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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards: A Guide for Teaching and Learning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9596.
×

Index

A

Administrators, xviii, 143, 144, 145-146, 147-149, 150, 152

American Association for the Advancement of Science, 14, 79

Assessment of learning, 75-85

assessment of students, general, 22, 122, 150

assessors of students, 22, 96-97, 105

environments centered on, 122

formative, 76, 79, 80, 85

instructional materials assessment, outcomes, 176, 177, 178

knowledge, 77-78

non-English/second-language English students, 83-84, 150

portfolios, 82, 84

promoting inquiry, 150

purposes of, 76

questions used in, 76, 79, 81, 82;

see also Tests and testing

self-assessment by students, 48, 59, 80-81, 119

summative, 76-77, 83, 85

teacher education on, 96-97

of teachers, 22, 105, 144, 151-152

teaching standards, 22

understanding, 77-78

vignettes, 40, 41-42, 46, 57, 58, 64-65, 78, 79, 83

see also Outcomes of learning;

Research, educational

Attitudes and beliefs, 144, 145-146

instructional materials assessment, 177

research on, 117-118, 121, 139, 140

scientific, general, 14

students, xii, 34, 95, 117-118

teachers, xii, 23, 88-90, 94, 95-98, 139, 140, 148, 151

see also Motivation

B

Beliefs, see Attitudes and beliefs

Biological Sciences Curriculum Study, 17, 124

C

Case studies

teacher professional development, use in, 104-105

see also Vignettes

Cognitive abilities, 18, 66, 72, 144, 164

research on, 116, 121-122

see also Logical thinking;

Problem-solving;

Skepticism;

Transfer of learning

Communication skills, xii, 8, 14, 43, 161, 165, 167, 171

community-centered environments, 122-123

content standards, 19, 20

K-4, 45-46, 103, 104, 161

non-English/second-language English students, 121-122, 125, 126, 133-134

assessment of, 83-84, 150

parents, 144

promoting inquiry, 144, 145

self-assessment and, 80, 81

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards: A Guide for Teaching and Learning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9596.
×

teacher professional development, 103, 104, 150

teaching standards, 25, 27, 29, 30

vignettes, 45-46, 59, 66, 69, 71-72, 103

vocabulary development, 68, 83, 125, 133-134, 138

Computer-aided education, 164

see also Internet

Constructed-response items, 82

Content and content standards, 14, 18-21

equipment and supplies, 19, 20

grades 5 to 8, 19, 20, 48

grades 9 to 12, 19, 20

instructional materials assessment, 176-177

investigations, 19, 20

K-4, 19, 20, 41

logical thinking, 19, 20

mathematics, 19, 20

myths about inquiry-based learning, 36-37

pedagogical, 102-104

skepticism, 20

student-generated models, 19, 20

teacher professional development, 88

teaching standards, 22

technology, use of, 19, 20

vignettes, 41, 59, 60, 70

Council of Chief State School Officers, 83-84

Critical thinking, see Skepticism

Curriculum, 6, 35, 135-136

administrators’ role, 147

assessment, 76

historical perspectives, 16-18, 33-34, 124-125

research on, 124-125, 127

student-initiated investigations, 132

teacher education, 93, 105-109, 113, 151-152

see also Models, instructional;

Outcomes of learning

D

Dewey, John, 14, 16, 34

Diagrams and drawings, 81

instructional materials assessment, 176

vignettes, 53, 54, 56, 57, 61-63, 72, 74

Discipline, 136

teaching standards, 22

E

Earth and space science standard (Grades 5-8), 48, 58

Educational research, see Research, educational

Elementary education, see Kindergarten to Grade 4

Elementary Science Study, 17

English as a second language/non-English speakers, 121-122, 125, 126, 133-134

assessment of, 83-84, 150

Equipment and supplies, 43, 49-50, 162

content standards, 19, 20

instructional materials assessment, 179

teacher professional development, 90

teaching standards, 22, 26

see also Instructional materials;

Technology, use of

Ethnic factors, see Minority cultures

Evaluation, see Assessment of students;

