Abrahams M. V., M. Mangel, and K. Hedges. 2007. Predator-prey interactions and changing environments: who benefits? Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B, Biological Sciences. 362: 2095-2104.
Adams, C., Y. Wang, K. Loftin, and M. Meyer. 2002. Removal of antibiotics from surface and distilled water in conventional water treatment processes. Journal of Environmental Engineering 12: 253-260.
Adham, S., R. S. Trussell, P. Gagliardo, and R. R. Trussell. 1998. Rejection of MS-2 virus by RO membranes. Journal—American Water Works Association 90(9): 130-135.
ADEQ (Arizona Department of Environmental Quality). 2011. Reclaimed Water Quality Standards. Arizona Department of Environmental Quality, Phoenix, Arizona. (http://www.azsos.gov/public_services/Title_18/18-11.htm).
Agus, E., M. H. Lim, L. Zhang, and D. L. Sedlak. 2011. Odorous Compounds in Municipal Wastewater Effluent and Potable Water Reuse Systems. Environmental Science and Technology. 45: 9347-9355.
Ahel, M., W. Giger, and M. Koch. 1994a. Behavior of alkylphenol polyethoxylate surfactants in the aquatic enviromnent. Occurrence and transformation in sewage treatment. Water Research 28: 1131-1142.
Ahel, M., W. Giger, and C. Schaffner. 1994b. Behavior of alkylphenol polyethoxylate surfactants in the aquatic environment. Occurrence and transformation in rivers. Water Research 28: 1143-1152.
Al-Kharouf, S., I. Al-Khatib, and H. Shaheen. 2008. Appraisal of social and cultural factors affecting wastewater reuse in the West Bank. International Journal of Environment and Pollution 33(1): 3-14.
Alan Plummer Associates, Inc. 2010. Final Report: State of Technology of Water Reuse. Prepared for the Texas Water Development Board, Austin, TX. Available online at http://www.twdb.state.tx.us/innovativewater/reuse/projects/reuseadvance/doc/PhaseB_final.pdf. Accessed December 19, 2011.
Albinana-Gimenez, N., P. Clemente-Casares, S. Bofill-Mas, A. Hundesa, F. Ribas, and R. Girones. 2006. Distribution of human polyomaviruses, adenoviruses, and hepatitis E virus in the environment and in a drinking-water treatment plant. Environmental Science & Technology. 40: 7416-7422.
Alley, W. M., T. E. Reilly, and O. L. Franke. 1999. Sustainability of Ground-Water Resources. Circular 1186. Denver, CO: U.S. Geological Survey.
Amy, G., and J. Drewes. 2007. Soil aquifer treatment (SAT) as a natural and sustainable wastewater reclamation/reuse technology: Fate of wastewater effluent organic matter (EfoM) and trace organic compounds. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 129(1-3): 19-26.
Anand, S., and K. Hanson. 1997. Disability-adjusted life years: A critical review. Journal of Health Econnomics 16(6): 685-702.
Anderson, P. D., V. J. D’Aco, S. C. Chapra, M. E. Buzby, V. L. Cunningham, B. M. Duplessie, E. P. Hayes, F. J. Mastrocco, N. J. Parke, J. C. Rader, J. H. Samuelian, and B. W. Schwab. 2004. Screening analysis of human pharmaceutical compounds in U.S. surface waters. Environmental Science & Technology 38(3): 838-849.
Anderson, P., N. Denslow, J. Drewes, A. Olivieri, D. Schlenk, and S. Snyder. 2010. Monitoring Strategies for Chemicals of Emerging Concern (CECs) in Recycled Water. Recommendations of a Science Advisory Panel convened by the California State Water Resources Control Board, Sacramento, CA.
Ankley, G. T., D. W. Kuehl, M. D. Kahl, K. M. Jensen, A. Linnum, R. L. Leino, and D. A. Villeneuvet. 2005. Reproductive and developmental toxicity and bioconcentration of perfluorooctanesulfonate in a partial life-cycle test with the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 24(9): 2316-2324.
Anonymous, 1893. The use of sewage for irrigation in the west. Engineering News and American Railway Journal XXIX: 1-15.
Aragón, T. J., S. Novotony, W. Enanoria, D. J. Vugia, A. Khalakdina, and M. Katz. 2003. Endemic cryptosporidiosis and exposure to municipal tap water in persons with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS): A case-control study. BMC Public Health 2(3).
Arizona Department of Environmental Quality. 2011. Water Quality Division. Permits: Reclaimed Water. Available online at http://www.azdeq.gov/environ/water/permits/reclaimed.html. Accessed December 19, 2011.
Armstrong, T. W., and C. N. Haas. 2007. A quantitative microbial risk assessment model for Legionnaires’ disease: Animal model selection and dose-response modeling. Risk Analysis 27(6): 1581-1596.
Arnold, S. F., D. M. Klotz, B. M. Collins, P. M. Vonier, L. J. Guillette, Jr., and J. A. McLachlan. 1996. Synergistic activation of estrogen receptor with combinations of environmental chemicals. Science 272(5267): 1489-1492.
Asami, M., K. Kosaka, and S. Kunikane. 2009. Bromate, chlorate, chlorite and perchlorate in sodium hypochlorite solution used in water supply. Journal of Water Supply: Research and Technology. AQUA 58(2): 107-115.
Asano, T., and J. A. Cotruvo. 2004. Groundwater recharge with reclaimed municipal wastewater: Health and regulatory considerations. Water Research 38: 1941-1951.
Asano, T., and R. Mills. 1998. Planning and analysis of water reuse projects. In T. Asano, ed., Wastewater Reclamation and Reuse. Lancaster, PA: Technomic.
Asano, T., F. L. Burton, H. L. Leverenz, R. Tsuchihashi, and G. Tchobanoglous. 2007. Water Reuse: Issues, Technologies, and Applications. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Atkinson, S. F., D. R. Johnson, B. J. Venables, J. L. Slye, J. R. Kennedy, S. D. Dyer, B. B. Price, M. Ciarlo, K. Stanton, H. Sanderson, and A. Nielsen. 2009. Use of watershed factors to predict consumer surfactant risk, water quality, and habitat quality in the upper Trinity River, Texas. Science of the Total Environment 407(13): 4028-4037.
AWWA (American Water Works Association). 2004. Recommended Practice for Backflow Prevention and Cross-Connection Control, 3rd Ed. Manual M14, Denver, CO: AWWA.
AWWA. 2008. Water Reuse Rates and Charges: 2000 and 2007 Survey Results. Available at http://www.ecy.wa.gov/programs/wq/reclaim/AWWAreuseratessurveyJuly2008.pdf. Accessed December 14, 2011.
AWWA. 2009. Planning for the Distribution of Reclaimed Water, 3rd Ed.: Manual M24. Denver, CO: AWWA.
AWWA Disinfection Systems Committee. 2008. Committee Report: Disinfection Survey, Part 1—Recent Changes, Current Practices and Water Quality. Journal of the American Water Works Association 100(10): 76-90.
AWWA Water Quality Division Disinfection Systems Committee. 2000. Committee report: Disinfection at large and medium-size systems. Journal of American Water Works Association 92(5): 32-43.
AWWA/WEF (American Water Works Association and Water Environment Federation). 1998. Using Reclaimed Water to Augment Potable Water Resources, 1st Ed. Denver, CO: American Water Works Association.
Azadpour-Keeley, A., and C. Ward. 2005. Transport and survival of viruses in the subsurface—processes, experiments, and simulation models. Remediation 15(3): 23-49.
Baalousha, M., and J. R. Lead. 2007. Size fractionation and characterization of natural aquatic colloids and nanoparticles. Science of the Total Environment 386(1-3): 93-102.
Baccarelli, A., and V. Bollati. 2009. Epigenetics and environmental chemicals. Current Opinion in Pediatrics 21(2): 243-251.
Baker, L. C., D. L. Ashley, F. L. Cardinali, S. M. Kieszak, and J. V. Wooten. 2000. Household exposures to drinking water disinfection by-products: Whole blood trihalomethane levels. Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology 10(4): 321-326.
Barbeau, B., R. Desjardins, C. Mysore, and M. Prevost. 2005. Impacts of water quality on chlorine and chlorine dioxide efficacy in natural waters. Water Research 39: 2024-2033.
Barkhurst, A. 2011. Pembroke Pines Plans to inject treated sewage into water supply. SunSentinel. Fort Lauderdale, Florida. Available at http://articles.sun-sentinel.com/2011-01-03/news/f-pines-sewage-treatment-20101216_1_water-supply-drinking-water-biscayne-aquifer. Accessed December 14, 2011.
Barlow, S. 2005. Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC). A Tool for Assessing Substances of Unknown Toxicity Present at Low Levels in the Diet. ILSI Europe Concise Monograph Series. Washington, DC: ILSI Press.
Barnes, D. G., and Dourson, M. 1988. Reference Dose (RfD): Description and Use in Health Risk Assessments. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 8: 471-486.
Barron, M. G. 1990. Bioconcentration—Will water-borne organic chemicals accumulate in aquatic animals? Environmental Science & Technology 24(11): 1612-1618.
Bartrand, T. A., B. Farouk, and C. N. Haas. 2009. Countercurrent gas/liquid flow and mixing: Implications for water disinfection. International Journal of Multiphase Flow 35(2): 171-184.
