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Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards: A Guide for Teaching and Learning (2000)

Chapter: Appendix A Excerpts from the National Science Education Standards

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Excerpts from the National Science Education Standards." National Research Council. 2000. Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards: A Guide for Teaching and Learning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9596.
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Appendixes

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Excerpts from the National Science Education Standards." National Research Council. 2000. Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards: A Guide for Teaching and Learning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9596.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Excerpts from the National Science Education Standards." National Research Council. 2000. Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards: A Guide for Teaching and Learning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9596.
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Appendix A
Excerpts from the National Science Education Standards

APPENDIX A-1
FUNDAMENTAL ABILITIES OF INQUIRY: GRADES K-4

Ability

Elaboration

• Ask a question about objects, organisms, and events in the environment.

This aspect of the standard emphasizes students asking questions that they can answer with scientific knowledge, combined with their own observations. Students should answer their questions by seeking information from reliable sources of scientific information and from their own observations and investigations.

• Plan and conduct a simple investigation.

In the earliest years, investigations are largely based on systematic obser vations. As students develop, they may design and conduct simple experiments to answer questions. The idea of a fair test is possible for many students to consider by fourth grade.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Excerpts from the National Science Education Standards." National Research Council. 2000. Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards: A Guide for Teaching and Learning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9596.
×

Ability

Elaboration

• Employ simple equipment and tools to gather data and extend to the senses.

In early years, students develop simple skills, such as how to observe, measure, cut, connect, switch, turn on and off, pour, hold, tie, and hook. Beginning with simple instruments, students can use rulers to measure the length, height, and depth of objects and materials; thermometers to measure temperature; watches to measure time; beam balances and spring scales to measure weight and force; magnifiers to observe objects and organisms; and microscopes to observe the finer details of plants, animals, rocks, and other materials. Children also develop skills in the use of computers and calculators for conducting investigations.

• Use data to construct a reasonable explanation.

This aspect of the standard emphasizes the students’ thinking as they use data to formulate explanations

 

Even at the earliest grade levels, students should learn what constitutes evidence and judge the merits or strength of the data and information that will be used to make explanations. After students propose an explanation, they will appeal to the knowledge and evidence they obtained to support their explanations. Students should check their explanations against scientific knowledge, experiences, and observations of others.

• Communicate investigations and explanations.

Students should begin developing the abilities to communicate, critique, and analyze their work and the work of other students. This communication might be spoken or drawn as well as written.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Excerpts from the National Science Education Standards." National Research Council. 2000. Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards: A Guide for Teaching and Learning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9596.
×

FUNDAMENTAL ABILITIES OF INQUIRY: GRADES 5-8

Ability

Elaboration

• Identify questions that can be answered through scientific investigations.

Students should develop the ability to refine and refocus broad and ill-defined questions. An important aspect of this ability consists of students’ ability to clarify questions and inquiries and direct them toward objects and phenomena that can be described, explained, or predicted by scientific investigations. Students should develop the ability to identify their questions with scientific ideas, concepts, and quantitative relationships that guide investigation.

• Design and conduct a scientific investigation.

Students should develop general abilities, such as systematic obser vation, making accurate measurements, and identifying and controlling variables. They should also develop the ability to clarify their ideas that are influencing and guiding the inquiry, and to understand how those ideas compare with current scientific knowledge. Students can learn to formulate questions, design investigations, execute investigations, interpret data, use evidence to generate explanations, propose alternative explanations, and critique explanations and procedures.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Excerpts from the National Science Education Standards." National Research Council. 2000. Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards: A Guide for Teaching and Learning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9596.
×

Ability

Elaboration

• Use appropriate tools and techniques to gather, analyze, and interpret data.

The use of tools and techniques, including mathematics, will be guided by the question asked and the investigations students design. The use of computers for the collection, summary, and display of evidence is part of this standard. Students should be able to access, gather, store, retrieve, and organize data, using hardware and software designed for these purposes.

• Develop descriptions, explanations, predictions, and models using evidence.

