National Academies Press: OpenBook

National Earthquake Resilience: Research, Implementation, and Outreach (2011)

Chapter: Appendix E: Additional Cost Information

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Additional Cost Information." National Research Council. 2011. National Earthquake Resilience: Research, Implementation, and Outreach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13092.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Additional Cost Information." National Research Council. 2011. National Earthquake Resilience: Research, Implementation, and Outreach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13092.
×

TABLE E.1 Detailed Task Breakdown (in $000) and Scheduling for Task 4: National Seismic Hazard Model

Task Component Year Task Breakdown ($) Years 1-5 (Annualized) ($) Years 6-10 (Annualized) ($) Years 11-20 (Annualized) ($)
Provide geologic information to map faults and provide data for predictive relationships 1-20 560,000 28,000 28,000 28,000
USGS design applets and website updates 1-20 10,000 500 500 500
Update predictive relationships for ground shaking, including earthquake-physics simulations 1-20 153,000 10,200 6,400 7,000
Update seismic hazard maps for ground shaking 1-20 192,000 9,600 9,600 9,600
Develop predictive models for ground deformation 1-3 1,500 300 0 0
Develop seismic hazard maps for liquefaction 1-20 16,000 800 800 800
Develop seismic hazard maps for surface fault rupture 1-20 4,000 200 200 200
Develop seismic hazard maps for landslide potential 1-20 10,000 500 500 500
Total Cost 946,000 42,340 43,230 37,442
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Additional Cost Information." National Research Council. 2011. National Earthquake Resilience: Research, Implementation, and Outreach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13092.
×

TABLE E.2 Cost Breakdown (in $million) and Scheduling for Task 9: Post-Earthquake Information Management

Task Breakdown Task Total Years 1-2 (Annualized) Years 3-4 (Annualized) Years 5-6 (Annualized) Years 7-10 (Annualized) Years 11-20 (Annualized)
PHASE 1
Program management, travel and supporta 1.27 0.635
Equipment & commercial software licensing PHASE II 0.26 0.13
Pilot projects (7 to 9 total)b 3.7 0 0.37 0.74 0.37
Operation costsc 9.4 0 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.46
Total Cost 14.63

a Project management, PIMS system programmers, and testing/documentation staff would be budgeted at the GS13 salary range, about $125,000/year including benefits. The initial GS13 staff would be 4.5 in number (1 Project Lead at 0.5 FTE, 3 FTE system/software programmers, and 1 FTE testing/documentation staff). Administrative assistance and systems management would be budgeted at about $70,000/year including benefits, and would require 1 FTE (4.5 * $125,000/year + 1 * $70,000/year = 562,500 + 70,000 = 632,500).

b Each pilot project is estimated to have a development phase with 1 FTE at $90,000/year and an implementation phase with 1 to 2 FTEs at a cost of $140,000 to $420,000 per year, for a total cost of $230,000 to $510,000 per pilot project. For budgeting, an average of $370,000 per pilot project is assumed.

c Operation costs include project management, systems management, administrative assistance, user support, and maintenance programmers. It also includes data expansion and travel. All total, operation costs are estimated at $600,000 per year during Phase II, and $460,000 per year after Phase II.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Additional Cost Information." National Research Council. 2011. National Earthquake Resilience: Research, Implementation, and Outreach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13092.
×

TABLE E.3 Task Breakdown and Scheduling for Task 11: Observatory Network on Community Resilience and Vulnerability

Year Annual Cost Unit Cost Cost Explanation
Year 1 $1.8 million (a) new location nodes: $400k/yr (b) existing centers: $200k/yr Annual cost assumes 6 nodes established in Phase I (3 at new locations, 3 at existing research centers). New nodes: personnel and infrastructure cost to establish node functions; initiate data collection. Existing centers: Less costly, as would build on existing personnel/ infrastructure.
Year 2 $2.2 million (a) and (b): Same as Year 1 (c) network coordinating grant: $400k/yr 6 nodes continue. Network coordinating funds (NCF) to facilitate and institutionalize coordination functions (e.g., measurement protocols, data archiving, network website, workshops, etc.).
Year 3 $3.8 million (a), (b), (c): Same as above 6 nodes and NCF continue. Add 4 new nodes, potentially including “living laboratory” nodes.
Year 4 $3.8 million (a), (b), (c): Same as above 10 nodes and NCF continue.
Year 5 $2.85 million (a): $300k/yr (b): $150k/yr (c): $300k/yr 10 nodes and NCF continue. Cost reductions as infrastructure now set up and most urgent network actions completed (e.g., common measurement protocols, data archiving, etc.).
5-year TOTAL $14.45 million Sum of Years 1~5 costs.
Years 6~20 $2.85 million/yr Maintain Year 5 funding levels; some nodes may end and be replaced by others through competition.
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Additional Cost Information." National Research Council. 2011. National Earthquake Resilience: Research, Implementation, and Outreach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13092.
×

TABLE E.4 Summary Cost Breakdown (in $000) for Task 13: Techniques for Evaluation and Retrofit of Existing Buildings