Barzilay, J. I., W. G. Weinberg, and J. W. Eley. 1999. Drinking water and infectious disease. In The Water We Drink: Water Quality and Its Effects on Health. Piscataway, NJ: Rutgers University Press, pp. 41-59.
Basista, M., and W. Weglewski. 2009. Chemically assisted damage of concrete: A model of expansion under external sulfate attack. International Journal of Damage Mechanics 18(2): 155-175.
Beach, S. A., J. L. Newstead, K. Coady, and J. P. Giesy. 2006. Ecotoxicological evaluation of Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS). Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 186: 133-174.
Begier, E. M., M. S. Oberste, M. L. Landry, T. Brennan, D. Mlynarski, P. A. Mshar, P. A. K. Frenette, T. Rabatsky-Her, K. Purviance, A. Nepaul, W. A. Nix, M. A. Pallansch, D. Ferguson, M. L. Cartter, and J. L. Hadler. 2008. An outbreak of concurrent echovirus 30 and coxsackievirus A1 infections associated with sea swimming among a group of travelers to mexico. Clinical Infectious Diseases 47(5): 616-623.
Bellamy, W. D., G. R. Finch, and C. N. Haas. 1998. Integrated Disinfection Design Framework. American Water Works Association Research Foundation.
Bellona, C., and J. E. Drewes. 2007. Viability of a low pressure nanofilter in treating recycled water for water reuse applications—A pilot-scale study. Water Research 41: 3948-3958.
Bellona, C., G. Oelker, J. Luna, G. Filteau, G. Amy, and J. E. Drewes. 2008. Comparing nanofiltration and reverse osmosis for drinking water augmentation. Journal—American Water Works Association 100(9): 102-116.
Ben Ayed, L., J. Schijven, Z. Alouini, M. Jemli, and S. Sabbahi. 2009. Presence of parasitic protozoa and helminth in sewage and efficiency of sewage treatment in Tunisia. Parasitology Research 105: 393-406.
Benkel, D. H., E. M. McClure, D. Woolard, J. V. Rullan, G. B. Miller, S. R. Jenkins, J. H. Hershey, R. F. Benson, J. M. Pruckler, E. W. Brown, M. S. Kolczak, R. L. Hackler, B. S. Rouse, and R. F. Breiman. 2000. Outbreak of Legionnaires’ disease associated with a display whirlpool spa. International Journal of Epidemiology 29(6): 1092-1098.
Benotti, M. J., R. A. Trenholm, B. J. Vanderford, J. C. Holady, B. D. Stanford, and S. A. Snyder. 2009. Pharmaceuticals and endocrine disrupting compounds in U.S. drinking water. Environmental Science & Technology 43(3): 597-603.
Berg, G. 1973. Removal of viruses from sewage, effluents and waters. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 49: 451-460.
Billings, M. D. 1885. Sewage disposal in cities. Harper’s Magazine 577-584.
Bitton, G. 2005. Wastewater Microbiology, 3rd Ed. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Blackburn, B. G., G. F. Craun, J. S. Yoder, V. Hill, R. L. Calderon, N. Chen, S. H. Lee, D. A. Levy, and M. J. Beach. 2004. Surveillance for waterborne-disease outbreaks associated with drinking water—United States, 2001-2002. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 55(SS08): 31-58.
Blatchley, E. R., W. L. Gong, J. E. Alleman, J. B. Rose, D. E. Huffman, M. Otaki, and J. T. Lisle. 2007. Effects of wastewater disinfection on waterborne bacteria and viruses. Water Environment Research 79: 81-92.
Bloom, J. 2003. Residents Sue SAWS Over ‘Recycled Water. Article in 9 News San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, July 7.
Blumenthal, W. J., D. D. Mara, A. Peasey, G. Ruiz-Palacios, and R. Stott. 2000. Guidelines for the microbiological quality of treated wastewater used in agriculture: Recommendations for revising WHO guidelines. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 78: 1104-1116.
Blute, N., C. Russell, Z. Chowdhury, X. Wu, and S. Via. 2010. Nitrosamine occurrence in the US: Analysis and interpretation of UCMR2 data. In 2010 Water Quality Technology Conference and Exposition Proceedings, Vol. 3. Denver, CO: American Water Works Association, pp. 2516-2543.
Bofill-Mas, S., N. Albinana-Gimenez, P. Clemente-Casares, A. Hundesa, J. Rodriguez-Manzano, A. Allard, M. Calvo, and R. Girones. 2006. Quantification and stability of human adenoviruses and polyomavirus JCPyV in wastewater matrices. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 72: 7894-7896.
Boxall, A. B. A., P. Johnson, E. J. Smith, C. J. Sinclair, E. Stutt, and L. S. Levy. 2006. Uptake of veterinary medicines from soils into plants. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 54: 2288-2297.
Brauch, H.-J., F. Sacher, E. Denecke, and T. Tacke. 2000. Wirksamkeit der Uferfiltration für die Entfernung von polaren organischen Spurenstoffen. GWF Wasser Abwasser 141(4): 226-234.
Brekke, L. D., J. E. Kiang, J. R. Olsen, R. S. Pulwarty, D. A. Raff, D. P. Turnipseed, R. S. Webb, and K. D. White. 2009. Climate change and water resources management—A federal perspective: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1331, 65 pp. Available at http://pubs.usgs.gov/circ/1331/.
Brix, K. V., J. Keithly, R. C. Santore, D. K. DeForest, and S. Tobiason. 2010. Ecological risk assessment of zinc from stormwater runoff to an aquatic ecosystem. Science of the Total Environment 408(8): 1824-1832.
Brooks, B. W., P. K. Turner, J. K. Stanley, J. J. Weston, E. A. Glidewell, C. M. Foran, M. Slattery, T. W. LaPoint, and D. B. Huggett. 2003. Waterborne and sediment toxicity of fluoxetine to select organisms. Chemosphere 52(1): 135-142.
Brooks, B. W., J. K. Stanley, J. C. White, P. K. Turner, K. B. Wu, and T. W. LaPoint. 2004. Laboratory and field responses to cadmium: An experimental study in effluent-dominated stream mesocosms. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 23(4): 1057-1064.
Brooks, B. W., T. M. Riley, and R. D. Taylor. 2006. Water quality of effluent-dominated ecosystems: Ecotoxicological, hydrological, and management considerations. Hydrobiologia 556: 365-379.
Brown, P. H., N. Bellaloui, M. A. Wimmer, E. S. Bassil, J. Ruiz, H. Hu, H. Pfeffer, F. Dannel, and V. Romheld. 2002. Boron in plant biology. Plant Biology 4(2): 205-223.
Bruce, G. M., R. C. Pleus, M. K. Peterson, M. H. Nellor, and J. A. Soller. 2010. Development and Application of Tools to Assess and Understand the Relative Risks of Drugs and Other Chemicals in Indirect Potable Reuse: Tools to Assess and Understand the Relative Risks of Indirect Potable Reuse and Aquifer Storage & Recovery Projects, Vol. 2. Alexandria, VA: Water Reuse Research Foundation.
Bruvold, W. 1988. Public opinion on water reuse options. Journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation 60: 45-49.
Buerge, I. J., H.-R. Buser, M. Kahle, M. D. Muller, and T. Poiger. 2009. Ubiquitous occurence of the artificial sweetner acesulflame in the aquatic environment: An ideal chenical marker of domestic wastewater in groundwater. Environmental Science & Technology 43(12): 4381-4385.
Bull, R., J. Crook, M. Whittaker, and J. Cotruvo. 2011. Therapeutic dose as the point of departure in assessing potential health hazards from drugs in recycled municipal wastewater. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 60(1): 1-19.
Burian, S. J., S. J. Nix, R. E. Pitt, and S. R. Durrans. 2000. Urban wastewater management in the United States: Past, present, and future. Journal of Urban Technology 7: 33-62.
Burmaster, D. E. 1998. Lognormal distributions for total water intake and tap water intake by pregnant and lactating women in the United States. Risk Analysis 18(2): 215-219.
Burmaster, D. E., and P. D. Anderson. 1994. Principles of good practice for the use of Monte Carlo techniques in human health and ecological risk assessment. Risk Analysis 14(4): 477-481.
Burmaster, D. E., and A. M. Wilson. 1996. An introduction to second-order random variables in human health risk assessments. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment 2(4): 892-919.
Butterfield, C., and E. Wattie. 1946. Influence of pH and temperature on the survival of coliforms and enetric pathogens when exposed to free chlorine. Public Health Reports 61(6): 157-192.
Butterfield, C., E. Wattie, S. Megregian, and C. Chambers. 1943. Influence of pH and temperature on the survival of coliforms and enetric pathogens when exposed to free chlorine. Public Health Reports 58(51): 1837-1866.
Butterwick, L., N. De Oude, and K. Raymond. 1989. Safety assessment of boron in aquatic and terrestrial environments. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 17: 339-371.
CA LAO (California Legislative Analyst’s Office). 2008. California’s Water: An LAO Primer. Available at http://www.lao.ca.gov/2008/rsrc/water_primer/water_primer_102208.pdf. Accessed November 14, 2011.
Cahill, M. J., C. U. Kloser, N. E. Ross, and J. A. C. Archer. 2010. Read length and repeat resolution: Exploring prokaryote genomes using next-generation sequencing technologies. PLOSOne 5(7): 1-9.