Students should base their explanation on what they observed, and as they develop cognitive skills, they should be able to differentiate explanation from description — providing causes for effects and establishing relationships based on evidence and logical argument. This standard requires a subject matter knowledge base so the students can effectively conduct investigations, because developing explanations establishes connections between the content of science and the contexts within which students develop new knowledge.

Think critically and logically to make the relationships between evidence and explanations.

Thinking critically about evidence includes deciding what evidence should be used and accounting for anomalous data. Specifically, students should be able to review data from a simple experiment, summarize the data, and form a logical argument about the cause-and-effect relationships in the experiment. Students should begin to state some explanations in terms of the relationship between two or more variables.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Excerpts from the National Science Education Standards." National Research Council. 2000. Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards: A Guide for Teaching and Learning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9596.
×

Ability

Elaboration

Recognize and analyze alter explanations and predictions.

Students should develop the ability to listen to and respect the explanations proposed by other students. They should remain open to and acknowledge different ideas and explanations, be able to accept the skepticism of others, and consider alternative explanations.

• Communicate scientific procedures and explanations.

With practice, students should become competent at communicating experimental methods, following instructions, describing observations, summarizing the results of other groups, and telling other students about investigations and explanations.

Use mathematics in all aspects of scientific inquiry.

Mathematics is essential to asking and answering questions about the natural world. Mathematics can be used to ask questions; to gather, organize, and present data; and to structure convincing explanations.

FUNDAMENTAL ABILITIES OF INQUIRY: GRADES 9-12

Ability

Elaboration

Identify questions and concepts that guide scientific investigations.

Students should formulate a testable hypothesis and demonstrate the logical connections between the scientific concepts guiding a hypothesis and the design of an experiment. They should demonstrate appropriate procedures, a knowledge base, and conceptual understanding of scientific investigations.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Excerpts from the National Science Education Standards." National Research Council. 2000. Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards: A Guide for Teaching and Learning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9596.
×

Ability

Elaboration

Design and conduct scientific investigations.

Designing and conducting a scientific investigation requires introduction to the major concepts in the area being investigated, proper equipment, safety precautions, assistance with methodological problems, recommendations for use of technologies, clarification of ideas that guide the inquiry, and scientific knowledge obtained from sources other than the actual investigation. The investigation may also require student clarification of the question, method, controls, and variables; student organization and display of data; student revision of methods and explanations; and a public presentation of the results with a critical response from peers. Regardless of the scientific investigation performed, students must use evidence, apply logic, and construct an argument for their proposed explanations.

• Use technology and mathematics to improve investigations and communications.

A variety of technologies, such as hand tools, measuring instruments, and calculators, should be an integral component of scientific investigations. The use of computers for the collection, analysis, and display of data is also a part of this standard. Mathematics plays an essential role in all aspects of an inquiry. For example, measurement is used for posing questions, formulas are used for developing explanations, and charts and graphs are used for communicating results.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Excerpts from the National Science Education Standards." National Research Council. 2000. Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards: A Guide for Teaching and Learning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9596.
×

Ability

Elaboration

Formulate and revise scientific explanations and models using logic and evidence.

Student inquiries should culminate in formulating an explanation or model. Models should be physical, conceptual, and mathematical. In the process of answering the questions, the students should engage in discussions and arguments that result in the revision of their explanations. These discussions should be based on scientific knowledge, the use of logic, and evidence from their investigation.

Recognize and analyze alternative explanations and models.

This aspect of the standard emphasizes the critical abilities of analyzing an argument by reviewing current scientific understanding, weighing the evidence, and examining the logic so as to decide which explanations and models are best. In other words, although there may be several plausible explanations, they do not all have equal weight. Students should be able to use scientific criteria to find the preferred explanations.

Communicate and defend a scientific argument.

