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National Earthquake Resilience: Research, Implementation, and Outreach (2011)

Chapter: Appendix B: Summary of 2003 EERI Report

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Summary of 2003 EERI Report." National Research Council. 2011. National Earthquake Resilience: Research, Implementation, and Outreach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13092.
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Appendix B

Summary of 2003 EERI Report

In 2003 the Earthquake Engineering Research Institute (EERI) released the report, Securing Society against Catastrophic Earthquake Losses: A Research and Outreach Plan in Earthquake Engineering. This report was prepared by a panel of earth scientists, earthquake engineers, and social scientists involved in earthquake-related research, with input from professional communities throughout the United States, and its goal was to provide a vision for the future of earthquake engineering research and outreach focused on securing the nation against the catastrophic effects of earthquakes.

The plan comprised the following research and outreach programs:

Understanding Seismic Hazards: developing new models of earthquakes and seismic hazards based on fundamental physics.

Assessing Earthquake Impacts: evaluating the impact of disasters on the built environment by simulating performance of structures and entire urban systems.

Reducing Earthquake Impacts: developing new materials, structural and nonstructural systems, lifeline systems, foundation systems, tsunami protection, fire protection systems, and land-use measures.

Enhancing Community Resilience: exploring new ways to reduce risk and improve the decision-making capability of stakeholders.

Expanding Education and Public Outreach: improving the education of engineers and scientists from elementary school to advanced graduate education, and providing opportunities for the public to learn about earthquake risk reduction.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Summary of 2003 EERI Report." National Research Council. 2011. National Earthquake Resilience: Research, Implementation, and Outreach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13092.
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The research tasks for each program were intended to develop the science, engineering, and societal approaches necessary for making better risk management choices to prevent catastrophic losses. The outreach tasks, on the other hand, were intended to facilitate the transfer of research findings into practice. The report proposes that achieving the goal of catastrophic loss prevention requires not only technological breakthroughs but also the translation of research results into professional practice and decision-making. For example, the report identified one central focus of earthquake engineering research as the need to merge current and future information technology advances into the practice of earthquake engineering, with the objective of reducing the uncertainty associated with hazard, performance, damage, and loss prediction of the built environment. However, while loss-reduction strategies that address specific structures and systems are important, the plan also stressed the need to protect the social fabric of communities against earthquake losses, requiring more comprehensive and holistic approaches.

The cost of the plan was estimated at $358 million per year for the first 5 years of a 20-year program of funding for activities within the NEHRP agencies. The total estimate for the 20-year plan, including capital investments, was $6.54 billion, with the expectation that funds would ramp up at a 15 percent annual rate over the first 5-year period of the Plan. Details of the budget over the 20-year period are presented in Tables B.1 and B.2.

The report indicated that accomplishing the plan would require a high level of coordination among the NEHRP agencies, as well as with other federal agencies and state and local government organizations, the earthquake engineering research community, organizations responsible for promulgation of building codes, engineering professionals, and government officials. Importantly, the benefits would not be limited to preventing catastrophic losses from earthquakes. Plan outcomes would also provide substantial benefits for homeland security and other initiatives to increase community resilience to extreme events. Through advances in the design of buildings and facilities, planning measures for addressing population growth and land use, and technologies that address emergency management and recovery, the initiatives presented in the report would complement and enhance programs to reduce the threat of terrorist attack and harmful effects of other extreme events such as blast, wind, flood, and fire.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Summary of 2003 EERI Report." National Research Council. 2011. National Earthquake Resilience: Research, Implementation, and Outreach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13092.
×

TABLE B.1 Estimated Cost of Plan (millions$), Including Research and Outreach Programs and Related Activities

Activity Average Annual Cost (M$) Total 20-year Cost (M$)
FY04-08 FY09-13 FY14-18 FY19-23
Hazard Knowledge 86 86 70 55 1,485
Impact Assessment 64 67 36 21 940
Impact Reduction 82 92 60 41 1,375
Enhancing Community Resilience 22 33 44 44 715
Education and Public Outreach 20 20 20 20 400
Capital Investments 55 77 80 70 1,410
Information Technology 28 5 5 5 215
Management Plan Development 1 0 0 0 5
PLAN TOTAL 358 380 315 256 6,545

NOTE: Capital Investments include ANSS, NEES, and field instrumentation.

TABLE B.2 Distribution of Costs (millions$) Among Research, Education, and Outreach Programs, Capital Investment, Information Technology, and Program Management

Program Description Average Annual Cost (M$) Total 20-year Cost (M$)
FY04-08 FY09-13 FY04-08 FY09-13
Hazard Knowledge Research 36 36 30 25 635
Outreach 50 50 40 30 850
Impact Assessment Research 61 61 30 15 835
Outreach 3 6 6 6 105
Impact Reduction Research 64 65 38 24 955
Outreach 18 27 22 17 420
Community Resilience Research 10 15 20 20 325
Outreach 12 18 24 24 390
Education/Public Outreach 20 20 20 20 400
Capital Investments 55 77 80 70 1,410
Information Technology 28 5 5 5 215
Management Plan Development 1 0 0 0 5
PLAN TOTAL 358 380 315 256 6,545
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Summary of 2003 EERI Report." National Research Council. 2011. National Earthquake Resilience: Research, Implementation, and Outreach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13092.
×

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Summary of 2003 EERI Report." National Research Council. 2011. National Earthquake Resilience: Research, Implementation, and Outreach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13092.
×
Page 209
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Summary of 2003 EERI Report." National Research Council. 2011. National Earthquake Resilience: Research, Implementation, and Outreach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13092.
×
Page 210
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Summary of 2003 EERI Report." National Research Council. 2011. National Earthquake Resilience: Research, Implementation, and Outreach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13092.
×
Page 211
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Summary of 2003 EERI Report." National Research Council. 2011. National Earthquake Resilience: Research, Implementation, and Outreach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13092.
×
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The United States will certainly be subject to damaging earthquakes in the future. Some of these earthquakes will occur in highly populated and vulnerable areas. Coping with moderate earthquakes is not a reliable indicator of preparedness for a major earthquake in a populated area. The recent, disastrous, magnitude-9 earthquake that struck northern Japan demonstrates the threat that earthquakes pose. Moreover, the cascading nature of impacts-the earthquake causing a tsunami, cutting electrical power supplies, and stopping the pumps needed to cool nuclear reactors-demonstrates the potential complexity of an earthquake disaster. Such compound disasters can strike any earthquake-prone populated area. National Earthquake Resilience presents a roadmap for increasing our national resilience to earthquakes.

The National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) is the multi-agency program mandated by Congress to undertake activities to reduce the effects of future earthquakes in the United States. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)-the lead NEHRP agency-commissioned the National Research Council (NRC) to develop a roadmap for earthquake hazard and risk reduction in the United States that would be based on the goals and objectives for achieving national earthquake resilience described in the 2008 NEHRP Strategic Plan. National Earthquake Resilience does this by assessing the activities and costs that would be required for the nation to achieve earthquake resilience in 20 years.

National Earthquake Resilience interprets resilience broadly to incorporate engineering/science (physical), social/economic (behavioral), and institutional (governing) dimensions. Resilience encompasses both pre-disaster preparedness activities and post-disaster response. In combination, these will enhance the robustness of communities in all earthquake-vulnerable regions of our nation so that they can function adequately following damaging earthquakes. While National Earthquake Resilience is written primarily for the NEHRP, it also speaks to a broader audience of policy makers, earth scientists, and emergency managers.

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