Caldwell, D. J., F. Mastrocco, T. H. Hutchinson, R. Länge, D. Heijerick, C. Janssen, P. D. Anderson, and J. P. Sumpter. 2008. Derivation of an aquatic predicted no-effect concentration for the synthetic hormone, 17α-ethinyl estradiol. Environmental Science & Technology 42(19): 7046-7054.
California State Senate. 2010. Senate Bill No. 918, amended June 1, 2010. Available at http://www.leginfo.ca.gov/pub/09-10/bill/sen/sb_0901-0950/sb_918_bill_20100601_amended_sen_v95.pdf). Accessed October 24, 2011.
California Sustainability Alliance. 2008. The Role of Recycled Water in Energy Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Reduction. Available at http://www.fypower.org/pdf/CSA_RecycledH20.pdf.
Capdevielle, M., R. Van Egmond, M. Whelan, D. Versteeg, M. Hofmann-Kamensky, J. Inauen, V. Cunningham, and D. Woltering. 2008. Consideration of exposure and species sensitivity of triclosan in the freshwater environment. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 4(1): 15-23.
Carey, R. O., and K. W. Migliaccio. 2009. Contribution of wastewater treatment effluents to nutrient dynamics in aquatic systems: A review. Environmental Management 44(2): 205-217.
Carvalho, L. 2007. Avoiding Costly Water Mistakes in Comined Cycle Power Plant Projects: Power. Available at http://www.waterprofessionals.com/pdfs/avoiding_costly_water_treatment_mistakes_in_CCPP_Projects.pdf.
Castro-Hermida, J. A., I. Garcia-Presedo, A. Almeida, M. Gonzalez-Warleta, J. M. C. Da Costa, and M. Mezo. 2008. Contribution of treated wastewater to the contamination of recreational river areas with Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis. Water Resources 42: 3528-3538.
Cath, T. 2010. Advanced Water Treatment Engineering and Reuse. Graduate Course Script. Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO.
CDPH (California Department of Public Health). 2008. Groundwater Recharge Regulation Draft. Sacramento, CA: CDPH.
CDPH. 2009. Regulations Related to Recycled Water: January 2009. California Code of Regulations, Title 22, Division 4, Chapter 3, Water Recycling Criteria. Sacramento, CA: CDPH. Available at http://www.cdph.ca.gov/certlic/drinkingwater/Documents/Lawbook/RWregulations-01-2009.pdf.
CDPH. 2011. Groundwater Replenshment Reuse Draft Regulation. November 21. Available at http://www.cdph.ca.gov/certlic/drinkingwater/Documents/Recharge/DraftRechargeReg-2011-11-21.pdf. Accessed December 14, 2011.
CEC (California Energy Commission). 2005. California’s Water– Energy Relationship: Final State Report. November. Available at http://www.energy.ca.gov/2005publications/CEC-700-2005-011/CEC-700-2005-011-SF.PDF. Accessed December 14, 2011.
CH2M Hill. 1993. Tampa Water Resource Recovery Project Pilot Studies. Tampa, Fla.: CH2M Hill.
Chalmers, R. M., G. Robinson, K. Elwin, S. J. Hadfield, E. Thomas, J. Watkins, D. Casemore, and D. Kay. 2010. Detection of Cryptosporidium species and sources of contamination with Cryptosporidium hominis during a waterborne outbreak in north west Wales. Journal of Water and Health 8: 311-325.
Cheeseman, M. A., E. J. Machuga, and A. B. Bailey. 1999. A tiered approach to threshold of regulation. Food Chemical Toxicology 37: 387-412.
Ching, L. 2010. Eliminating “yuck”: A simple exposition of media and social change in water reuse policies. International Journal of Water Resources Development 26(1): 111-124.
Ching, L., and J. Yu. 2010. Turning the tide: Informal institutional change in water reuse. Water Policy 12(Suppl): 121-134.
Choi, J. H., S. E. Duirk, and R. L. Valentine. 2002. Mechanistic studies of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) formation in drinking water. Journal of Environmental Monitoring 4: 249-252.
Chong, M., B. Jin, C. Chow, and C. Saint. 2010. Recent developments in photocatalytic water treatment technology: A review. Water Research 44(10): 2997-3027.
Cleuvers, M. 2003. Aquatic ecotoxicity of pharmaceuticals including the assessment of combination effects. Toxicology Letters 142(3): 185-194.
Cody, B., and N. Carter. 2010. Water Reuse and the Title XVI Program: Legislative Issues. Congressional Research Service Report R41487, November 9. Damascus, MD: Penny Hill Press.
Colford, J. M. Jr., T. J. Wade, S. K. Sandhu, C. C. Wright, S. Lee, S. Sha, K. Fox, S. Burns, A. Benker, M. A. Brookhart, M. Van Der Laan, and D. A. Levy. 2005. A Randomized, controlled trial of in-home drinking water intervention to reduce gastrointestinal illness. American Journal of Epidemiology 161(5): 472-482.
Collins, F. S., G. M. Gray, and J. R. Bucher. 2008. Transforming Environmental Health Protection. Science. February 15. 319 (5865): 906-907. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2679521/pdf/nihms103919.pdf. Accessed December 14, 2011.
Colorado Department of Health and Environment. 2007. Reclaimed Water Control Regulation. 5 CCR 1002-84, Colorado Department of Health and Environment, Denver, Colorado.
Condie, L. W., W. C. Lauer, G. W. Wolfe, E. T. Czeh, and J. M. Burn. 1994. Denver Potable Water Reuse Demontration Project: Comprehensive chronic rat study. Food Chemical Toxicology 32(11): 1021-1030.
Costanza, R., O. Perez-Magueo, M. L. Martinez, P. Sutton, S. J. Anderson, and K. Mulder. 2008. The value of coastal wetlands for hurricane protection. Ambio 37: 241-248.
Costanzo, S. D., A. J. Watkinson, E. J. Murby, D. W. Kolpin, and M. W. Sandstrom. 2007. Is there a risk associated with the insect repellent DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide) commonly detected in aquatic environments? Science and the Total Environment 384: 214-220.
Cramer, G. M., R. A. Ford, and R. L. Hall. 1978. Estimation of toxic hazard-decision tree approach. Food and Cosmetics Toxicology 16: 255-276.
Craun, G. F. 1991. Causes of waterborne outbreaks in the United States. Water Science and Technology 24: 17-20.
Craun, M., G. Craun, R. Calderon, and M. Beach. 2006. Water-borne outbreaks reported in the United States. Journal of Water and Health 4(Suppl 2): 19-30.
Crittenden, J., R. R. Trussel, D. Hand, K. Howe, and G. Tchobanoglous. 2005. Water Treatment: Principles and Design, 2nd Ed. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Crook, J. 1999. Water reuse in the United States. Journal of New England Water Environmental Association 33(2): 106-125.
Crook, J. 2004. Innovative Applications in Water Reuse: Ten Case Studies. Alexandria, VA: WateReuse Association.
Crook, J. 2005a. St. Petersburg, Florida Dual Water System: A Case Study. In: Water Conservation, Reuse, and Recycling, Proceedings of an Iranian-American Workshop. 177-186. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press.
Crook, J. 2005b. Irrigation of Parks, Playgrounds, and Schoolyards with Reclaimed Water: Extent and Safety. Alexandria, VA: WateReuse Association.
Crook, J. 2007. Innovative Applications in Water Reuse and Desalination 2: Ten Case Studies. Alexandria, VA: WateReuse Association.
Crook, J. 2010. Regulatory Aspects of Direct Potable Reuse in California. National Water Research Institute. Fountain Valley, California.
Crook, J., and D. A. Okun. 1993. Water reuse: Past, present, and future. In Proceedings of the 1993 AWWA Annual Conference Denver, CO: American Water Works Association, pp. 159-180.
Crook, J., J. J. Mosher, and J. M. Casteline. 2005. Status and Role of Water Reuse: An International View. London, UK: Global Water Research Coalition. Available at http://www.watereuse.org/sites/default/files/images/04-007-01.pdf.
Crump, K. S. 2003. Quantitative risk assessment since the Red Book: Where have we come and where should we be going? Human and Ecological Risk Assessment 9(5): 1105-1112.
CSDWD (City of San Diego Water Department). 2005. City of San Diego Water Reuse Study 2005 Interim Report. Available at http://www.sandiego.gov/water/waterreuse/pdf/ir05toc.pdf.
CSDWD. 2006. Water Reuse Study: Final Draft Report, March. Available online at http://www.sandiego.gov/water/waterreuse/waterreusestudy/news/fd2006.shtml. Accessed January 15, 2011.
CSWRCB. 2010. Monitoring Strategies for Chemicals of Emergening Concern (CECs) in Recycled Water. Recommendations of a Science Advisory Panel. Report dated June 25, 2010. Available at http://www.swrcb.ca.gov/water_issues/programs/water_recycling_policy/docs/cec_monitoring_rpt.pdf.
CSWRCB. 2011. California Water Code. Available at http://www.leginfo.ca.gov/cgi-bin/calawquery?codesection=wat&codebody=&hits=20
Cunningham, V. L., C. Perino, V. J. D’Aco, A. Hartmann, and R. Bechter. 2010. Human health risk assessment of carbamazepine in surface waters of North America and Europe. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 56(3): 343-351.
Daigger, G. T. 2009. Evolving urban water and residuals management paradigms: Water reclamation and reuse, decentralization, and resource recovery. Water Environment Research 81(8): 809-823.
