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Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards: A Guide for Teaching and Learning (2000)

Chapter: Appendix B Selecting Instructional Materials

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Selecting Instructional Materials." National Research Council. 2000. Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards: A Guide for Teaching and Learning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9596.
×

Appendix B
Selecting Instructional Materials

Science teachers often ask about instructional materials that will help them implement inquiry-based instructional strategies and provide students with opportunities to develop the abilities and understandings of scientific inquiry. This appendix is intended to help identify and select such instructional materials. It begins with a brief summary of the different uses of the term “inquiry” presented early in this document, so that this section can stand alone and be shared with those responsible for selecting instructional materials.

INQUIRY IN THE NATIONAL SCIENCE EDUCATION STANDARDS

Inquiry is used several ways in the Standards.

  1. Scientific Inquiry. According to the National Science Education Standards, “Scientific inquiry refers to the diverse ways in which scientists study the natural world and propose explanations based on the evidence derived from their work” (p. 23). The Standards call for students to develop the abilities and understandings that will enable them to engage in this kind of activity. A key question when selecting instructional materials is the extent to which they support teachers in helping students achieve these goals.

  2. Inquiry-Based Teaching. The Standards state that “inquiry into authentic questions generated from student experiences is the central strategy for teaching science.” However, the importance of inquiry “does not imply that all teachers should pursue a single approach to teaching science.” Inquiry is a characteristic of both a desired form of teaching and particular kinds of classroom activities. It can be used to teach (1) subject matter of physical, life, earth and space sciences, (2) the nature of the scientific enterprise (i.e., about scientific inquiry), and (3) the abilities

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Selecting Instructional Materials." National Research Council. 2000. Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards: A Guide for Teaching and Learning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9596.
×

required to conduct scientific inquiry. Inquiry-based teaching is a means, not an end.

  1. Inquiry-Based Learning. In the Standards, inquiry also refers to learning processes. It is an active learning process — “something that students do, not something that is done to them” (p. 2). The Standards tie inquiry-based learning both to scientific inquiry and to studies of human learning.

Clearly there are connections among these uses of inquiry in the Standards. The task of selecting instructional materials requires consideration of all these ways of thinking about inquiry.

The selection of instructional materials can be helped by standards-based thinking. Instead of asking, “what standards will a particular set of materials meet?” it is better to ask, “if I want to accomplish a certain outcome, what materials do I need?”

ANALYZING INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

The process of analyzing and selecting quality instructional materials includes determining the degree to which they are consistent with the goals, principles, and criteria developed in the National Science Education Standards. Well-defined selection criteria help ensure a thoughtful and effective process. To be both usable and defensible, the selection criteria must be few in number and embody the critical tenets of accurate science content, effective teaching strategies, and appropriate assessment techniques.

The process described in the following pages can help teachers, curriculum designers, or other personnel complete a thorough and accurate evaluation of instructional materials. To help make this examination both thorough and usable, references to specific sections of the National Science Education Standards are provided, as are worksheets to keep track of the information needed to analyze and select the best instructional materials.

Selection of instructional materials parallels a guided inquiry in many respects. First, questions need to be identified that will guide the analysis and eventually the selection. Such questions include:

  • Is “science as inquiry” evident as content in the materials?

  • Is the presentation of inquiry as content accurate?

  • Is inquiry-based teaching evident in the materials?

  • Is there adequate time and opportunity for students to develop the abilities and understandings of scientific inquiry and an understanding of science subject matter concepts?

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Selecting Instructional Materials." National Research Council. 2000. Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards: A Guide for Teaching and Learning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9596.
×

Second, an investigation of the materials needs to be designed and conducted. The investigation requires systematic observations, accurate and consistent records, and clarification of the questions that guide the process. Are the observations consistent between different sets of materials? Were variables controlled, such as design and layout versus accurate portrayal of inquiry? Were similar techniques used to review all materials? Are the same kinds of data collected for all materials?

Third, recorded observations need to be used to develop summaries of the respective materials. These summaries should be based on what was observed and should differentiate among the materials.

Fourth, rational arguments need to be developed for the selection of materials. The arguments should be based on observations and address alternatives and options.

Finally, the process and final recommendation should be fully documented. This will be helpful for final review by such decision-makers as administrators and school boards.