Research and Development Task Task Total ($) Years 1-5 (Annualized) ($) Years 6-10 (Annualized) ($) Years 11-20 (Annualized) ($)
Program coordination and management 90,595 4,530 4,530 4,530
Establish a coordinated research program on existing buildings 1,200 60 60 60
Develop fragility and consequence functions for archaic components 5,875 858 218 50
Develop reliable tools for collapse computations 37,250 1,050 4,075 1,163
Large-scale laboratory testing of existing building systems, incl. improved component models 42,300 2,115 2,115 2,115
In-situ testing of existing buildings and components 109,000 50 9,750 6,000
Soil-structure interaction studies 21,500 325 1,045 1,465
Develop and deploy efficient retrofit methods/techniques 15,750 825 775 775
Develop and deploy techniques for NDE of existing construction and conditions 9,750 525 475 475
Develop and deploy a building rating system 4,000 700 0 50
Evaluate reliability of and update ASCE 41 procedures for PBD of existing buildings 18,650 2,065 1,665 0
Collect, curate, and archive building inventory data across the nation 135,650 6,880 6,750 6,750
Performance-based retrofit of nonstructural components and systems 875 175 0 0
Carbon footprint of retrofit building construction 775 155 0 0
Implementation: updating of standards and guidelines; risk reduction programs 50,400 2,580 2,500 2,500
Total Cost 543,570 22,892 33,957 25,932
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Additional Cost Information." National Research Council. 2011. National Earthquake Resilience: Research, Implementation, and Outreach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13092.
×

TABLE E.5 Detailed Task Breakdown (in $000) and Scheduling for Task 13: Techniques for Evaluation and Retrofit of Existing Buildingsa