Dasgupta, P. K., P. K. Martinelango, W. A. Jackson, T. A. Anderson, K. Tian, R.W. Tock, and S. Rajagopalan. 2005. The origin of naturally occurring perchlorate: The role of atmospheric processes. Environmental Science & Technology 39(6): 1569-1575.
Daughton, C. G., and T. A. Ternes. 1999. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products in the environment: Agents of subtle change? Environmental Health Perspectives 107(6): 907-938.
Davis, S., K. Drake, and K. Maier. 2002. Toxicity of boron to the duckweed, Spirodella polyrrhiza. Chemosphere 48:615-620.
Day, H. P., and K. D. Conway. 2009. Case 1: No water, no watts; Case 2: No watts, no water. In Proceedings of the 24th Wate Reuse Annual Symposium, Seattle, Washington. Alexandria, VA: WateReuse Association.
Day, J. W., J. Y. Ko, J. Rybczyk, D. Sabins, R. Bean, G. Berthelot, C. Brantley, L. Cardoch, W. Conner, J. N. Day, A. J. Englande, S. Feagley, E. Hyfield, R. R. Lane, J. Lindsey, W. J. Mitsch, E. Reyes, and R. R. Twilley. 2004. The use of wetlands in the Mississippi Delta for wastewater assimilation: A review. Ocean and Coastal Management 47(11-12): 671-691.
de Koning, J., D. Bixio, A. Karabelas, M. Salgot, and A. Schafer. 2008. Characterization and assessment of water treatment technologies for reuse. Desalination 218: 92-104.
Deborde, M., S. Rabouan, H. Gallad, and B. Legube. 2004. Aqueous chlorination kinetics of some endocrine disruptors. Environmental Science & Technology 38: 5577-5583.
Deng, X., M. Carney, D. E. Hinton, S. Lyon, G. Woodside, C. N., S. D. Kim, and D. Schlenk. 2008. Biomonitoring recycled water in the Santa Ana river basin in Southern California. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health A 71: 109-118.
Desbrow, C., E. J. Routledge, G. C. Brighty, J. P. Sumpter, and M. Waldock. 1998. Identification of estrogenic chemicals in STW eflleunt. 1. Chemical fractionation and in vitro biological screening. Environmental Science & Technology 32(11): 1549-1558.
Dethloff, G. M., W. A. Stubblefield, and C. E. Schlekat. 2009. Effects of water quality parameters on boron toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 57(1): 60-67.
Dickenson, E., J. E. Drewes, S. A. Snyder, and D. L. Sedlak. 2011. Indicator compounds: An approach for using monitoring data to quantify the occurrence and fate of wastewater-derived contaminants in surface waters. Water Research 45: 1199-1212.
Dizer, H., A. Nasser, and J. M. Lopez. 1984. Penetration of different human pathogenic viruses into sand columns percolated with distilled water, groundwater, or wastewater. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 47(2): 409-415.
Dolnicar, S., and A. Hurlimann. 2009. Drinking water from alternative water sources: Differences in beliefs, social norms and factors of perceived behavioural control across eight Australian locations Water Science and Technology 60(6): 1433-1444.
Dolnicar, S., and A. Schäfer. 2009. Desalinated versus recycled water: Public perceptions and profiles of the accepters. Journal of Environmental Management 90(2): 888-900.
Dolnicar, S., A. Hurlimann, and L. Nghiem. 2010. The effect of information on public acceptance—the case of water from alternative sources. Journal of Environmental Management 91(6): 1288-1293.
Domenech, L., and D. Sauri. 2010. Socio-technical transitions in water scarcity contexts: Public acceptance of greywater reuse technologies in the metropolitan area of Barcelona. Resources Conservation and Recycling 55(1): 53-62.
Donohue, J. M., and W. M. Miller. 2007. Summary of the development of federal drinking water regulations and health-based guidelines for chemical contaminants. In R. A. Howd and A. M. Fan, eds., Risk Assessment for Chemicals in Drinking Water. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, pp. 17-33.
Donohue, J. M., and J. Orme-Zavaleta. 2003. Toxicological basis for drinking water risk assessment. In F.W. Pontius, ed., Drinking Water Regulation and Health. New York: John Wiley & Sons, pp. 133-146.
Doria, M. 2010. Factors influencing public perception of drinking water quality. Water Policy 12(1): 1-19.
Drewes, J. E., and P. Fox. 2000. Effect of drinking water sources on reclaimed water quality in water reuse systems. Water Environment Research 72(3): 353-362.
Drewes, J. E., and S. Khan. 2010. Water reuse for drinking water augmentation. J. Edzwald, ed., Water Quality and Treatment, 6th Ed. New York: McGrawHill, pp. 16.1-16.48.
Drewes, J. E., T. Heberer, T. Rauch, and K. Reddersen. 2003a. Fate of pharmaceuticals during groundwater recharge. Journal of Ground Water Monitoring and Remediation 23(3): 64-72.
Drewes, J. E., M. Reinhard, and P. Fox. 2003b. Comparing microfiltration-reverse osmosis and soil-aquifer treatment for indirect potable reuse of water. Water Research 37: 3612-3621.
Drewes, J. E., C. Hoppe, and T. Jennings. 2006. Fate and transport of N-nitrosamines under conditions simulating full-scale groundwater recharge operations. Water Environment Research 78(13): 2466-2473.
Drewes, J., D. Sedlak, S. Snyder, and E. Dickenson. 2008. Development of Indicators and Surrogates for Chemical Contaminant Removal During Wastewater Treatment and Reclamation. WRF-03-014. Alexandria, VA: WateReuse Foundation.
Drewes, J. E., P. Anderson, N. Denslow, A. Olivieri, D. Schlenk, and S. Snyder. 2010. Monitoring Strategies for Chemicals of Emerging Concern (CECs) in Recycled Water: Recommendations of a Science Advisory Panel. Sacramento: California State Water Resources Board. Available at http://www.waterboards.ca.gov/water_issues/programs/water_recycling_policy/docs/cec_monitoring_rpt.pdf.
du Pisani, P. L. 2005. Direct reclamation of potable water at Windhoek’s Goreangab Reclamation Plant. In S. J Khan, M. H. Muston, and A. I Schafer, eds., Integrated Concepts in Water Recycling 2005, pp. 193-202. Wollongong, Australia: University of Wollongong.
Dupont, H., C. Chappell, C. Sterling, P. Okhuysen, J. Rose, and W. Jakubowski. 1995. Infectivity of Cryptosporidium parvum in healthy volunteers. New England Journal of Medicine 332(13): 855.
Durand, R., and G. Schwebach. 1989. Gastrointestinal effects of water reuse for public park irrigation. American Journal of Public Health 79(12): 1659-1660.
Durando, M., L. Kass, P. Julio, C. Sonnenschein, A. M. Soto, E. H. Luque, and M. Muñoz-de-Toro. 2007. Prenatal bisphenol A exposure induces preneoplastic lesions in the mammary gland in Wistar rats. Environmental Health Perspectives 115(1): 80-86.
EA (United Kingdom Environment Agency). 2004. Environmental risk evaluation report: Perfluorooctanesulphonate (PFOS). Available at http://www.pops.int/documents/meetings/poprc/submissions/Comments_2006/sia/pfos.uk.risk.eal.report.2004.pdf.
EAO, Inc. 2000. Orange County Water District/Orange County Sanitation District Groundwater Replenishment System. Water Quality Evaluation. Task 7: Conduct Risk Assessment. Final Report, November.
Elovitz, M. S., U. von Gunten, and H. P. Kaiser. 2000. Hydroxyl radical/ozone ratios during ozonation processes. II. the effect of temperature, pH, alkalinity, and DOM properties. Ozone: Science & Engineering 22(2): 123-150.
Engineering-Science. 1987. Monterey Wastewater Reclamation Study for Agriculture: Final Report. Prepared for the Monterey Regional Water Pollution Control Agency, Pacific Grove, CA. Available at http://www.sanjoseca.gov/sbwr/PDFs/MontereyCountyRW_AG_1987.pdf.
EPA (Environmental Protection Agency). 1979. National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations; Control of Trihalomethanes in Drinking Water; Final Rule. Fed. Reg. 44(231): 68624-68707.
EPA. 1986. Environmental Regulations and Technology: The National Pretreatment Program, July. Available at http://www.epa.gov/npdes/pubs/owm0018.pdf.
EPA. 1993a. Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment and Wildlife Habitat: Arcata, California—A Natural System for Wastewater Reclamation and Resource Enhancement. Available at http://www.epa.gov/owow/wetlands/pdf/Arcata.pdf. Accessed September 16, 2010.
EPA. 1993b. Wetland Treatment Systems: A Case History— The Orlando Easterly Wetlands Reclamation Project. EPA/832/R-93/0051. NTIS No. PB95-227740. Springfield, VA: National Technical Information Service.
EPA. 1998a. Guidelines for Ecological Risk Assessment. EPA/630/R-95/002F. Available at http://www.epa.gov/raf/publications/pdfs/ECOTXTBX.PDF. Accessed December 15, 2011.
EPA. 1998b. National Drinking Water Regulations; Disinfectants and Disinfectant Byproducts: Final Rule. Federal Register 63(241): 69390.