ANALYSIS PROCEDURES

The procedures outlined in this section include:

  • Overview of instructional materials

  • Analysis of science as inquiry

  • Analysis of inquiry-based teaching

  • Analysis of assessment process

  • Evaluation of teacher’s guide

  • Analysis of materials use and management

In this appendix, criteria for analysis of instructional materials focus on their usefulness for classroom teachers and their degree of alignment with the Standards. A thorough analysis of instructional materials requires considerable time, collaboration, and attention to detail. Good working notes are helpful in this process. For that purpose, analysis worksheets are included at the end of this section.

OVERVIEW OF THE INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS (SEE WORKSHEET 1)

A quick overview of the materials precedes a more detailed examination. The first consideration is whether the materials emphasize the key ideas and abilities from the “Science as Inquiry” standard. To help make this determination, look at the table of contents, index, and glossary. Worksheet 1 contains terms related to science as inquiry taken from the Standards. These terms will give a preliminary indication of coverage of these fundamental topics.

Look through both student and teacher materials.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Selecting Instructional Materials." National Research Council. 2000. Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards: A Guide for Teaching and Learning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9596.
×
  • Are student outcomes listed?

  • Are some of these inquiry outcomes?

Look for student investigations or activities.

  • Where are they located? Note that in some materials, student investigations are integrated within the reading material. In others, they are located in a separate section — sometimes at the back of a chapter or book or in a separate laboratory manual.

  • Do they come after teacher explanations or lectures, or after students have read in their books? Or are they used to engage students in exploring new ideas before explanations are suggested?

Read several relevant paragraphs of student text material.

  • What is your judgment about the presentation of scientific inquiry?

  • Are the concepts in the students’ text consistent with the fundamental concepts and abilities in the Standards?

  • Does the text include more, fewer, or different concepts?

  • Do the photographs and illustrations provide further understanding of science as inquiry?

ANALYSIS OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS FOR INQUIRY AS CONTENT (SEE WORKSHEET 2)

Look for evidence in discussions in the text and in the student investigations of whether and how the fundamental abilities and understanding are addressed. (See Chapter 2 and Appendix A in this book, refer to a print copy of the National Science Education Standards, or access the Standards through the World Wide Web at www.nap.edu/readingroom/books/nses.) Examine several lessons in the student and teacher materials. To what degree do the lessons provide students the opportunity to develop the abilities and understandings of scientific inquiry?

Read through the text narrative, looking for student investigations and examining any suggestions for activities outside of class time. Consider:

  • Are opportunities provided for students to develop abilities of scientific inquiry such as posing their own questions, designing their own investigations, using appropriate tools and techniques to gather data, using evidence to communicate defensible explanations of cause and effect relationships, or using scientific criteria to analyze alternative explanations to determine a preferred explanation?

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Selecting Instructional Materials." National Research Council. 2000. Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards: A Guide for Teaching and Learning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9596.
×
  • What opportunities are provided for students to develop a fundamental understanding of scientific inquiry?

In addition to the language of the text, examine the teacher’s guide for ways to discuss the role and limitations of scientific skills such as making observations, organizing and interpreting data, and constructing defensible explanation based on evidence.

  • Is there a discussion of how science advances through legitimate skepticism?

  • Is there a discussion of how scientists evaluate explanations of others by examining and comparing evidence, identifying reasoning that goes beyond the evidence, and suggesting alternative explanations for the same evidence?

  • Are there opportunities for students to demonstrate these same understandings as a part of their investigations?

ANALYSIS OF PEDAGOGY (SEE WORKSHEET 3)

What students learn about inquiry and the abilities they develop depends on many things, including the accuracy and developmental appropriateness of content and its congruence with the full intent of the content standards. Opportunities to learn should be consistent with contemporary models of learning. The criteria in this section are based on characteristics of effective teaching proposed in Teaching Standards A, B, and E:

  • Teaching Standard A — Teachers of science plan an inquiry-based science program for their students.

  • Teaching Standard B — Teachers of science guide and facilitate learning.

  • Teaching Standard E — Teachers of science develop communities of science learners that reflect the intellectual rigor of scientific inquiry and the attitudes and social values conducive to science learning.

Using the following sequence of questions, examine several lessons in the student materials and the teacher’s guide.

  • Do the materials identify specific learning goals and outcomes for students that focus on one or more of the fundamental abilities and understandings of Science As Inquiry?

  • Study the opening pages of a relevant chapter or section. Does the material on these pages engage and focus student thinking on interesting questions, problems, or relevant issues?