Students in school science programs should develop the abilities associated with accurate and effective communication. These include writing and following procedures, expressing concepts, reviewing information, summarizing data, using language appropriately, developing diagrams and charts, explaining statistical analysis, speaking clearly and logically, constructing a reasoned argument, and responding appropriately to critical comments.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Excerpts from the National Science Education Standards." National Research Council. 2000. Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards: A Guide for Teaching and Learning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9596.
×

APPENDIX A-2
FUNDAMENTAL UNDERSTANDINGS OF INQUIRY GRADES K-4

Understanding

Elaboration

• Scientific investigations involve asking and answering a question and comparing the answer with what scientists already know about the world.

 

• Scientists use different kinds of investigations depending on the questions they are trying to answer.

Types of investigations include describing objects, events, and organisms; classifying them; and doing a fair test (experimenting).

• Simple instruments, such as magnifiers, thermometers, and rulers, provide more information than scientists obtain using only their senses.

 

• Scientists develop explanations using observations (evidence) and what they already know about the world (scientific knowledge).

Good explanations are based on evidence from investigations.

• Scientists make the results of their investigations public; they describe the investigations in ways that enable others to repeat the investigations.

 

• Scientists review and ask questions about the results of other scientists’ work.

 

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Excerpts from the National Science Education Standards." National Research Council. 2000. Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards: A Guide for Teaching and Learning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9596.
×

FUNDAMENTAL UNDERSTANDINGS OF INQUIRY: GRADES 5-8

Understanding

Elaboration

• Different kinds of questions suggest different kinds of scientific investigations.

Some investigations involve observing and describing objects, organisms, or events; some involve collecting specimens; some involve experiments; some involve seeking more information; some involve discovery of new objects and phenomena; and some involve making models.

• Current scientific knowledge and understanding guide scientific investigations.

Different scientific domains employ different methods, core theories, and standards to advance scientific knowledge and understanding.

• Mathematics is important in all aspects of scientific inquiry.

 

• Technology used to gather data enhances accuracy and allows scientists to analyze and quantify results of investigations.

 

• Scientific explanations emphasize evidence, have logically consistent arguments, and use scientific principles, models, and theories.

The scientific community accepts and uses such explanations until displaced by better scientific ones. When such displacement occurs, science advances.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Excerpts from the National Science Education Standards." National Research Council. 2000. Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards: A Guide for Teaching and Learning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9596.
×

Understanding

Elaboration

• Science advances through legitimate skepticism.

Asking questions and querying other scientists’ explanations is part of scientific inquiry. Scientists evaluate the explanations proposed by other scientists by examining evidence, comparing evidence, identifying faulty reasoning, pointing out statements that go beyond the evidence, and suggesting alternative explanations for the same observations.

• Scientific investigations sometimes result in new ideas and phenomena for study, generate new methods or procedures for an investigation, or develop new technologies to improve the collection of data.

All of these results can lead to new investigations.

FUNDAMENTAL UNDERSTANDINGS OF INQUIRY: GRADES 9-12

Understanding

Elaboration

• Scientists usually inquire about how physical, living, or designed systems function.

Conceptual principles and knowledge guide scientific inquiries. Historical and current scientific knowledge influence the design and interpretation of investigations and the evaluation of proposed explanations made by other scientists.

• Scientists conduct investigations for a wide variety of reasons.

For example, they may wish to discover new aspects of the natural world, explain recently observed phenomena, or test the conclusions of prior investigations or the predictions of current theories.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Excerpts from the National Science Education Standards." National Research Council. 2000. Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards: A Guide for Teaching and Learning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9596.
×

Understanding

Elaboration

• Scientists rely on technology to enhance the gathering and manipulation of data.

New techniques and tools provide new evidence to guide inquiry and new methods to gather data, thereby contributing to the advance of science. The accuracy and precision of the data, and therefore the quality of the exploration, depends on the technology used.

• Mathematics is essential in scientific inquiry.

Mathematical tools and models guide and improve the posing of questions, gathering data, constructing explanations, and communicating results.

• Scientific explanations must adhere to criteria such as: a proposed explanation must be logically consistent; it must abide by the rules of evidence; it must be open to questions and possible modification; and it must be based on historical and current scientific knowledge.