EPA. 2000. Risk Characterization Handbook. Office of Science Policy. Office of Research and Development. EPA/100/B-00/002. Available at http://www.epa.gov/spc/pdfs/rchandbk.pdf.
EPA. 2001. Low-Pressure Membrane Filtration for Pathogen Removal: Application, Implementation, and Regulatory Issues. Available at http://www.epa.gov/ogwdw/disinfection/lt2/pdfs/report_lt2_membranefiltration.pdf.
EPA. 2002. Clean Water and Drinking Water Infrastructure Gap Analysis Report. EPA-816-R-02-020. Available at http://water.epa.gov/aboutow/ogwdw/upload/2005_02_03_gapreport.pdf.
EPA. 2003a. Cross-Connection Control Manual. EPA/816/R-03/002, Available at http://www.epa.gov/ogwdw/pdfs/cross-connection/crossconnection.pdf.
EPA. 2003b. EPA’s National Pretreatment Program, 1973-2003: Thirty Years of Protecting the Environment. Available at http://www.epa.gov/region8/water/pretreatment/pdf/EPAsNationalPretreatmentProgram.pdf
EPA. 2003c. National Drinking Water Regulations; Stage 2 Disinfectants and Disinfectant Byproducts: Final Rule. Fed. Reg. 68(159): 49547.
EPA. 2004. Guidelines for Water Reuse. EPA/625/R-04/108. Available at http://www.epa.gov/ord/NRMRL/pubs/625r04108/625r04108.htm.
EPA. 2005a. Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment. EPA-630/P-03/001F. Available at http://www.epa.gov/raf/publications/pdfs/CANCER_GUIDELINES_FINAL_3-25-05.PDF.
EPA. 2005b. Ambient aquatic life water quality criteria—nonylphenol final. Office of Water, Office of Science and Technology, Washington, DC. EPA-822-R-05-005.
EPA. 2006a. National Primary Drinking Water Regulations, Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule: Final Rule. Federal Register 71: 654-786.
EPA. 2006b. National Primary Drinking Water Regulations. Stage 2 Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproducts Rule: Final Rule. Federal Register 71: 388.
EPA. 2008a. Aquatic Life Criteria for Contaminants of Emerging Concern. Prepared by the OW/ORD Emerging Contaminants Workgroup. Available at http://www.epa.gov/waterscience/criteria/library/sab-emergingconcerns.pdf. Accessed August 27, 2010.
EPA. 2008b. Clean Watershed Needs Survey 2004 Report to Congress. Available at http://water.epa.gov/scitech/datait/databases/cwns/upload/2008_01_09_2004rtc_cwns2004rtc.pdf.
EPA. 2008c. Clean Watersheds Needs Survey 2008 Report to Congress. Available at http://water.epa.gov/scitech/datait/databases/cwns/2008reportdata.cfm. Accessed November 2010.
EPA. 2009a. Draft 2009 Update Aquatic Life Ambient Water Quality Criteria For Ammonia—Freshwater. EPA-822-D-09-001. Available at http://water.epa.gov/scitech/swguidance/stan-dards/criteria/aqlife/pollutants/ammonia/upload/2009_12_23_criteria_ammonia_2009update.pdf. Accessed December 15, 2011.
EPA. 2009b. National Primary Drinking Water Regulations. EPA/816/F-09/04. Available at http://www.epa.gov/safewater/consumer/pdf/mcl.pdf.
EPA. 2010a. A New Approach to Protecting Drinking Water and Public Health. March 2010. Available at http://www.epa.gov/ogwdw000/sdwa/pdfs/Drinking_Water_Strategyfs.pdf.
EPA. 2010b. Emerging Contaminant—N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA). EPA/505/F-10/005. Available at http//www.epa.gov/fedfac/documents/emerging_contaminant_ndma.pdf.
EPA. 2010c. Human Health Risk Assessment: Dose-Response Assessment. Available at http://www.epa.gov/risk/dose-response.htm.
EPA. 2010d. OPPTS harmonized test guidelines—master list. Available online at http://www.epa.gov/ocspp/pubs/frs/publications/Test_Guidelines/OPPTS-TestGuidelines_MasterList-2010-08-04.pdf.
EPA. 2011. Working in Partnership with States to Address Phosphorus and Nitrogen Pollution through Use of a Framework for State Nutrient Reductions. Memorandum from Nancy Stoner, Acting Assistant Administrator, Office of Water: March 16. Available online at: http://water.epa.gov/scitech/swguidance/standards/criteria/nutrients/upload/memo_nitrogen_framework.pdf.
EPRI (Electric Power Research Institute). 2002. Water & Sustainability (Volume 4): U.S. Electricity Consumption for Water Supply and Treatment—The Next Half Century. Palo Alto, CA: EPRI.
Equinox Center. 2010. The Potential of Purified Recycled Water. Available at http://www.equinoxcenter.org/assets/files/pdf/EquinoxPotentialofrecycledwaterjuly2010finalrev.pdf. Accessed January 15, 2011.
Erickson, R. J., D. A. Benoit, V. R. Mattson, H. P. Nelson, Jr., and E. N. Leonard, 1996. The Effects of Water Chemistry on the Toxicity of Copper to Fathead Minnows. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 15(2): 181-193.
Escher, B. I., N. Bramaz, M. Maurer, M. Richter, D. Sutter, C. Von Kanel, and M. Zschokke. 2005. Screening test battery for pharmaceuticals in urine and wastewater. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 24(3): 750-758.
Esplugas, S., D. M. Bila, L. G. Krause, and M. Dezotti. 2007. Ozonation and advanced oxidation technologies to remove endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in water effluents. Journal of Hazardous Material 149(3): 631-642.
European Commission, Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety. 2009. Opinion on Triclosan—Antibiotic Resistance. Available at http://ec.europa.eu/health/scientific_committees/consumer_safety/docs/sccs_o_023.pdf. Accessed November 6, 2011.
European Union. 2002. 4-Nonylphenol (branched) and nonylphenol. European Union Risk Assessment Report. EUR 20387 EN.
Everts, C. M., and A. H. Dahl. 1957. The Federal Water-Pollution Control Act of 1956. American Journal of Public Health and the Nations Health 47(3): 305-310.
Fabrega, J., S. N. Luoma, C. R. Tyler, T. S. Galloway, and J. R. Lead. 2011. Silver nanoparticles: Behaviour and effects in the aquatic environment. Environment International 37: 517-531.
Fair, G. M., J. C. Morris, S. L. Chang, I. Weil, and R. P. Burden. 1948. The behaviour of chlorine as water disinfectant. Journal of the American Water Works Association 1: 1051-1061.
Farée, M., K. Döder, L. Hearn, Y. Poussade, J. Keller, and W. Gernjak. 2011. Understanding the Operational Parameters Affecting NDMA Formation at Advanced Water Treatment Plants. Journal of Hazardous Materials 185: 1575-1581.
Faustman, E. M., and G. S. Omenn. 2008. Risk Assessment. In C. D. Klassen, ed., Cassarett and Doull’s Toxicology. The Basic Science of Poisons, 7th Ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, pp. 107-128.
FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 1995. Food additives: Threshold of regulation for substances used in food-contact articles (final rule). Federal Register 60: 36582-36596.
FDA. 2011. FDA MRTD Database. Available at http://www.fda.gov/aboutfda/centersoffices/cder/ucm092199.htm.
FDEP (Florida Department of Environmental Protection). 2006. 2005 Reuse Inventory: Tallahassee: FDEP, Water Reuse Program, 21 pp.
FDEP. 2010. 2009 Reuse Inventory. Tallahassee: FDEP, Water Reuse Program.
FDEP. 2011. 2010 Reuse Inventory. Tallahassee: FDEP, Water Reuse Program. Available at http://www.dep.state.fl.us/water/reuse/inventory.htm.
Fernandez Escartin, E., J. Saldana Lozano, O. R. Garcia. and D. O. Cliver. 2002. Potential Salmonella transmission from ornamental fountains. Journal of Environmental Health 65(4): 9-12, 22.
Filby, A. L., J. A. Shears, B. E. Drage, J. H. Churchley, and C. R. Tyler. 2010. Effects of advanced treatments of wastewater effluents on estrogenic and reproductive health impacts in fish. Environmental Science & Technology 44(11): 4348-4354.
Finch, G. R., C. N. Haas, J. A. Oppenheimer, G. Gordon, and R. R. Trussell. 2001. Design criteria for inactivation of cryptosporidium by ozone in drinking water. Ozone: Science and Engineering, 23(4): 259-284.
Finkel, A. M. 1990. Confronting Uncertainty in Risk Management. Washington, DC: Resources for the Future, Center for Risk Management.
FL OPPAGA. 1999. Florida Water Policy, OPPAGA Report No. 99-06. Available at http://www.oppaga.state.fl.us/MonitorDocs/Reports/pdf/9906rpt.pdf.
Fleming, P. A. 1990. Water supply, reclamation and reuse at Grand Canyon: A case study. In Proceedings of Conserv 90, August 12-16, Phoenix, Arizona. Dublin, OH: National Water Well Association, pp. 129-133.
Florida Department of Environmental Protection. 2007. Reuse of Reclaimed Water and Land Application. Florida Administrative Code Chapter 62-610. Tallahassee: Florida Department of Environmental Protection.
Focazio, M. J., D. W. Kolpin, K. K. Barnes, E. T. Furlong, M. T. Meyer, S. D. Zaugg, L. B. Barber, and M. E. Thurman. 2008. A national reconnaissance for pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater contaminants in the United States. II. Untreated drinking water sources. Science of the Total Environment 402(2-3): 201-216.