Research and Development Task Year Task Breakdown ($) Years 1-5 (Annualized) ($) Years 6-10 (Annualized) ($) Years 11-20 (Annualized) ($)
Program coordination and management 1-20 90,595 4,530 4,530 4,530
Establish a coordinated research program on existing buildings 1,200 60 60 60
Scoping studies and workshops 1,6,11,15 800 40 40 40
Development/update of work-plans 1,6,11,15 400 20 20 20
Develop fragility and consequence functions for archaic components (critical missing pieces) 5,875 858 218 50
Scoping studies and workshop 1 100 20 0 0
Development of a work-plan (not covered elsewhere, mining of existing data) 1 100 20 0 0
Experimentation using NEES facilities (Use experimental data generated elsewhere) 2-4 3,000 600 0 0
Numerical studies using improved hysteretic models developed elsewhere 4-6 1,800 180 180 0
Develop and document fragility and consequence functions 2-8 125 13 13 0
Update functions in Years 11-20 1-5 250 0 0 25
Synthesis of results and preparation of technical briefs 5 yearly 500 25 25 25
Develop reliable tools for collapse computations 37,250 1,050 4,075 1,163
Scoping studies and workshop 3 150 30 0 0
Development of work-plan (using also work on improved hysteretic models) 3 100 20 0 0
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Additional Cost Information." National Research Council. 2011. National Earthquake Resilience: Research, Implementation, and Outreach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13092.
×
Experimentation using NEES facilities and E-Defense on multiple framing systems to collapse 6-10 12,000 0 2,400 0
Experimentation using NEES facilities on critical components of framing systems 4-7 7,500 750 750 0
Improved hysteretic models of structural components through failure 4-20 4,500 225 225 225
Understanding the triggers for collapse of framing systems 6-10 2,250 0 450 0
Improved system-level collapse computations and FE codes 6-15 2,250 0 225 113
Validation of improved computational procedures using NEES facilities and E-Defense 11-20 8,000 0 0 800
Synthesis of results and preparation of technical briefs 5 yearly 500 25 25 25
Large-scale laboratory testing of existing building systems, including improved component models 42,300 2,115 2,115 2,115
Scoping studies and workshop 1,6,11,15 600 30 30 30
Development of work-plan 1,6,11,15 600 30 30 30
Component testing program (NEES facilities): archaic and retrofitted 1-20 15,000 750 750 750
Systems testing program (NEES/E-Defense facilities): archaic and retrofitted 1-20 8,000 400 400 400
Develop nonlinear hysteretic models 1-20 9,000 450 450 450
Validate nonlinear hysteretic models 1-20 8,000 400 400 400
Develop guidelines and tools for FE analysis 5 yearly 600 30 30 30
Synthesis of data and preparation of a technical brief 5 yearly 500 25 25 25
In-situ testing of existing buildings and components 109,000 50 9,750 6,000
Scoping studies and workshop 3 150 30 0 0
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Additional Cost Information." National Research Council. 2011. National Earthquake Resilience: Research, Implementation, and Outreach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13092.
×
Research and Development Task Year Task Breakdown ($) Years 1-5 (Annualized) ($) Years 6-10 (Annualized) ($) Years 11-20 (Annualized) ($)
Development of work-plan 3 100 20 0 0
Systems-level dynamic testing using NEES equipment: archaic and retrofitted 6-15 15,000 0 1,500 750
Numerical studies using systems-level dynamic test data 6-18 9,000 0 600 600
Systems-level testing to collapse: archaic and retrofitted 6-15 20,000 0 2,000 1,000
Numerical studies using collapse test data (supplement to above) 6-18 6,000 0 400 400
Component-level testing to failure: archaic and retrofitted 6-15 40,000 0 4,000 2,000
Numerical studies using component test data 6-18 18,000 0 1,200 1,200
Develop and validate nonlinear hysteretic models (included elsewhere) 0 0 0 0
Synthesis of data and preparation of technical briefs 10, 15, 20 750 0 50 50
Soil-structure interaction studies 21,500 325 1,045 1,465
Scoping studies and workshop 5 200 40 0 0
Development of work-plan 5 100 20 0 0
Centrifuge testing programs (alternate soils, layers, ground water table) 6-10 3,750 0 750 0
Develop simplified guidelines and tools for isolated structures 11-15 1,350 0 0 135
Develop simplified guidelines and tools for clusters of structures 11-15 1,350 0 0 135
Develop procedures for time-domain FE analysis 6-10, 15-20 2,700 0 270 135
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Additional Cost Information." National Research Council. 2011. National Earthquake Resilience: Research, Implementation, and Outreach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13092.
×
Develop procedures for probabilistic SSI analysis 1-5 1,200 240 0 0
Implementation of time and frequency domain algorithms in FE codes 11-15 1,350 0 0 135
Validation of numerical tools by experimentation using NEES facilities and E-Defense 11-15 6,000 0 0 600
Update of tools and procedures in Years 16-20 3,000 0 0 300
Synthesis of data and preparation of technical briefs 5, 10, 15, 20 500 25 25 25
Develop and deploy efficient retrofit methods/techniques 15,750 825 775 775
Scoping studies and workshop 1 150 30 0 0
Development of work-plan 2 100 20 0 0
Develop alternate retrofit strategies 2-18 15,000 750 750 750
Deploy and test retrofit strategies (Included elsewhere) 0 0 0 0
Develop and validate nonlinear hysteretic models of retrofitted components (Included elsewhere) 0 0 0 0
Synthesis of data and preparation of technical briefs 5, 10, 15, 20 500 25 25 25
Develop and deploy techniques for NDE of existing construction and conditions 9,750 525 475 475
Scoping studies and workshop (utilize existing building construction; included elsewhere) 150 30 0 0
Development of work-plan 2 100 20 0 0
Develop alternate NDE strategies 3-20 9,000 450 450 450
Deploy and test alternate NDE strategies 3-20 0 0 0 0
Synthesis of data and preparation of technical briefs 5, 10, 15, 20 500 25 25 25
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Additional Cost Information." National Research Council. 2011. National Earthquake Resilience: Research, Implementation, and Outreach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13092.
×
Research and Development Task Year Task Breakdown ($) Years 1-5 (Annualized) ($) Years 6-10 (Annualized) ($) Years 11-20 (Annualized) ($)
Develop and deploy a building rating system 4,000 700 0 50
Scoping studies and workshop 1 200 40 0 0
Development of work-plan 1 100 20 0 0
Numerical studies using data and PBD developed elsewhere 2-4 3,000 600 0 0
Update building rating system in Year 20 20 300 0 0 30
Synthesis of data and preparation of technical briefs 5 and 20 400 40 0 20
Evaluate reliability, and update, ASCE 41 procedures for performance-based design of existing buildings 18,650 2,065 1,665 0
Scoping studies and workshop 1 150 30 0 0
Development of work-plan 1 100 20 0 0
Develop a method to translate test data into acceptance criteria 2 200 40 0 0
Benchmark linear and nonlinear static procedures using nonlinear dynamic analysis 2-4 1,800 360 0 0
Benchmark all analysis procedures using earthquake data 2-4 1,800 360 0 0
Calibrate retrofit standards against performance expectations for new buildings 6-8 1,800 0 360 0
Clarify performance expectations in ASCE 31/41 9 and 10 250 0 50 0
Revise linear and nonlinear static procedures based on benchmarking 4-5 150 30 0 0
Evaluation of procedures/acceptance criteria using NEES facilities 2-5 6,000 1,200 0 0
Evaluation of system-level predictions using NEES facilities and E-Defense 6-8 6,000 0 1,200 0
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Additional Cost Information." National Research Council. 2011. National Earthquake Resilience: Research, Implementation, and Outreach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13092.
×
Update of nonlinear dynamic analysis procedures 8-10 150 0 30 0
Synthesis of results and preparation of technical briefs 5 and 10 250 25 25 0
Collect, curate, and archive building inventory data across the nation 135,650 6,880 6,750 6,750
Scoping studies and workshop 1 task 200 40 0 0
Development of work-plan and standardized procedures 1 task 150 30 0 0
Develop procedures to track replacement of deficient buildings and update archive/loss estimates 2 and 3 300 60 0 0
50 cities 1-20 135,000 6,750 6,750 6,750
Performance-based retrofit of nonstructural components and systems 875 175 0 0
Scoping studies and workshop 1 150 30 0 0
Development of a work-plan 1 100 20 0 0
Develop procedures, tools, and recommendations for retrofit of architectural and M/E/P components and systems 2 and 3 500 100 0 0
Prepare technical brief 4 125 25 0 0
Carbon footprint of retrofit building construction 775 155 0 0
Scoping studies and workshop 1 150 30 0 0
Development of a work-plan 1 100 20 0 0
Carbon footprint calculation framework 2 and 3 100 20 0 0
Carbon footprint calculations for retrofit construction 3 and 4 100 20 0 0
Inclusion of carbon-based effects in loss computations 4 and 5 200 40 0 0
Prepare a technical brief 5 125 25 0 0
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Additional Cost Information." National Research Council. 2011. National Earthquake Resilience: Research, Implementation, and Outreach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13092.
×
Research and Development Task Year Task Breakdown ($) Years 1-5 (Annualized) ($) Years 6-10 (Annualized) ($) Years 11-20 (Annualized) ($)
Implementation 50,400 2,580 2,500 2,500
Support updating of standards and guidelines 10,000 500 500 500
Develop methods to measure contributions of building stock to community resilience 1-3 400 80 0 0
Encourage risk reduction programs across the nation 40,000 2,000 2,000 2,000
Total Cost 543,570 22,892 33,957 25,932

a Bold headings within the Research and Development Task column represent the overarching title and cost summary of underlying non-bold components.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Additional Cost Information." National Research Council. 2011. National Earthquake Resilience: Research, Implementation, and Outreach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13092.
×