Research, educational

Evidence-based explanations, 4, 8, 161, 164, 167, 168, 169, 171

assessment of, 79

content standards, 19, 20, 21

historical perspectives, 16

teaching standards, 25-27, 29, 33

vignettes, 44, 47, 48, 49, 53-57, 58-59, 63, 64, 65, 66, 71, 72

see also Experimentation;

Investigations;

Models, student-generated;

Observation skills

Experimentation, 14, 164

historical perspectives, 16-17, 18

teacher professional development, 90, 112

teachers’ role, 16-17, 33

Explanations, 7, 14, 35, 89, 164, 165, 167

alternative, 14, 16, 19, 21, 25, 27, 55, 56-57, 66, 71, 118, 127, 165, 167, 171, 176

assessment of, 78-79

content standards, 19, 20, 21

instructional materials assessment, 176

teaching standards, 25, 27, 29

testing, 10

vignettes, 45-46, 48, 55-57, 58, 65, 66, 71

see also Evidence-based explanations;

Models, student-generated;

Transfer of learning

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards: A Guide for Teaching and Learning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9596.
×

F

Fact-based learning/memorization, xii, 14, 80, 116, 118, 127, 150

vocabulary development, 68, 83, 125, 133-134, 138

Feedback and revision

student, 82, 84

teacher professional development, 89

Field experiences, 66-73, 150

museums, 92, 99-101, 102, 121, 149

teacher professional development, 92, 99-101, 102, 111-112

Formative assessments, 76, 79, 80, 85

see also Questions

Funding

National Science Foundation, 124, 138-139

study at hand, xix

G

Grades 5 to 8

content standards, 19, 20, 48

fundamental abilities, 163-165

fundamental understandings, 169-170

vignettes, 92, 99-101, 102, 111-112

Grades 9 to 12

community-centered environments, 123

content standards, 19, 20

fundamental abilities, 165-167

fundamental understandings, 170-171

vignettes, 60-73

H

Hands-on instruction, general, 138

myths about, 36

teacher education, 93, 106-109

see also Experimentation;

Investigations

Hebart, J., 33-34

High school, see Grades 9 to 12

Historical perspectives, 14-18, 144

content standards, 20

curricula, 16-18, 33-34, 124-125

instructional models, 16-17, 33-34, 124-125, 126

myths about inquiry-based learning, 36-37

research on inquiry, 17, 34, 124-125

as teaching tool, 56-57, 58, 59, 170

How People Learn, 116, 121

Hypotheses, see Explanations

I

Inference, see Logical thinking

Instructional materials, 15-16, 28, 138-139, 144, 148-149, 191

kit-based instruction, 36, 148-149

myths about, 36

safety concerns, 179

selection, 137, 173-179

teachers’ guides, 175, 177, 178-179, 190

technology, use of, 179

textbooks, 15, 16, 96, 140, 148

video tapes, 90, 105, 106-107, 191

vignettes, 39, 40, 44-45

see also Equipment and supplies

Instruments, see Equipment and supplies

Intermediate Science Curriculum Study, 17

Internet, 138, 176, 189-191

Investigations, 10, 13, 14, 161, 163, 165, 168, 169, 170, 171

content standards, 19, 20

frequently asked questions about inquiry, 131-132

instructional materials assessment, 176

student-initiated, 6-10, 131-132, 173, 176

teacher professional development, 89, 99-100

teaching standards, 22, 23

vignettes, 7, 40, 44, 47, 51-54, 66, 69

see also Evidence-based explanations;

Experimentation;

Vignettes

J

Journals, student, 82

vignettes, 67, 81

K

Kindergarten to Grade 4, 43, 190

assessment of, 81

content standards, 19, 20, 41

fundamental abilities, 161-162

fundamental understandings, 168

instructional models, 34

teacher professional development, 95-105

vignettes, 40-48, 95-105

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards: A Guide for Teaching and Learning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9596.
×