Fong, T. T., L. S. Mansfield, D. L. Wilson, D. J. Schwab, S. L. Molloy, and J. B. Rose. 2007. Massive microbiological groundwater contamination associated with a waterborne outbreak in Lake Erie, South Bass Island, Ohio. Environmental Health Perspectives 115(6): 856-864.
Fong, T. T., M. S. Phanikumar, I. Xagoraraki, and J. B. Rose. 2010. Quantitative detection of human adenoviruses in wastewater and combined sewer overflows influencing a Michigan river. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 76: 715-723.
Fono, L. J., E. P. Kolodziej, and D. L. Sedlak. 2006. Attenuation of wastewater-derived contaminants in an effluent-dominated river. Environmental Science & Technology 40(23): 7257-7262.
Fox, P., S. Houston, P. Westerhoff, J. E. Drewes, M. Nellor, W. Yanko, R. Baird, M. Rincon, R. Arnold, K. Lansey, R. Bassett, C. Gerba, M. Karpiscak, G. Amy, and M. Reinhard. 2001. Soil Aquifer Treatment for Sustainable Water Reuse. Denver, CO: American Water Works Association Research Foundation.
Freeman, G., M. Poghosyan, and M. Lee. 2008. Where Will We Get the Water? Assessing Southern California’s Future Water Strategies. Los Angeles County Economic Development Corporation. Available at http://www.laedc.org/sclc/documents/Water_SoCalWaterStrategies.pdf Accessed January 15, 2011.
Frerichs, R. R. 1984. Epidemiologic monitoring of possible health reactions of wastewater reuse. Science of the Total Environment 32(3): 353-363.
Frerichs, R. R., E. M. Sloss, and K. P. Satin. 1982. Epidemiologic impact of water reuse in Los-Angeles County. Environmental Research 29(1): 109-122.
Frick, H. 1985. Boron tolerance and accumulation in the duckweed, Lemnn minor. 1. Plant Nutrition 8: 1123-1129.
Fu, C. Y., X. Xie, J. J. Huang, T. Zhang, Q. Y. Wu, J. N. Chen, and H. Y. Hu. 2010. Monitoring and evaluation of removal of pathogens at municipal wastewater treatment plants. Water Science Technology 61: 1589-1599.
Fujita, Y., W. H. Ding, and M. Reinhard. 1996. Identification of wastewater dissolved organic carbon characteristics in reclaimed wastewater and recharged groundwater. Water Environment Research 68(5): 867-876.
Gan, J., S. Bondarenko, F. Ernst, W. Yang, S. Ries, and D. Sedlak. 2006. Leaching of N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) in turfgrass soils during wastewater Irrigation. Journal of Environmental Quality 35(1): 277-284.
Garcia-Reyero, N., R. J. Griffitt, L. Liu, K. J. Kroll, W. G. Farmerie, D. S. Barber, and N. D. Denslow. 2008. Construction of a robust microarray from a non-model species largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides (Lacepede), using pyrosequencing technology. Journal of Fish Biology 72(9): 2354-2376.
Garrison, A. W., J. D. Pope, and F. R. Allen. 1975. GC/MS analysis of organic compounds in domestic wastewaters. In L. H. Keith, ed., Identification and Analysis of Organic Pollutants in Water. Ann Arbor, MI: Ann Arbor Science, pp. 517-556.
GEI Consutants/Navigant Consulting. 2010. Embedded Energy in Water Studies—Study 1: Statewide and Regional Water-Energy Relationship. Prepared for the California Public Utilities Commission, Energy Division, San Francisco, CA, August 31.
Gennaccaro, A. L., M. R. McLaughlin, W. Quintero-Betancourt, D. E. Huffman, and J. B. Rose. 2003. Infectious Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in final reclaimed effluent. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 69: 4983-4984.
Gerba, C. P., J. B. Rose, and C. N. Haas. 1994. Waterborne disease: Who is at risk? In Proceedings of the American Water Works Association’s Water Quality Technology Conference, San Francisco. Denver, CO: American Water Works Association.
Gikas, P., and G. Tchobanoglous. 2009. The role of satellite and decentralized strategies in water resources management. Journal of Environmental Management 90: 144-152.
Gleick, P. 2003. Global freshwater resources: Soft-path solutions for the 21st century. Science 302: 1524.
Gold, L. S., C. B. Sawyer, R. Magaw, G. M. Backman, M. De Veciana, R. Levinson, N. K. Hooper, W. R. Havender, L. Bernstein, R. Peto, M. C. Pike, and B. N. Ames. 1984. A carcinogenic potency database of the standardized results of animal bioassays. Environmental Health Perspectives 58: 9-319.
Gold, L. S., G. M. Backman, N. K. Hooper, and R. Peto. 1986. Ranking the potential carcinogenic hazards to workers from exposures to chemicals that are tumorigenic in rodents. Environmental Health Perspectives 76: 211-219.
Gold, L. S., T. H. Slone, G. M. Backman, R. Magaw, M. Da Costa, P. Lopipero, M. Blumenthal, and B. N. Ames. 1987. Second chronological supplement to the carcinogenic potency database: Standardized results of animal bioassays published through December 1984 and by the National Toxicology Program through May 1986. Environmental Health Perspectives 74: 237-329.
Gollnitz, W. D., J. L. Clancy, B. L. Whitteberry, and J. A. Vogt. 2003. RBF as a microbial treatment process. Journal—American Water Works Association 95(12): 56-66.
Gollnitz, W. D., J. L. Clancy, B. McEwen, and S. C. Garner. 2005. Riverbank filtration for IESWTR compliance. Journal—American Water Works Association 97(12): 64-76.
Gong, Z., T. Yan, Y. Tong, S. Shalin, H. S. Lee, E. Lee, and W. E. Hawkins. 2008. Singapore’s evaluation of carcinogenic and estrogenic potentials of reclaimed water in medaka fish. In Proceedings of the IWA World Water Congress, Vienna, Sept. 8-12 (on CD-ROM).
Goodman, A. M., G. G. Ganf, G. C. Dandy, H. R. Maier, and M. S. Gibbs. 2010. The response of freshwater plants to salinity pulses. Aquatic Botany 93(2): 59-67.
Gordon, G., L. C. Adam, B. P. Bubnis, C. Kuo, R. S. Cushing, and R. H. Sakaji, 1997. Predicting liquid bleach decomposition. Journal—American Water Works Association 89(4): 142-149.
Govind, P., W. Alan, and J. E. Ezekiel. 2009. Principles for allocation of scarce medical interventions. Lancet 373(9661): 423-431.
Graf, W. 1999. Dam nation: A geographic census of American dams and their large-scale hydrologic impacts. Water Resources Research 5(4): 1305-1311.
Gray, N. F. 2008. Drinking water standards and risk. In Drinking Water Quality: Problems and Solutions. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Gray, J. L., and D. L. Sedlak. 2005. The fate of estrogenic hormones in an engineered treatment wetland with densed macrophytes. Water Environment Research 77: 24-31.
Greyshock, A. E., and P. J. Vikesland. 2006. Triclosan reactivity in chloraminated waters. Environmental Science & Technology 40(8): 2615-2622.
Grischek, T., D. Schoenheinz, E. Worch, and K. Hiscock. 2002. Bank filtration in Europe—An overview of aquifer conditions and hydraulic controls. In P. Dillon, ed., Management of Aquifer Recharge for Sustainability: Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium of Artificial Groundwater Recharge, Adelaide, Australia. Lisse, The Netherlands: A. A. Balkema, pp. 485-488.
Gross, B., J. Montgomery-Brown, A. Naumann, and M. Reinhard. 2004. Occurrence and fate of pharmaceuticals and alkylphenol ethoxylate metabolites in an effluent-dominated river and wetland. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 23(9): 2074-2083.
Grünheid, S., G. Amy, and M. Jekel. 2005. Removal of bulk dissolved organic carbon and trace organic compounds by bank filtration and artificial recharge. Water Research 39: 3219-3228.
Gunnarson, E., G. Axehult, G. Baturina, S. Zelenin, M. Zelenina, and A. Aperia. 2008. Identification of a molecular target for glutamate regulation of astrocyte water permeability. Glia 56: 587-596.
Gupta, V., W. P. Johnson, P. Shafieian, H. Ryu, A. Alum, M. Abbaszadegan, S. A. Hubbs, and T. Rauch-Williams. 2009. Riverbank filtration: Comparison of pilot scale transport with theory. Environmental Science & Technology 43(3): 669-676.
Haarhof, J., and B. Van der Merwe. 1996. Twenty Five Years of Wastewater Reclamation in Windhoek, Namibia. Water Science and Technology 33(10-11): 25-35.
Haas, C. N. 1983. Estimation of risk due to low doses of microorganisms: A comparison of alternative methodologies. American Journal of Epidemiology 118(4): 573-582.
Haas, C. N. 1996. How to average microbial densities to characterize risk. Water Research 30(4): 1036-1038.
Haas, C. N. 2010. Chemical Disinfection. Water Quality and Treatment Handbook, 6th Ed. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Haas, C. N., C. Crockett, J. B. Rose, C. Gerba, and A. Fazil. 1996. Infectivity of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts. Journal— American Water Works Association 88: 131-136.