TABLE E.6 Summary Cost Breakdown (in $000) for Task 14: Performance-based Earthquake Engineering for Buildings

Research and Development Task Task Total ($) Years 1-5 (Annualized) ($) Years 6-10 (Annualized) ($) Years 11-20 (Annualized) ($)
Program coordination and management 148,585 7,429 7,429 7,429
NEES maintenance and operation; new equipment 500,000 25,000 25,000 25,000
Effect of ground deformation on buildings 8,975 250 895 325
Site response analysis 12,050 1,615 385 205
Constitutive models for soils 17,150 1,490 1,440 250
Soil-foundation-structure interaction 21,500 325 1,045 1,465
Selection and scaling of earthquake ground motions 2,550 75 205 115
Improved hysteretic models of structural components 42,300 2,115 2,115 2,115
Evaluate reliability of ASCE 41 procedures for performance-based design 14,600 1,665 1,255 0
Develop reliable tools for collapse computations 37,250 1,050 4,075 1,163
Develop fragility and consequence functions for modern and archaic components 5,875 858 218 50
Loss estimation tools for PBEE 925 0 0 93
Expected performance of code-conforming structures 3,450 690 0 0
Expand ATC-58 performance-based design methodology 2,800 280 150 65
Performance-based design of nonstructural components and systems 1,325 265 0 0
Smart/innovative/adaptive/sustainable components and framing systems 51,500 2,500 2,500 2,650
Carbon footprint of new and retrofit building construction 675 135 0 0
Implementation: Updating of Standards and Guidelines 20,000 1,000 1,000 1,000
Total Cost 891,510 46,742 47,712 41,924
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Additional Cost Information." National Research Council. 2011. National Earthquake Resilience: Research, Implementation, and Outreach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13092.
×

TABLE E.7 Detailed Task Breakdown (in $000) and Scheduling for Task 14: Performance-based Earthquake Engineering for Buildingsa