Kit-based instruction, 148-149

myths about, 36

L

Laboratory experiments, see Experimentation

Language skills, see Communication skills

Learning outcomes, see Outcomes of learning

Life-long learning, 87, 109-112

Logical thinking, 14, 164, 165, 171

content standards, 19, 20

research on, 117, 125

teaching standards, 26, 29

M

Mathematics, 139-140, 164, 165, 166, 169, 171

content standards, 19, 20

national standards research, 127

teacher education, 94, 107

vignettes, 46, 66

Memory and memorization, 14, 80, 116, 118, 127, 150

vocabulary development, 68, 83, 125, 133-134, 138

Middle School, see Grades 5 to 8

Minority cultures, 121-122, 123, 126, 133-134

see also English as a second language/non-English speakers

Models, instructional, 6, 10, 13, 14, 21, 33-35

community-centered environments, 122-123

historical perspectives, 16-17, 33-34, 124-125, 126

teacher education, 93-94

teaching standards, 20, 21, 22

traditional, 88, 91, 92, 109, 115, 135-136, 138, 143;

see also Memory and memorization

transfer of learning, 35

vignettes, 39, 40, 47-48, 59, 65

Models, student-generated, 119, 164, 167

content standards, 19, 20

diagrams and drawings, 53, 54, 56, 57, 61-63, 72, 74, 81, 176

teacher education, 94-95, 100

vignettes, 53-57, 58-59, 61-62, 71

see also Hypotheses

Motivation, xii, xiii

student-initiated investigations, 6-10, 131-132, 173, 176

vignettes, 65

see also Attitudes and beliefs

Multiple-choice items, 82, 83

Museums, 92, 99-101, 102, 121, 149

N

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, xix

National Science Education Standards, xii-xviii, 8, 10

classroom assessment, 75-85 (passim)

concepts vs principles, 132

content standards, 14, 18-21, 36-37, 48, 58, 60, 70

fundamental abilities of inquiry, 161-167

fundamental understandings of inquiry, 168-171, 177-178

instructional material selection, 173-187

laboratory experiments, 18

myths about, 35-37

nature of inquiry, 13-14

process skills, 134

promoting inquiry, 115, 144

research related to, 117, 120, 126, 127

teacher professional development, 87, 91, 109, 113

teaching standards, outlined and explicated, 21-33, 134-135

traditional instructional materials, 138

vignettes connected to, 48, 58, 64-65, 66, 70, 72

National Science Foundation, xix, 16, 95, 124, 138-139

National Teachers Association, xvii

New Standards Project, 79, 84

Novel situations, see Transfer of learning

O

Observation skills, 7, 18, 25

journals, student, 67

vignettes, 47-48, 52, 59, 63, 49, 67

see also Evidence-based explanations

Organizational factors, 144-146

administrators, xviii, 143, 144, 145-146, 147-149, 150, 152

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards: A Guide for Teaching and Learning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9596.
×

Parent-Teacher Associations, 8

policy-makers, 115, 127-128, 139-140

Outcomes of learning

instructional materials assessment, 176, 177

K-4, 40, 41-42, 46

promoting inquiry, 150

student-initiated investigations, 132

teacher education, 112

vignettes, 40, 41-42, 46, 57, 58, 64-65, 78, 79, 83

see also Assessment of learning;

Content and content standards

P

Parents, xviii

promoting inquiry among, 115, 143, 144, 147, 149-150

teaching standards, 22

Parent-Teacher Associations, 8

Pedagogy, 17, 21-33, 103

instructional materials assessment, 177-178

research and, 127

see also Models, instructional;

Teachers

Physical Sciences Study Committee, 17, 124

Physics by Inquiry, 93, 190

Piaget, Jean, 34

Policy-makers

barriers raised by, 139-140

promoting inquiry, 115

research and, 127-128

Portfolios, 82, 84

Predictions, 14, 164, 165

content standards, 19

Principles, see Administrators

Problem-solving, xii, 43, 120

community-centered, 123

motivation and, xiv

promotion of, 151

research on, 116, 117

teacher education on, 106-108

see also Explanations;

Transfer of learning

Process skills, 125-126, 134

cognitive abilities vs, 18

see also Experimentation;

Observation skills

Professional development, teachers, xviii, 23, 88-113, 137, 139, 140, 140-141, 143, 146-148, 179

on assessment of students, 96-97

case studies used in, 104-105

communication skills, 103, 104, 150

content and content standards, 88

on curriculum, 93, 105-109, 113, 151-152

experimentation laboratory, 90, 112

field experiences, 92, 99-101, 102, 111-112

hands-on instruction, general, 93, 106-109

investigations, 89, 99-100

mathematics, use of, 94, 107

problem-solving, 106-108

skills, development of in students, 89, 90

student-generated models, 94-95, 100

teachers’ guides, 175, 177, 178-179, 190

video tapes, 90, 105, 106-107, 191

vignettes, 88-113 (passim)

