring Conformance to POSIX (IEEE Standard Portable Operation System) Information Technology - Telecommunications and Information Exchange Between Systems Standard for Software Unit Testing Recommended Practice for Software Design Description L:`NCHRP`Phasc2.rpts NCH~3-51 · PER - ~A4-58
J Technical Requirements and Specifications Related to Maintainability (pa 6 of 6) Bellcore Specifications and Technical Requirements Specification Number 1063-1987 1074-1991 1100-1992 1149.1 -1990 1156.1-1993 1219-1992 1224-1993 1326-1993 l 1328-1993 1802.3-1991 2003.1 -1992 L:\NCHRP\Phasc2. ret\ Title Standard for Software User Documentation Standard for Developing Software Life Cycle Process Recommended Practice for Powering and Grounding Sensitive Electronic Equipment Standard Test Access Port and Boundary Scan Architecture IEEE Standard for Microcomputer Environment Specifications for Computer Modules Standard for Software Maintenance Open Systems Interconnection Test Methods for Measuring Conformance to Open Systems Interconnections; Abstract Data Manipulation Application Program Interface Test Methods for Measuring Conformance to Open Systems Interconnection; Abstract Data Manipulation Language Interface Conformance Test Methodology for CSMA/CD (ETHERNET) Test Methods for Measuring Conformance to POSIX NCHRP3-51 · Phase2FmalReport A4-59