Research and Development Task Year Task Breakdown ($) Years 1-5 (Annualized) ($) Years 6-10 (Annualized) ($) Years 11-20 (Annualized) ($)
Program coordination and management 1-20 148,585 7,429 7,429 7,429
NEES maintenance and operation; new equipment (contributes to multiple tasks) 1-20 500,000 25,000 25,000 25,000
Effect of ground deformation on buildings 8,975 250 895 325
Scoping studies and workshop 5 125 25 0 0
Development of work-plan 5 100 20 0 0
Experimental studies using NEES facilities 6-9 3,000 600 0
Effect of ground deformation on buildings 7-10 900 180 0
Validation of numerical tools by experimentation using NEES facilities and E-Defense 11-15 3,000 0 300
Techniques to mitigate the effects of liquefaction using NEES facilities 2-10 1,350 180 90 0
Synthesis of data and preparation of technical briefs 5 (ground deformation predictions), 10, 15, 20 500 25 25 25
Site response analysis 12,050 1,615 385 205
Scoping studies and workshop 1 150 30 0 0
Development of workplan 1 100 20 0 0
Field testing using NEES facilities (3 yrs of testing across the nation; incl. borelogs) 2-4 5,000 1,000 0 0
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Additional Cost Information." National Research Council. 2011. National Earthquake Resilience: Research, Implementation, and Outreach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13092.
×
WUS site class coefficients 3-5 1,350 270 0 0
PNW site class coefficients 4-6 900 120 60 0
CEUS site class coefficients 5-7 2,250 150 300 0
Updates to work in years 11-20 1,800 0 0 180
Synthesis of data and preparation of a technical brief 5, 10, 15, 20 500 25 25 25
Constitutive models for soils 17,150 1,490 1,440 250
Scoping studies and workshop 1 150 30 0 0
Development of work-plan 1 100 20 0 0
Component testing program (small scale) 2-10 5,000 500 500 0
System testing program (larger-scale, laminar boxes, field testing) using NEES facilities 2-10 3,750 375 375 0
Develop equivalent linear models 2-10 2,250 225 225 0
Develop nonlinear hysteretic models 2-10 2,250 225 225 0
Implementation in FE codes 2-10 900 90 90 0
Updates to work in Years 11-20 11-20 2,250 0 0 225
Synthesis of data and preparation of a technical brief 5, 10, 15, 20 500 25 25 25
Soil-foundation-structure interaction 21,500 325 1,045 1,465
Scoping studies and workshop 5 200 40 0 0
Development of work-plan 5 100 20 0 0
Centrifuge testing programs (alternate soils, layers, ground water table) 6-10 3,750 0 750 0
Develop simplified guidelines and tools for isolated structures 11-15 1,350 0 0 135
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Additional Cost Information." National Research Council. 2011. National Earthquake Resilience: Research, Implementation, and Outreach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13092.
×
Research and Development Task Year Task Breakdown ($) Years 1-5 (Annualized) ($) Years 6-10 (Annualized) ($) Years 11-20 (Annualized) ($)
Develop simplified guidelines and tools for clusters of structures 11-15 1,350 0 0 135
Develop procedures for time-domain FE analysis 6-10, 15-20 2,700 0 270 135
Develop procedures for probabilistic SSI analysis 1-5 1,200 240 0 0
Implementation of time and frequency domain algorithms in FE codes 11-15 1,350 0 0 135
Validation of numerical tools by experimentation using NEES facilities and E-Defense 11-15 6,000 0 0 600
Update of tools and procedures in Years 16-20 3,000 0 0 300
Synthesis of data and preparation of technical briefs 5, 10, 15 , 20 500 25 25 25
Selection and scaling of earthquake ground motions 2,550 75 205 115
Scoping studies and workshop (assumes that Phase 1 procedures for buildings developed under existing contracts) 2 150 30 0 0
Development of work-plan 2 100 20 0 0
Update of procedures for buildings, accounting for SSI effects 8-10 900 0 180 0
Update of procedures in Years 11-20 900 0 0 90
Synthesis of data and preparation of technical briefs 5, 10, 15, 20 500 25 25 25
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Additional Cost Information." National Research Council. 2011. National Earthquake Resilience: Research, Implementation, and Outreach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13092.
×
Improved hysteretic models of structural components 42,300 2,115 2,115 2,115
Scoping studies and workshop 1,6,11,15 600 30 30 30
Development of work-plan 1,6,11,15 600 30 30 30
Component testing program (NEES facilities) 1-20 15,000 750 750 750
Systems testing program (NEES/E-Defense facilities) 1-20 8,000 400 400 400
Develop nonlinear hysteretic models 1-20 9,000 450 450 450
Validate nonlinear hysteretic models 1-20 8,000 400 400 400
Develop guidelines and tools for FE analysis Every 5 years 600 30 30 30
Synthesis of data and preparation of a technical brief Every 5 years 500 25 25 25
Evaluate reliability of ASCE 41 procedures for PBD 14,600 1,665 1,255 0
Scoping studies and workshop 1 150 30 0 0
Development of work-plan 1 100 20 0 0
Benchmark linear and nonlinear static procedures using nonlinear dynamic analysis 2-4 1,800 360 0 0
Revise linear and nonlinear static procedures based on benchmarking 4-5 150 30 0 0
Evaluation of procedures/acceptance criteria using NEES facilities 2-5 6,000 1,200 0 0
Evaluation of system-level predictions using NEES facilities and E-Defense 6-8 6,000 0 1,200 0
Update of nonlinear dynamic analysis procedures 8-10 150 0 30 0
Synthesis of results and preparation of technical briefs 5 and 10 250 25 25 0
Develop reliable tools for collapse computations 37,250 1,050 4,075 1,163
Scoping studies and workshop 3 150 30 0 0
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Additional Cost Information." National Research Council. 2011. National Earthquake Resilience: Research, Implementation, and Outreach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13092.
×
Research and Development Task Year Task Breakdown ($) Years 1-5 (Annualized) ($) Years 6-10 (Annualized) ($) Years 11-20 (Annualized) ($)
Development of work-plan 3 100 20 0 0
Experimentation using NEES facilities and E-Defense on multiple framing systems to collapse 6-10 12,000 0 2,400 0
Experimentation using NEES facilities on critical components of framing systems 4-7 7,500 750 750 0
Improved hysteretic models of structural components through failure (using also work on improved hysteretic models) 4-20 4,500 225 225 225
Understanding the triggers for collapse of multiple framing systems 6-10 2,250 0 450 0
Improved system-level collapse computations and FE codes 6-15 2,250 0 225 113
Validation of improved computational procedures using NEES facilities and E-Defense 11-20 8,000 0 0 800
Synthesis of results and preparation of technical briefs Every 5 years 500 25 25 25
Develop fragility and consequence functions for modern and archaic components 5,875 858 218 50
Scoping studies and workshop 1 100 20 0 0
Development of a workplan 1 100 20 0 0
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Additional Cost Information." National Research Council. 2011. National Earthquake Resilience: Research, Implementation, and Outreach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13092.
×
Experimentation using NEES facilities 2-4 (critical missing pieces) 3,000 600 0 0
Numerical studies using improved hysteretic models developed elsewhere 4-6 1,800 180 180 0
Develop and document fragility and consequence functions (not covered elsewhere, mining of existing data) 2-8 125 13 13 0
Update functions in Years 11-20 (Use experimental data generated elsewhere) 250 0 0 25
Synthesis of results and preparation of technical briefs 5-yearly 500 25 25 25
Loss estimation tools 925 0 0 93
Scoping studies and workshop 11 100 0 0 10
Development of a work-plan 11 100 0 0 10
Develop and implement tools for ground deformation 12-13 200 0 0 20
Develop and implement tools for fire-following-earthquake 13-14 200 0 0 20
Develop and implement tools related to carbon emissions 12-13 200 0 0 20
Synthesis of results and preparation of technical briefs 15 125 0 0 13
Expected performance of code-conforming structures 3,450 690 0 0
Scoping studies and workshop 1 150 30 0 0
Development of a work-plan 1 100 20 0 0
Assess performance of code-conforming structures—WUS 2-3 500 100 0 0
Assess performance of code-conforming structures—PNW 2-3 500 100 0 0
Assess performance of code-conforming structures—CEUS 2-3 1,000 200 0 0
Revise ASCE-7 provisions, values of R, etc 4 and 5 1,000 200 0 0
Synthesis of results and preparation of technical briefs 5 200 40 0 0
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Additional Cost Information." National Research Council. 2011. National Earthquake Resilience: Research, Implementation, and Outreach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13092.
×
Research and Development Task Year Task Breakdown ($) Years 1-5 (Annualized) ($) Years 6-10 (Annualized) ($) Years 11-20 (Annualized) ($)
Expand ATC-58 PBD methodology 2,800 280 150 65
Scoping studies and workshop 1 150 30 0 0
Development of a work-plan 1 100 20 0 0
Expand methodology to include ground deformation 11-13 200 0 0 20
Expand methodology to include post-earthquake flooding 11-13 200 0 0 20
Extend methodology to lifelines 2-4 500 100 0 0
Extend methodology to earthen structures 2-4 200 40 0 0
Extend methodology to selected infrastructure 6-10 500 0 100 0
Extend methodology to flood protection structures 2-4 200 40 0 0
Prepare technical briefs 5, 10, 15 750 50 50 25
PB design of nonstructural components and systems 1,325 265 0 0
Scoping studies and workshop 1 100 20 0 0
Development of a work-plan 1 100 20 0 0
Develop procedures and tools for architectural and M/E/P components systems 2-5 1,000 200 0 0
Prepare technical brief 5 125 25 0 0
Smart/innovative/adaptive/sustainable components and framing systems 51,500 2,500 2,500 2,650
Development and deployment of smart framing systems, incl. hysteretic models 1-20 20,000 1,000 1,000 1,000
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Additional Cost Information." National Research Council. 2011. National Earthquake Resilience: Research, Implementation, and Outreach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13092.
×
Development and deployment of adaptive components, incl. hysteretic models 1-20 20,000 1,000 1,000 1,000
Development and deployment of sustainable components (systems), incl. hysteretic models 1-20 10,000 500 500 500
Preparation of standards and guidelines for smart framing systems 11-20 500 0 0 50
Preparation of standards and guidelines for adaptive components 11-20 500 0 0 50
Preparation of standards and guidelines for sustainable components 11-20 500 0 0 50
Carbon footprint of new and retrofit building construction 675 135 0 0
Scoping studies and workshop 1 150 30 0 0
Development of a work-plan 1 100 20 0 0
Carbon footprint calculation framework for new and archaic framing systems 2 and 3 100 20 0 0
Carbon footprint calculations for retrofit construction 3 and 4 100 20 0 0
Inclusion of carbon-based effects in loss computations 4 and 5 100 20 0 0
Prepare a technical brief 5 125 25 0 0
Implementation: updating of standards and guidelines 20,000 1,000 1,000 1,000
Total Cost 891,510 46,742 47,712 41,924