Haas, C. N., and R. R. Trussell. 1998. Frameworks for assessing reliability of multiple, independent barriers in potable water reuse. Water Science and Technology 38(6): 1-8.
Haas, C., J. Rose, and C. Gerba. 1999. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Haas, C. N., A. Thayyar-Madabusi, J. B. Rose, and C. P. Gerba. 2000. Development of a dose-response relationship for Escherichia coli O157:H7. International Journal of Food Microbiology 56(2-3): 153-159.
Haddad, B., P. Rozin, P. Slovic, and C. Nemeroff. 2010. The Psychology of Water Reclamation and Reuse: Survey Findings and Research Roadmap. Arlington, VA: WateReuse Foundation.
Hamlin, C. 1980. Sewage—waste or resource. Environment 22(8): 16.
Hammes F. A., and T. Egli. 2005. New method for assimilable organic carbon determination using flow-cytometric enumeration and a natural microbial consortium as inoculum. Environmental Science & Technology 39: 3289-3294.
Hannah, R., V. J. D’Aco, P. D. Anderson, M. E. Buzby, D. J. Caldwell, V. L. Cunningham, J. F. Ericson, A. C. Johnson, N. J. Parke, J. H. Samuelian, and J. P. Sumpter. 2009. Exposure assessment of 17α-ethinyl estradiol in surface waters of the United States and Europe. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 28(12): 2725-2732.
Haramoto, E., H. Katayama, K. Oguma, H. Yamashita, A. Tajima, H. Nakajima, and S. Ohgaki. 2006. Seasonal profiles of human noroviruses and indicator bacteria in a wastewater treatment plant in Tokyo, Japan. Water Science and Technology 54: 301-308.
Haramoto, E., H. Katayama, K. Oguma, and S. Ohgaki. 2007. Quantitative analysis of human enteric adenoviruses in aquatic environments. Journal of Applied Microbiology 103: 2153-2159.
Hartley, T. 2006. Public perception and participation in water reuse. Desalination 187: 115-126.
Harvilicz, H. 1999. NPE demand remains strong despite environmental concerns in Europe. Chemical Market Reporter, October 18, 1999, p. 15.
Harwood, V. J., A. D. Levine, T. M. Scott, V. Chivukula, J. Lukasik, S. R. Farrah, and J. B. Rose. 2005. Validity of the indicator organism paradigm for pathogen reduction in reclaimed water and public health protection. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 71(6): 3163-3170.
Havelaar, A. H. 1994. Application of HACCP to drinking water supply. Food Control 5(3): 145-152.
Havelaar, A. H., M. van Olphen, and J. F. Schijeven. 1995. Removal and inactivation of viruses by drinking water treatment processes under full scale conditions. Water Science and Technology 31(5-6): 55-62.
Havelaar, A. H., A. E. De Hollander, P. F. Teunis, E. G. Evers, H. J. Van Kranen, J. F. Versteegh, J. E. Van Koten, and W. Slob. 2000. Balancing the risks and benefits of drinking water disinfection: Disability adjusted life-years on the scale. Environmental Health Perspectives 108(4): 315-321.
Hazen, A. 1909. Clean Water and How to Get It. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
He, J. W., and S. Jiang. 2005. Quantification of enterococci and human adenoviruses in environmental samples by real-time PCR. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 71: 2250-2255.
Heber, M. A., D. K. Reed-Judkins, and T. T. Davies. 1996. USEPA’s whole effluent toxicity testing program: A national regulatory perspective. In D. R. Grothe, K. L. Dickson, and D. K. Reed-Judkins, eds., Whole Effluent Toxicity Testing: An Evaluation of Methods and Prediction of Receiving Water Impacts. Pensacola, FL: SETAC Press, pp 9-15.
Heberer, T. 2002. Occurrence, fate, and assessment of polycyclic musk residues in the aquatic environment of urban areas: A review. Acta Hydrochimica et Hydrobiologica 30(5-6): 227-243.
Heerden, J., M. M. Ehlers, and W. O. Grabow. 2005. Detection and risk assessment of adenoviruses in swimming pool water. Journal of Applied Microbiology 99(5): 1256-1264.
Hejkal, T. W., F. M. Wellings, P. A. LaRock, and A. L. Lewis. 1979. Survival of poliovirus within organic solids during chlorination. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 38: 114.
Hemmer, J., C. Hamann, and D. Pickard. 1994. Tampa Water Resource Recovery Project. San Diego Water Reuse Health Effects Study. In 1994 Water Reuse Symposium Proceedings, Feebruary 27-March 2, Dallas, TX. Denver CO: American Water Works Association.
Heringa, M. B., D. J. H. Harmsen, E. F. Beerendonk, A. A. Reus, C. A. M. Krul, D. H. Metz, and G. F. IJpelaar. 2011. Formation and removal of genotoxic activity during UV/H2O2–GAC treatment of drinking water. Water Research 45(1): 366-374.
Hignite, C., and D. L. Azarnoff. 1977. Drugs and drug metabolites as environmental contaminants: Chlorophenoxyisobutyrate and salicylic acid in sewage water effluent. Life Sciences 20(2): 337-341.
Hijnen, W., E. Beerendonk, and G. Medema. 2005a. Inactivation credit of UV radiation for viruses, bacteria and protozoan (oo) cysts in water: A review. Water Research 40(1): 3-22.
Hijnen, W. A., A. J. Brouwer-Hanzens, K. J. Charles, and G. J. Medema. 2005b. Transport of MS2 Phage, Escherichia coli, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Giardia intestinalis in a gravel and a sandy soil. Environmental Science & Technology 39(20): 7860-7868.
Hills, S., R. Birks, and B. McKenzie. 2002. The Millennium Dome “Watercycle” experiment to evaluate water efficiency and customer perception at a recycling scheme for 6 million visitors. Water Science and Technology 46(6-7): 233-240.
Hinckley, G. T., C. J. Johnson, K. H. Jacobson, C. Bartholomay, K. D. McMahon, D. McKenzie, J. M. Aiken, and J. A. Pedersen. 2008. Persistence of pathogenic prion protein during simulated wastewater treatment processes. Environmental Science & Technology 42(14): 5254-5259.
Hiscock, K. M., and T. Grischek. 2002. Attenuation of groundwater pollution by bank filtration. Journal of Hydrology 266(3-4): 139-144.
Hoekman, D. 2010. Turning up the Heat: Temperature influences the relative importance of top-down and bottom-up effects. Ecology 91(10): 2819-2825.
Holliman, P. T. 2009. Manual of Practice: How to Develop a Water Reuse Program. Alexandria, VA: WateReuse Association.
Hollis, L., L. Muench, and R. C. Playle. 1997. Influence of dissolved organic matter on copper binding, and calcium on cadmium binding, by gills of rainbow trout. Journal of Fish Biology 50: 703-720.
Holmes, M., A. Kumar, A. Shareef, H. Doan, R. Stuetz, and R. Kookana. 2010. Fate of indicator endocrine disrupting chemicals in sewage during treatment and polishing for non-potable reuse. Water Science and Technology 62(6): 1416-1423.
Hopkins, J., R. Williamson, and R. Simonsen. 2002. The Impact of Recycled Water on Water Quality in Coyote Creek in San Jose, California in 2001. Prepared for the City of San Jose, CA. Available at http://www.sanjoseca.gov/esd/PDFs/RecycledWaterImpact-CoyoteCreek_0702.pdf.
Hoppe-Jones, C., G. Oldham, and J. E. Drewes. 2010. Attenuation of total organic carbon and unregulated trace organic chemicals in U.S. riverbank filtration systems. Water Research 44: 4643-4659.
Howard, I., E. Espigares, P. Lardelli, J. L. Martín, and M. Espigares. 2004. Evaluation of microbiological and physicochemical indicators for wastewater treatment. Environmental Toxicology 19(3): 241-249.
Howe, P. D. 1998. A review of boron effects in the environment. Biological Trace Element Research 66: 153-166.
Hoxie, N. J., J. P. Davis, J. M. Vergeront, R. D. Nashold, and K. A. Blair. 1997. Cryptosporidiosis-associated mortality following a massive waterborne outbreak in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. American Journal of Public Health 87(12): 2032-2035.
Hua, G., and D. A. Reckhow. 2007. Comparison of disinfection byproduct formation from chlorine and alternative disinfectants. Water Research 41(8): 1667-1678.
Hua, G., and D. A. Reckhow. 2008. DBP formation during chlorination and chloramination: Effect of reaction time, pH, dosage, and temperature. Journal—American Water Works Association 100(8): 82-95.
Huang, C. H. and D. L. Sedlak. 2001. Analysis of Estrogenic Hormones in Municipal Wastewater Effluent and Surface Water Using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays and Gas Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 20: 133-139.
Hudson, H. E., and F. W. Gilcreas. 1976. Health and economic aspects of water hardness and corrosiveness. Journal—American Water Works Association 68(4): 201-204.
Huertas, E., M. Salgot, J. Hollender, S. Weber, W. Dott, S. Khan, A. Schafer, R. Messalem, B. Bis, A. Sharoni, and H. Chikurel. 2008. Key objectives for water reuse concepts. Desalination 218: 120-131.
Huggett, D. B., J. C. Cook, J. F. Ericson, and R. T. Williams. 2003. A theoretical model for utilizing mammalian pharmacology and safety data to prioritize potential impacts of human pharmaceuticals to fish. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment 9(7): 1789-1799.