 

• Results of scientific inquiry — new knowledge and methods — emerge from different types of investigations and public communication among scientists.

In communicating and defending the results of scientific inquiry, arguments must be logical and demonstrate connections between natural phenomena, investigations, and the historical body of scientific knowledge. In addition, the methods and procedures that scientists used to obtain evidence must be clearly reported to enhance opportunities for further investigation.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Excerpts from the National Science Education Standards." National Research Council. 2000. Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards: A Guide for Teaching and Learning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9596.
×

This page intentionally left blank.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Excerpts from the National Science Education Standards." National Research Council. 2000. Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards: A Guide for Teaching and Learning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9596.
×
Page 159
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Excerpts from the National Science Education Standards." National Research Council. 2000. Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards: A Guide for Teaching and Learning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9596.
×
Page 160
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Excerpts from the National Science Education Standards." National Research Council. 2000. Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards: A Guide for Teaching and Learning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9596.
×
Page 161
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Excerpts from the National Science Education Standards." National Research Council. 2000. Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards: A Guide for Teaching and Learning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9596.
×
Page 162
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Excerpts from the National Science Education Standards." National Research Council. 2000. Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards: A Guide for Teaching and Learning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9596.
×
Page 163
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Excerpts from the National Science Education Standards." National Research Council. 2000. Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards: A Guide for Teaching and Learning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9596.
×
Page 164
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Excerpts from the National Science Education Standards." National Research Council. 2000. Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards: A Guide for Teaching and Learning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9596.
×
Page 165
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Excerpts from the National Science Education Standards." National Research Council. 2000. Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards: A Guide for Teaching and Learning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9596.
×
Page 166
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Excerpts from the National Science Education Standards." National Research Council. 2000. Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards: A Guide for Teaching and Learning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9596.
×
Page 167
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Excerpts from the National Science Education Standards." National Research Council. 2000. Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards: A Guide for Teaching and Learning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9596.
×
Page 168
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Excerpts from the National Science Education Standards." National Research Council. 2000. Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards: A Guide for Teaching and Learning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9596.
×
Page 169
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Excerpts from the National Science Education Standards." National Research Council. 2000. Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards: A Guide for Teaching and Learning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9596.
×
Page 170
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Excerpts from the National Science Education Standards." National Research Council. 2000. Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards: A Guide for Teaching and Learning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9596.
×
Page 171
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Excerpts from the National Science Education Standards." National Research Council. 2000. Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards: A Guide for Teaching and Learning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9596.
×
Page 172
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Humans, especially children, are naturally curious. Yet, people often balk at the thought of learning science--the "eyes glazed over" syndrome. Teachers may find teaching science a major challenge in an era when science ranges from the hardly imaginable quark to the distant, blazing quasar.

Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards is the book that educators have been waiting for--a practical guide to teaching inquiry and teaching through inquiry, as recommended by the National Science Education Standards. This will be an important resource for educators who must help school boards, parents, and teachers understand "why we can't teach the way we used to."

"Inquiry" refers to the diverse ways in which scientists study the natural world and in which students grasp science knowledge and the methods by which that knowledge is produced. This book explains and illustrates how inquiry helps students learn science content, master how to do science, and understand the nature of science.

This book explores the dimensions of teaching and learning science as inquiry for K-12 students across a range of science topics. Detailed examples help clarify when teachers should use the inquiry-based approach and how much structure, guidance, and coaching they should provide.

The book dispels myths that may have discouraged educators from the inquiry-based approach and illuminates the subtle interplay between concepts, processes, and science as it is experienced in the classroom. Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards shows how to bring the standards to life, with features such as classroom vignettes exploring different kinds of inquiries for elementary, middle, and high school and Frequently Asked Questions for teachers, responding to common concerns such as obtaining teaching supplies.

Turning to assessment, the committee discusses why assessment is important, looks at existing schemes and formats, and addresses how to involve students in assessing their own learning achievements. In addition, this book discusses administrative assistance, communication with parents, appropriate teacher evaluation, and other avenues to promoting and supporting this new teaching paradigm.

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