a Bold headings within the Research and Development Task column represent the overarching title and cost summary of underlying non-bold components.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Additional Cost Information." National Research Council. 2011. National Earthquake Resilience: Research, Implementation, and Outreach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13092.
×

TABLE E.8 Summary Cost Breakdown (in $000) for Task 16: Next Generation Sustainable Materials, Components, and Systems

Research and Development Task Task Breakdown ($) Years 1-5 (Annualized) ($) Years 6-10 (Annualized) ($) Years 11-20 (Annualized) ($)
Engineering research center management 55,735 2,787 2,787 2,787
Investigate and characterize new materials 73,300 4,685 6,575 1,700
Devise new modular precast components and framing systems 8,175 0 835 400
Develop tools, technologies, and details to join new materials 16,000 0 1,100 1,050
Prototype components, connections, and framing systems 8,200 0 469 586
Moderate and full-scale testing of components with new materials using NEES infrastructure 50,700 0 0 5,070
Full-scale tests of 3D framing systems 15,550 0 0 1,555
Develop design tools and equations for new materials 8,000 0 0 800
Develop and characterize a new family of adaptive materials 15,650 0 1,600 765
Develop robust algorithms for controlling the response of adaptive materials 5,300 0 0 530
Develop a family of low-cost, low-power, zero maintenance wireless sensors 12,800 685 625 625
Prototype adaptive materials and components at the macro scale 8,100 0 0 810
Develop algorithms to control response of framing systems with adaptive components 8,000 0 0 800
Moderate and full-scale testing of adaptive components using NEES infrastructure 25,550 0 0 2,555
Full-scale tests of adaptive 3D framing systems 15,350 0 0 1,535
Develop design tools and equations for adaptive components and systems 8,000 0 0 800
Total Cost 334,410 8,157 13,990 22,368
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Additional Cost Information." National Research Council. 2011. National Earthquake Resilience: Research, Implementation, and Outreach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13092.
×

TABLE E.9 Summary Cost Breakdown (in $000) for Task 16: Next Generation Sustainable Materials, Components, and Systemsa