  • Does the material provide a sequence of learning activities connected in such a way as to help students build abilities of inquiry and

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Selecting Instructional Materials." National Research Council. 2000. Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards: A Guide for Teaching and Learning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9596.
×

fundamental understandings about inquiry or a subject matter concept?

  • Do the activities incorporate all five essential features of classroom inquiry described in Chapter 2? Are suggestions provided to help the teacher keep students focused on the purpose of the lesson?

  • Does the teacher’s guide present common student difficulties in developing inquiry abilities and understandings? Does it suggest possible alternative conceptions or misconceptions students may have and how to address them? Are suggestions provided for teachers to find out what their student already know and can do? Are there learning activities designed to help students identify what they know and build new concepts and abilities?

ANALYSIS OF ASSESSMENT PROCESS (SEE WORKSHEET 4)

Assessment criteria in this section are grounded in the Assessment Standards A to E. Examine several lessons in the student and teacher materials for evidence to answer the following questions:

  • Is there consistency between learning goals and assessment? For example, if instruction focuses on building and understanding fundamental concepts, do assessments focus on explanations and not on vocabulary?

  • Do assessments stress application of abilities and concepts to new or different situations? For example, are the students asked to explain new situations with concepts they have learned? Are they asked to design investigations into questions they have not yet addressed?

  • Are assessment tasks fair for all students? For example, does success on assessment tasks depend too heavily on the student’s ability to read complex items or write explanations, as opposed to understanding the fundamental concepts or being able to think scientifically?

  • Are suggestions for scoring criteria or rubrics provided for the teacher?

EVALUATING THE TEACHER’S GUIDE (SEE WORKSHEET 5)

Examine several lessons in the teacher’s guide to help answer the following questions:

  • Does the teacher’s guide present appropriate and sufficient background in science?

  • Are the suggested teaching strategies usable by most teachers?

  • Are suggestions provided for pre-and post-investigation discussions focusing on subject matter concept development, inquiry abilities, and inquiry understandings?

  • Does the teacher’s guide recommend additional professional development?

  • Does the teacher’s guide indicate

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Selecting Instructional Materials." National Research Council. 2000. Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards: A Guide for Teaching and Learning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9596.
×

the types of support teachers will need for the instructional materials?

ANALYSIS OF MATERIALS USE AND MANAGEMENT (SEE WORKSHEET 6)

A high degree of alignment of the content, pedagogy, and assessment criteria described in the Standards does not necessarily guarantee that instructional materials will be easy to manage. The Standards address the importance of professional development, and some aspects of the program standards apply as well. It is useful to ask:

  • How many different types of materials must be managed and orchestrated during a typical chapter, unit, or teaching sequence (e.g., student text, teacher’s guide, transparencies, handouts, videos, and software)?

  • Does the teacher’s guide contain suggestions for effectively managing materials?

  • Do the instructional materials call for equipment, supplies, and technology that teachers may not have?

  • Do the instructional materials identify safety issues and provide adequate precautions?

  • Is the cost for the materials and replacements reasonable? Are there special requirements?

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Selecting Instructional Materials." National Research Council. 2000. Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards: A Guide for Teaching and Learning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9596.
×

WORKSHEET 1:

OVERVIEW OF THE INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

1. Terms

Location(s)

Page(s)

scientific questions

__________

_______

investigation

__________

_______

variables

__________

_______

communication

__________

_______

observation

__________

_______

critical thinking

__________

_______

logic

__________

_______

reasoning

__________

_______

experiments

__________

_______

evidence

__________

_______

explanations

__________

_______

models

__________

_______

theory

__________

_______

skepticism

__________

_______

Comments on breadth and depth of coverage:

2. Statements of expected student outcomes or inquiry abilities and understandings

 

 

Examples:

Location

Page(s)

a. _______________________________

__________

_______

b. _______________________________

__________

_______

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Selecting Instructional Materials." National Research Council. 2000. Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards: A Guide for Teaching and Learning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9596.
×

3. Student investigations/activities

Location

Page(s)

Titles of example investigations/activities:

a. _______________________________

__________

_______

b. _______________________________

__________

_______

c. _______________________________

__________

_______

Comments:

4. Presentation of concepts and abilities

Location

Page(s)

Paragraph 1

__________

_______

Comments:

Paragraph 2

__________

_______

Comments:

Overall impression from the overview of the materials:

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Selecting Instructional Materials." National Research Council. 2000. Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards: A Guide for Teaching and Learning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9596.
×