Public-at-large, education of

assessment, role in, 82

promoting inquiry among, 149-150

teaching standards, 22

Q

Questions, 127, 161, 163, 165, 168, 169, 170

in classroom assessment, 76, 79, 81, 82

frequently asked questions about inquiry, 131-141

on questions per se, 131, 136

instructional materials assessment, 176

instructional models, 35

myths about inquiry-based learning, 36

nature of inquiry, 13-14

teacher professional development, 89

teaching standards, 24-25, 26-27, 28, 29

vignettes, 6, 42-44, 47, 50-51, 54, 55-56, 58, 60, 61, 63-64, 65, 66, 67, 71

R

Race/ethnicity, see Minority cultures

Research, educational, 115-118

administrators, 143

attitudes and beliefs, 117-118, 121, 139, 140

barriers to inquiry-oriented approach, 139-140

cognitive abilities, 116, 121-122

curriculum, 124-125, 127

historical perspectives, 17, 34, 124-125

learning environments, 121-124

logical thinking, 117, 125

organizational factors, 143, 144-146

policy and, 127-128

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards: A Guide for Teaching and Learning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9596.
×

problem-solving, 116, 117

social factors, 118-123 (passim), 144-145

transfer of learning, 116-117, 119-120, 122

Revision, see Feedback and revision

Rote learning, see Memory and memorization

S

Safety

instructional materials assessment, 179

student-initiated investigations, 132

teaching standards, 22

Schwab, Joseph, 15

Science Curriculum Improvement Study, 17, 34, 124

Self-assessment, 48, 59, 80-81, 119

Skepticism, 14, 164, 169

alternative explanations, 14, 16, 19, 21, 25, 27, 55, 56-57, 66, 71, 118, 127, 165, 167, 171, 176

content standards, 20

teaching standards, 22

Skills, general, xii-xiii, 13, 39

assessment of, 78

historical perspectives, 17

instructional materials assessment, 177

teacher professional development, 89, 90

see also Cognitive abilities;

Communication skills;

Logical thinking;

Problem-solving;

Process skills

Social factors

barriers to inquiry-oriented approach, 139-140

community-centered environments, 122-123

instructional materials assessment, 177

minority cultures, 121-122, 123, 126, 133-134

research on, 118-123 (passim), 144-145

see also Communication skills;

Organizational factors;

Parents

State Collaborative on Assessment and Student Standards, 83-84

Summative assessments, 76-77, 83, 85

portfolios, 82, 84

see also Tests and testing

Summer Institute for Inservice Teachers, 95

T

Teachers, xviii, 21-33

assessment of, 22, 105, 144, 151-152

assessment of students by, 22, 96-97, 105, 122, 150

education on, 96-97

attitudes and beliefs, xii, 23, 88-90, 94, 95-98, 139, 140, 148, 151

essential features of classroom inquiry, 24-28, 40, 46-47, 58-59

experimentation, role in, 16-17, 33, 90, 112

evaluation of

guides, 175, 177, 178-179, 190

historical perspectives used by, 56-57, 58, 59, 170

instructional models, 35

laboratory experiments, 15-16

life-long learning, 87, 109-112

promoting inquiry among, 115, 143, 144, 145-146

structure and guidance, extent provided by, 28-33, 40, 136-137

discipline, 22, 136

safety, 22, 132, 179

student-initiated investigations, 6-10, 131-132, 173, 176

see also Questions

standards, outlined, 22-23

technology, role in use of, 16, 41-43, 105

see also Assessment of learning;

Models, instructional;

Pedagogy;

Professional development, teachers;

Vignettes;

“vignettes” subheads under other mainheads

Technology, use of, 164, 166, 168, 169, 170

content standards, 19, 20

instructional materials assessment, 179

teachers’ role, 16, 41-43, 105

vignettes, 41-42, 43, 46, 48-50, 66, 102-103, 105

see also Equipment and supplies

Tests and testing, 76, 77, 150

constructed-response items, 82

multiple-choice items, 82, 83

teaching for understanding, 124

see also Summative assessments

Textbooks, 15, 16, 96, 140, 148

Third International Mathematics Science Study (TIMSS), 135, 151

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards: A Guide for Teaching and Learning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9596.
×