Research and Development Task Year Task Breakdown ($) Years 1-5 (Annualized) ($) Years 6-10 (Annualized) ($) Years 11-20 (Annualized) ($)
Engineering research center management 1-20 55,735 2,787 2,787 2,787
Investigate and characterize new materials 73,300 4,685 6,575 1,700
Scoping studies and workshop 1 200 40 0 0
Development of work-plan 1 100 20 0 0
Small-scale characterization studies—concrete (low-cement, very high strength, fiber-reinforced) 2-10 15,000 1,500 1,500 0
Small-scale characterization studies—metals 2-10 15,000 1,500 1,500 0
Small-scale characterization—polymers 2-10 15,000 1,500 1,500 0
Small-scale characterization—others 6-15 7,500 0 750 375
Develop micro-mechanical models for new materials 6-20 18,000 0 1,200 1,200
Synthesis of data and preparation of technical briefs 5, 10, 15, 20 2,500 125 125 125
Devise new modular precast components and framing systems 8,175 0 835 400
Scoping studies and workshop 6 200 0 40 0
Development of work-plan 6 100 0 20 0
Develop new components and systems 7-15 7,500 0 750 375
Synthesis of data and preparation of a technical brief 10, 15, 20 375 0 25 25
Develop tools, technologies, and details to join new materials 16,000 0 1,100 1,050
Scoping studies and workshop 6 150 0 30 0
Development of work-plan 6 100 0 20 0
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Additional Cost Information." National Research Council. 2011. National Earthquake Resilience: Research, Implementation, and Outreach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13092.
×
Research and Development Task Year Task Breakdown ($) Years 1-5 (Annualized) ($) Years 6-10 (Annualized) ($) Years 11-20 (Annualized) ($)
Component testing program (small scale) 7-20 15,000 0 1,000 1,000
Synthesis of data and preparation of a technical brief 10, 15, 20 750 0 50 50
Prototype components, connections, and framing systems 8,200 0 469 586
Scoping studies and workshop 8 100 0 20 0
Development of work-plan 8 100 0 20 0
Prototype components, connections, and systems 9-15 7,500 0 429 536
Synthesis of data and preparation of a technical brief 15, 20 500 0 0 50
Moderate and full-scale testing of components with new materials using NEES infrastructure 50,700 0 0 5,070
Scoping studies and workshop 11 100 0 0 10
Development of work-plan 11 100 0 0 10
Component testing program (reaction walls/floors, laminar boxes) using NEES facilities 12-20 30,000 0 0 3,000
Develop nonlinear hysteretic models and design equations for materials standards 12-20 9,000 0 0 900
Implementation of models in FE codes 12-20 9,000 0 0 900
Develop fragility and consequence functions for PBD 12-20 2,000 0 0 200
Synthesis of data and preparation of a technical brief 15, 20 500 0 0 50
Full-scale tests of 3D framing systems 15,550 0 0 1,555
Scoping studies and workshop 16 200 0 0 20
Development of work-plan 16 100 0 0 10
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Additional Cost Information." National Research Council. 2011. National Earthquake Resilience: Research, Implementation, and Outreach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13092.
×
Full-scale testing using NEES facilities and E-Defense 17-20 12,500 0 0 1,250
Validation of numerical tools and models 18-20 2,250 0 0 225
Synthesis of data and preparation of technical briefs 15 and 20 500 0 0 50
Develop design tools and equations for new materials 8,000 0 0 800
Scoping studies and workshop 16 200 0 0 20
Development of work-plan 16 100 0 0 10
Develop design tools and equations 17-20 4,500 0 0 450
Prepare materials standards (e.g., ACI 318) 17-20 2,700 0 0 270
Synthesis of data and preparation of technical briefs 20 500 0 0 50
Develop and characterize a new family of adaptive materials 15,650 0 1,600 765
Scoping studies and workshop 6 200 0 40 0
Development of work-plan 6 150 0 30 0
Develop and characterize new materials and fluids 7-15 15,000 0 1,500 750
Synthesis of data and preparation of technical briefs 10 and 15 300 0 30 15
Develop robust algorithms for controlling the response of adaptive materials 5,300 0 0 530
Scoping studies and workshop 11 150 0 0 15
Development of work-plan 11 150 0 0 15
Algorithm development and validation 12-18 4,500 0 0 450
Synthesis of data and preparation of a technical brief 15 and 20 500 0 0 50
Develop a family of low-cost, low-power, zero maintenance wireless sensors 12,800 685 625 625
Scoping studies and workshop 1 200 40 0 0
Development of work-plan 1 100 20 0 0
Develop sensors 2-20 12,000 600 600 600
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Additional Cost Information." National Research Council. 2011. National Earthquake Resilience: Research, Implementation, and Outreach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13092.
×
Research and Development Task Year Task Breakdown ($) Years 1-5 (Annualized) ($) Years 6-10 (Annualized) ($) Years 11-20 (Annualized) ($)
Synthesis of results and preparation of technical briefs 5, 10, 15, 20 500 25 25 25
Prototype adaptive materials and components at the macro scale 8,100 0 0 810
Scoping studies and workshop 11 200 0 0 20
Development of work-plan 11 150 0 0 15
Prototype components, connections, and systems 12-15 7,500 0 0 750
Synthesis of results and preparation of technical briefs 15 and 20 250 0 0 25
Develop algorithms to control response of framing systems with adaptive components 8,000 0 0 800
Scoping studies and workshop 11 150 0 0 15
Development of a work-plan 11 100 0 0 10
Algorithm development and validation by testing 12-20 7,500 0 0 750
Synthesis of results and preparation of technical briefs 15 and 20 250 0 0 25
Moderate and full-scale testing of adaptive components using NEES infrastructure 25,550 0 0 2,555
Scoping studies and workshop 15 200 0 0 20
Development of work-plan 15 100 0 0 10
Component testing program (reaction walls/floors, laminar boxes) using NEES facilities 16-20 15,000 0 0 1,500
Develop nonlinear hysteretic models and design equations for materials standards 16-20 4,500 0 0 450
Implementation of models in FE codes 16-20 4,500 0 0 450
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Additional Cost Information." National Research Council. 2011. National Earthquake Resilience: Research, Implementation, and Outreach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13092.
×
Develop fragility and consequence functions for PBD 16-20 1,000 0 0 100
Synthesis of data and preparation of a technical brief 20 250 0 0 25
Full-scale tests of adaptive 3D framing systems 15,350 0 0 1,535
Scoping studies and workshop 16 200 0 0 20
Development of work-plan 16 150 0 0 15
Full-scale testing using NEES facilities and E-Defense 17-20 12,500 0 0 1,250
Validation of numerical tools and models 18-20 2,250 0 0 225
Synthesis of data and preparation of technical briefs 20 250 0 0 25
Develop design tools and equations for adaptive components and systems 8,000 0 0 800
Scoping studies and workshop 16 200 0 0 20
Development of work-plan 16 100 0 0 10
Develop design tools and equations 17-20 4,500 0 0 450
Prepare materials standards (e.g., ACI 318) 17-20 2,700 0 0 270
Synthesis of data and preparation of technical briefs 20 500 0 0 50
Total Cost 334,410 8,157 13,990 22,367

a Bold headings within the Research and Development Task column represent the overarching title and cost summary of underlying non-bold components.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Additional Cost Information." National Research Council. 2011. National Earthquake Resilience: Research, Implementation, and Outreach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13092.
×