WORKSHEET 2:

ANALYSIS OF INQUIRY AS CONTENT

1. What opportunities are provided for students to develop abilities of scientific inquiry?

Cite specific examples:

Page(s)

a. Pose relevant questions

______

b. Plan and conduct investigations

______

c. Use appropriate tools and techniques to gather data

______

d. Use evidence to communicate defensible explanations of cause and effect

______

e. Use scientific criteria to analyze alternative explanations and develop a preferred explanation

______

Comments:

2. Opportunities to develop understanding of scientific inquiry

Cite specific examples:

Page(s)

a. Discussion of both roles and limitations of skills such as organizing and interpreting data, constructing explanations

______

b. Discussion of how science advances through legitimate skepticism

______

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Selecting Instructional Materials." National Research Council. 2000. Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards: A Guide for Teaching and Learning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9596.
×

 

Page(s)

c. Discussion of how scientists evaluate proposed explanations of others by examining and comparing evidence, reasoning that goes beyond the evidence, suggesting alternative explanations for the same evidence

______

d. Opportunities for students to demonstrate these same understandings as part of their investigations

______

Comments:

Estimate of alignment with National Science Education Standards Inquiry Standard:

Excellent [ ] Good [ ] Some [ ] Little [ ] None [ ]

Rationale for alignment estimate:

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Selecting Instructional Materials." National Research Council. 2000. Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards: A Guide for Teaching and Learning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9596.
×

WORKSHEET 3:

ANALYSIS OF PEDAGOGY

 

Yes

No

1. Do the materials identify specific learning goals and outcomes for students that focus on one or more of the fundamental abilities and understandings of inquiry?

____

____

Comments:

2. Do the materials engage and focus student thinking on interesting questions, problems, or relevant issues rather than opening with statements of fact and vocabulary?

____

____

Comments:

3. Do materials provide a sequence of learning activities connected in such a way as to help students build abilities of inquiry, understandings of inquiry, and/or fundamental science subject matter concepts?

____

____

Does the material provide specific means (e.g., connections among activities, linkage between text and activities, building from concrete to abstract, and embedded assessments) to help the teacher keep students focused on the purpose of the lesson?

____

____

Comments:

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Selecting Instructional Materials." National Research Council. 2000. Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards: A Guide for Teaching and Learning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9596.
×

 

Yes

No

4. Are student subject matter learning goals reached through an inquiry that contains all five essential features of classroom inquiry learning (Table 2-5, p. 25)?

____

____

Comments:

5. Does the teacher’s guide present common student difficulties in learning inquiry abilities and understandings?

____

____

Are suggestions provided to access prior abilities and understandings of students?

____

____

Comments:

Estimate of alignment with National Science Education Standards Teaching Standard:

Excellent [ ] Good [ ] Some [ ] Little [ ] None [ ]

Rationale for alignment estimate:

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Selecting Instructional Materials." National Research Council. 2000. Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards: A Guide for Teaching and Learning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9596.
×

WORKSHEET 4:

ANALYSIS OF ASSESSMENT PROCESS

Cite example or evidence of:

Yes

No

1. Consistency between learning goals and assessment

____

____

2. Assessments stressing application of abilities and concepts to new or different situations

____

____

3. Fairness of assessment tasks for all students — for example, task does not rely heavily upon the student’s ability to read complex items or write explanations, as opposed to demonstrating inquiry abilities of understanding fundamental science subject matter concepts

____

____

4. The inclusion of actual assessment instruments, scoring criteria or rubrics, and specific suggestions provided regarding their use

____

____

Comments:

Estimate of alignment with National Science Education Standards Assessment Standard:

Excellent [ ] Good [ ] Some [ ] Little [ ] None [ ]

Rationale for alignment estimate:

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Selecting Instructional Materials." National Research Council. 2000. Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards: A Guide for Teaching and Learning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9596.
×

WORKSHOP 5:

EVALUATING THE TEACHER’S GUIDE

 

Yes

No

1. Is appropriate and sufficient background in science presented?

____

____

2. Are the suggested teaching strategies usable by most teachers?

____

____

3. Are suggestions provided for pre- and post-investigation discussions focusing on subject matter, concept development, inquiry abilities, and inquiry understandings?