Transfer of learning, 132-133, 170

instructional models, 35

research on, 116-117, 119-120, 122

vignette, 60-61, 64-65

V

Video tapes, teacher education, 90, 105, 106-107, 191

Vignettes, xix

assessment of learning, 40, 41-42, 46, 57, 58, 64-65, 78, 79, 83

classroom assessment, 40, 41-42, 46, 57, 58, 64-65, 78, 79, 83

communication skills, 45-46, 59, 66, 69, 71-72, 103

content and content standards, 41, 59, 60, 70

diagrams and drawings, use of, 53, 54, 56, 57, 61-63, 72, 74

explanations, evidence-based, 44, 47, 48, 49, 53-57, 58-59, 63, 64, 65, 66, 71, 72

explanations, general, 45-46, 48, 55-57, 58, 65, 66, 71

field experiences, 66-73;

see also “museums” infra

formative assessment, 76

Grades 5 to 8, 6-10, 13, 48-59

Grades 9 to 12, 60-73

instructional materials, 39, 40, 44-45

instructional models, 39, 40, 47-48, 59, 65

investigations, 7, 40, 44, 47, 51-54, 66, 69

journals, student, 67, 81

K-4, 40-48, 95-105

mathematics, 46, 66

museums, 92, 99-101, 102

observational skills, 47-48, 52, 59, 63, 49, 67;

see also “explanations, evidence-based” supra

outcomes of learning, 40, 41-42, 46, 57, 58, 64-65, 78, 79, 83;

see also “assessment of learning” supra

questions, use of, 6, 42-44, 47, 50-51, 54, 55-56, 58, 60, 61, 63-64, 65, 66, 67, 71

scientists, approach of, 1-5, 13, 15

student-generated models, 53-57, 58-59, 61-62, 71

teacher professional development, 88-113 (passim)

technology, use of, 41-42, 43, 46, 48-50, 66, 102-103, 105

transfer of learning, 60-61, 64-65

Vocabulary development, 68, 83, 125, 133-134, 138

W

World Wide Web, see Internet

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards: A Guide for Teaching and Learning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9596.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards: A Guide for Teaching and Learning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9596.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards: A Guide for Teaching and Learning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9596.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards: A Guide for Teaching and Learning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9596.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards: A Guide for Teaching and Learning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9596.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards: A Guide for Teaching and Learning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9596.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2000. Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards: A Guide for Teaching and Learning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9596.
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Humans, especially children, are naturally curious. Yet, people often balk at the thought of learning science--the "eyes glazed over" syndrome. Teachers may find teaching science a major challenge in an era when science ranges from the hardly imaginable quark to the distant, blazing quasar.

Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards is the book that educators have been waiting for--a practical guide to teaching inquiry and teaching through inquiry, as recommended by the National Science Education Standards. This will be an important resource for educators who must help school boards, parents, and teachers understand "why we can't teach the way we used to."

"Inquiry" refers to the diverse ways in which scientists study the natural world and in which students grasp science knowledge and the methods by which that knowledge is produced. This book explains and illustrates how inquiry helps students learn science content, master how to do science, and understand the nature of science.

This book explores the dimensions of teaching and learning science as inquiry for K-12 students across a range of science topics. Detailed examples help clarify when teachers should use the inquiry-based approach and how much structure, guidance, and coaching they should provide.

The book dispels myths that may have discouraged educators from the inquiry-based approach and illuminates the subtle interplay between concepts, processes, and science as it is experienced in the classroom. Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards shows how to bring the standards to life, with features such as classroom vignettes exploring different kinds of inquiries for elementary, middle, and high school and Frequently Asked Questions for teachers, responding to common concerns such as obtaining teaching supplies.

Turning to assessment, the committee discusses why assessment is important, looks at existing schemes and formats, and addresses how to involve students in assessing their own learning achievements. In addition, this book discusses administrative assistance, communication with parents, appropriate teacher evaluation, and other avenues to promoting and supporting this new teaching paradigm.

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