TABLE E.10 Cost Breakdown (in $million) for Task 18: Earthquake-Resilient Communities and Regional Demonstration Projectsa

Budget Component Task Total Cost Expenditure by Year
1-2 3 4 5 6 7 8-9 10 11-13 14 15-17 18 19 20
Program management and support 22 0.5 0.5 0.88 0.88 0.88 0.88 0.88 1.38 1.38 1.38 1.38 1.38 1.38 1.375
National outreach and information 20 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
Strategy preparation 1 0.5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Data collection and profile 5 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25
Independent research 20 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
Community outreach 840 0 7.5 15 30 45 52.5 60 60 60 60 60 45 30 15
Gap-filling (tools, guidance, etc.) 5 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25
Monitor, evaluate, analysis, feedback, revision 0 0.25 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5
Revise strategy 2 0 0 0 0 0.5 0 0 0.5 0 0.5 0 0.5 0 0
Annual workshop 3 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15
State participation (estimate 30 states) 73.5 0 0.75 2.25 3.0 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5
Total Cost 1,001 3.9 12 21.3 37 54 61 68.5 69.5 69 69.5 69 54.5 39 24
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Additional Cost Information." National Research Council. 2011. National Earthquake Resilience: Research, Implementation, and Outreach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13092.
×

a Task 18 Assumptions:

• Community component (ramping up and down)—The proposal is to identify early adoption communities to conduct pilot and demonstration programs in about 280 communities. The project would begin by selecting 10 pilot communities in years 3 and 4 to test and develop the program and materials. In years 5-16 the project would add 20 demonstration communities. Pilot and demonstration communities would receive an average of $750,000 per year for 4 years after which they would be expected to have the information, understanding, tools, organizations, motivation, and support needed to sustain resilience-improving efforts into the future.

• Data collection (data profiling) would occur during the first 2 years in coordination with development of the strategy, and then each year as new communities require individual hazard assessments, etc.

• Program management and support staff costs would be budgeted at the GS13 salary range, about $125,000/year including benefits. The initial staff would be 4 in number, 3 additional staff persons would be added in year 4, and 3 additional staff persons in year 10 for a total of 11. (4 × 125 = 500,000; 7 x .125 = .875; 11 x .125 = 1.375)

• Existing centers at Delaware (DRC), University of South Carolina, Texas A&M, UCLA, USC CREATES Center have the capability to do community assessments and evaluation of the program and individual communities.

• National outreach provides funds for providing information, engaging specialists, evaluating events that occur, etc.

• Consultation at the state level will be important in the selection and support of the communities.

• Leverage with the other components—National Seismic Hazard Maps, HAZUS, community-specific hazard maps, earthquake provisions in codes, training materials for professionals, learning from earthquakes presentations at annual workshops, NSF could sponsor research on the process.

• Must describe outcomes of more resilient communities in more meaningful terms such as codes adopted and enforced, community understanding, land-use plans that consider earthquake hazard, that measures taken before earthquakes will have a multihazard application

• Community strategy could “require” a comprehensive school earthquake safety element (awareness, curriculum, preparedness, building analysis and mitigation).

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Additional Cost Information." National Research Council. 2011. National Earthquake Resilience: Research, Implementation, and Outreach. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13092.
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The United States will certainly be subject to damaging earthquakes in the future. Some of these earthquakes will occur in highly populated and vulnerable areas. Coping with moderate earthquakes is not a reliable indicator of preparedness for a major earthquake in a populated area. The recent, disastrous, magnitude-9 earthquake that struck northern Japan demonstrates the threat that earthquakes pose. Moreover, the cascading nature of impacts-the earthquake causing a tsunami, cutting electrical power supplies, and stopping the pumps needed to cool nuclear reactors-demonstrates the potential complexity of an earthquake disaster. Such compound disasters can strike any earthquake-prone populated area. National Earthquake Resilience presents a roadmap for increasing our national resilience to earthquakes.

The National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) is the multi-agency program mandated by Congress to undertake activities to reduce the effects of future earthquakes in the United States. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)-the lead NEHRP agency-commissioned the National Research Council (NRC) to develop a roadmap for earthquake hazard and risk reduction in the United States that would be based on the goals and objectives for achieving national earthquake resilience described in the 2008 NEHRP Strategic Plan. National Earthquake Resilience does this by assessing the activities and costs that would be required for the nation to achieve earthquake resilience in 20 years.

National Earthquake Resilience interprets resilience broadly to incorporate engineering/science (physical), social/economic (behavioral), and institutional (governing) dimensions. Resilience encompasses both pre-disaster preparedness activities and post-disaster response. In combination, these will enhance the robustness of communities in all earthquake-vulnerable regions of our nation so that they can function adequately following damaging earthquakes. While National Earthquake Resilience is written primarily for the NEHRP, it also speaks to a broader audience of policy makers, earth scientists, and emergency managers.

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