____

____

4. Is additional professional development recommended?

____

____

5. Are the types of support teachers will need for the instructional materials indicated?

____

____

Comments:

Estimate of usefulness of guide in overall instructional materials management:

Excellent [ ] Good [ ] Fair [ ] Poor [ ]

Rationale for alignment estimate:

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Selecting Instructional Materials." National Research Council. 2000. Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards: A Guide for Teaching and Learning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9596.
×

WORKSHEET 6:

ANALYSIS OF MATERIALS USE AND MANAGEMENT

1. How many different types of materials must be managed and orchestrated during a typical chapter, unit, or teaching sequence (e.g., student text, teacher’s guide, student materials, transparencies, handouts, videos, software)?

 

 

Comments:

 

Yes

No

2. Does the teacher’s guide contain suggestions for effectively managing instructional materials?

____

____

Comments:

3. Do instructional materials call for equipment, supplies, and technology that teachers using these materials might not have?

____

____

Comments:

4. Is the cost for the materials and replacements reasonable?

____

____

Are there special requirements?

____

____

Comments:

Estimate of use and management:

Easy [ ] Satisfactory [ ] Difficult [ ]

Rationale for overall estimate:

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Selecting Instructional Materials." National Research Council. 2000. Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards: A Guide for Teaching and Learning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9596.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Selecting Instructional Materials." National Research Council. 2000. Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards: A Guide for Teaching and Learning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9596.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Selecting Instructional Materials." National Research Council. 2000. Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards: A Guide for Teaching and Learning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9596.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Selecting Instructional Materials." National Research Council. 2000. Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards: A Guide for Teaching and Learning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9596.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Selecting Instructional Materials." National Research Council. 2000. Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards: A Guide for Teaching and Learning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9596.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Selecting Instructional Materials." National Research Council. 2000. Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards: A Guide for Teaching and Learning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9596.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Selecting Instructional Materials." National Research Council. 2000. Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards: A Guide for Teaching and Learning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9596.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Selecting Instructional Materials." National Research Council. 2000. Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards: A Guide for Teaching and Learning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9596.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Selecting Instructional Materials." National Research Council. 2000. Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards: A Guide for Teaching and Learning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9596.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Selecting Instructional Materials." National Research Council. 2000. Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards: A Guide for Teaching and Learning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9596.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Selecting Instructional Materials." National Research Council. 2000. Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards: A Guide for Teaching and Learning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9596.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Selecting Instructional Materials." National Research Council. 2000. Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards: A Guide for Teaching and Learning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9596.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Selecting Instructional Materials." National Research Council. 2000. Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards: A Guide for Teaching and Learning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9596.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Selecting Instructional Materials." National Research Council. 2000. Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards: A Guide for Teaching and Learning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9596.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Selecting Instructional Materials." National Research Council. 2000. Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards: A Guide for Teaching and Learning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9596.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Selecting Instructional Materials." National Research Council. 2000. Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards: A Guide for Teaching and Learning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9596.
×
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Humans, especially children, are naturally curious. Yet, people often balk at the thought of learning science--the "eyes glazed over" syndrome. Teachers may find teaching science a major challenge in an era when science ranges from the hardly imaginable quark to the distant, blazing quasar.

Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards is the book that educators have been waiting for--a practical guide to teaching inquiry and teaching through inquiry, as recommended by the National Science Education Standards. This will be an important resource for educators who must help school boards, parents, and teachers understand "why we can't teach the way we used to."

"Inquiry" refers to the diverse ways in which scientists study the natural world and in which students grasp science knowledge and the methods by which that knowledge is produced. This book explains and illustrates how inquiry helps students learn science content, master how to do science, and understand the nature of science.

This book explores the dimensions of teaching and learning science as inquiry for K-12 students across a range of science topics. Detailed examples help clarify when teachers should use the inquiry-based approach and how much structure, guidance, and coaching they should provide.

The book dispels myths that may have discouraged educators from the inquiry-based approach and illuminates the subtle interplay between concepts, processes, and science as it is experienced in the classroom. Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards shows how to bring the standards to life, with features such as classroom vignettes exploring different kinds of inquiries for elementary, middle, and high school and Frequently Asked Questions for teachers, responding to common concerns such as obtaining teaching supplies.

Turning to assessment, the committee discusses why assessment is important, looks at existing schemes and formats, and addresses how to involve students in assessing their own learning achievements. In addition, this book discusses administrative assistance, communication with parents, appropriate teacher evaluation, and other avenues to promoting and supporting this new teaching paradigm.

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