Huggett, D. B., J. F. Ericson, J. C. Cook, and R. T. Williams. 2004. Plasma concentrations of human pharmaceuticals as predictors of pharmacological responses in fish. In K. Kummerer, ed., Pharmaceuticals in the Environment. Heidelberg, Germany: Springer, pp. 373-386.
Huitric, S., J. Kuo, C. Tang, M. Creel, R. Horvath, and J. Stahl. 2005. Fate of NDMA in tertiary water reclamation plants. In Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation Technical Exhibition and Conference 2005. Alexandria, VA: Water Environment Federation, pp. 582-595.
Huitric, S., C. Tang, J. Kuo, M. Creel, D. Snyder, P. Ackman, and R. Horvath. 2007. Sequential chlorination for reclaimed water disinfection. In Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation Technical Exhibition and Conference 2007. Alexandria, VA: Water Environment Federation, pp. 2552-2564.
Hurlimann, A. 2008. Urban versus regional—how public attitudes to recycled water differ in these contexts. Water Science and Technology 57(6): 891-899.
Hurlimann, A., and S. Dolnicar. 2010. Acceptance of water alternatives in Australia—2009. Water Science and Technology 61(8): 2137-2142.
Hutcheson, M. S., K. A. Martin, and D. M. Mangaro. 1990. Guide to the Regulation of Toxic Chemicals in Massachusetts Waters. Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection. Boston, MA.
Hutson, S. S., N. L. Barber, J. F. Kenny, K. S. Linsey, D. S. Lumia, and M. A. Maupin. 2000. Estimated Water Use in the United States in 2000. USGS Circular 1268. Reston, VA: U.S. Geological Survey.
Icekson-Tal, N., O. Avraham, J. Sack, and H. Cikurel. 2003. Water reuse in Israel—the Dan Region Project: Evaluation of water quality and reliability of plant’s operation. Water Science and Technology: Water Supply 3(4): 231-237.
Illing, H. P. A. 2006. Risk assessment. In J. H. Duffus and H. G. Worth, eds., Fundamental Toxicology. Cambridge, UK: RSC Publishing, pp. 56-71.
Ingram, P., V. Young, M. Millan, C. Chang, and T. Tabucchi. 2006. From controversy to consensus: The Redwood City recycled water experience. Desalination 187(1-3): 179-190.
Isaacson, M., and A. R. Sayed. 1988. Health aspects of the use of recycled water in Windhoek, SWA/Namibia, 1974-1983. South African Medical Journal 73: 596-599.
Isaacson, M., A. R. Sayed, and W. H. J. Hattingh. 1987. Studies on health aspects of water reclamation during 1974-1983 in Windhoek, South West Africa/Namibia. 38 (1): 87. Pretoria. Water Research Commission.
Jacangelo, J., S. Adham, and J. M. Lainé. 1997. Membrane Filtration for Microbial Remova. Denver, CO: American Water Works Association.
Jacangelo, J. G., N. L. Patania, R. R. Trussell, C. N. Haas, and C. Gerba. 2002. Inactivation of waterborne emerging pathogens by selected disinfectants, American Water Works Association. Denver, Colorado. 145.
Jaques, R. S., G. M. Antonz, R. C. Cooper, and B. Sheikh. 1999. Pathogen removal effectiveness of a full-scale recycling plant. In Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation Technical Exhibition and Conference 1999. Alexandria, VA: Water Environment Federation.
Jeffrey, P. 2002. Public attitudes to in-house water recycling in England and Wales. Water and Environmental Management Journal 16: 214-217.
Jiang, S. C. 2006. Human adenoviruses in water: Occurrence and health implications: A critical review. Environmental Science & Technology 40: 7132-7140.
Jiménez, B. 2007. Helminth ova control in sludge: A review. Water Science and Technology 56: 147-155.
Jiménez, B., and T. Asano. 2008. Water reclamation and reuse around the world. In B. Jimenez and T. Asano, eds., Water Reuse: An International Survey of Current Practice, Issues and Needs. London: IWA Publishing, pp. 3-26.
Jiménez, B., and A. Chavez. 2004. Quality assessment of an aquifer recharged with wastewater for its potential use as drinking source: “El Mezquital Valley” case. Water Science and Technology 50(2): 269-276.
Jiménez, M.S., M.T. Gómez, E. Bolea, F. Laborda, and J. Castillo. 2011. An approach to the natural and engineered nanoparticles analysis in the environment by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. International Journal of Mass Spectrometry. 307: 99-104.
Johnson, A. C., H. R. Aerni, A. Gerritsen, M. Gibert, W. Giger, K. Hylland, M. Jurgens, T. Nakari, A. Pickering, M. J. F. Suter, A. Svenson, and F. E. Wettstein. 2005. Comparing steroid estrogen, and nonylphenol content across a range of European sewage plants with different treatment and management practices. Water Research 39: 47-58.
Johnson, T. 2007. Battling Seawater Intrusion in the Central & West Coast Basins. Water Replenishment District Technical Bulletin 13(Fall). Available online at: http://www.wrd.org/engineering/seawater-intrusion-los-angeles.php. Accessed January 3, 2011.
Jones G. P., M. I. McCormick, M. Srinivasan, and J. V. Eage.
2004. Coral decline threatens fish biodiversity in marine reserves. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA. 101:8251-8253.
Joo, S. H., and W. A. Mitch. 2007. Nitrile, aldehyde, and halonitroalkane formation during chlorination/chloramination of primary amines. Environmental Science & Technology 41(4): 1288-1296.
Juhna, T., and E. Melin. 2006. Ozonation and Biofiltration in Water Treatment: Operational Status and Optimization Issues. Techneau, WP5.3, Sixth Framework Programme, European Commission. Available at http://www.techneau.org/fleadmin/files/Publications/Publications/Deliverables/D5.3.1B-OBF.pdf.
Kadlec R. H., and R. L. Knight. 1996. Treatment Wetlands. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, p. 893.
Kaegi, R., A. Voegelin, B. Sinnet, S. Zuleeg, H. Hagendorfer, M. Burkhardt, and H. Siegris. 2011. Behavior of metallic silver nanoparticles in a pilot wastewater treatment plant. Environmental Science & Technology 45(9): 3902-3908.
Kahneman, D., P. Slovic, and A. Tversky, eds. 1982. Judgment under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Kannan, K., L. Tao, E. Sinclair, S. D. Pastva, D. J. Jude, and J. P. Giesy. 2005. Perfluorinated compounds in aquatic organisms at various trophic levels in a great lakes food chain. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 48: 559-566.
Kaplan, D., and A. Kaplan. 1985. Biodegrdation of N-nitrosodimethyamine in aqueous and soil systems Applied and Environmental Microbiology 50(4): 1077-1086.
Katayama, H., E. Haramoto, K. Oguma, H. Yamashita, A. Tajima, H. Nakajima, and S. Ohyaki. 2008. One-year monthly quantitative survey of noroviruses, enteroviruses, and adenoviruses in wastewater collected from six plants in Japan. Water Research 42: 1441-1448.
Keel, M. K., A. M. Ruiz, A. T. Fisk, W. K. Rumbeiha, A. K. Davis, and J. C. Maerz. 2010. Soft-tissue mineralization of bullfrog larvae (Rana catesbeiana) at a wastewater treatment facility. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 22(4): 655-660. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20622246. Accessed on November 17, 2011.
Kelly, R. T., I. D. Henriques, and N. G. Love. 2004. Chemical inhibition of nitrification in activated sludge. Biotechnology and Bioengineering 85(6): 683-694.
Kenny, J., N. Barber, S. Hutson, K. Linsey, J. Lovelace, and M. Maupin. 2009. Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 2005. USGS Circular 1344. Reston, VA: U.S. Geological Survey.
Khan, S. J. 2010. Quantitative Chemical Exposure Assessment for Water Recycling Schemes. Waterlines Report Series No. 27. National Water Commission of Australia. Available at http://www.palisade.com/downloads/pdf/papers/Waterlines_Quantative_Chemical_Exposure.pdf.
Khan, S. and D. Roser. 2007. Risk assessment and health effect studies of indirect potable reuse schemes. Centre for Water and WasteTechnology. School of Civil and Environmental Engineering. University of New South Wales, Australia. NSW, Australia.
Kidd, K. A., P. J. Blanchfield, K. H. Mills, V. P. Palace, R. E. Evans, J. M. Lazorchak, and R. W. Flick. 2007. Collapse of a fish population after exposure to a synthetic estrogen. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 104(21): 8897-8901.
Kidson, R., B. Haddad, and H. Zheng. 2009. Improving water supply through portfolio management: Case study from Southern California. Proceedings: 4th WEAS International Conference in Water Resources, Hydraulics, and Hydrology. University of Cambridge, February 24-26. WSEAS Press, pp. 157-162. Available at http://www.wseas.us/books/2009/cambridge/WHH.pdf.
Kim, S. B., and M. Y. Corpcioglu. 2002. contaminant transport in dual-porosity media with dissolved organic matter and bacteria present as mobile colloids. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 59(3-4): 267-289.
Kim, Y., K. Choi, J. Jung, S. Park, P. Kim, and J. Park. 2007. Aquatic toxicity of acetaminophen, carbamazepine, cimetidine, diltiazem and six major sulfonamides, and their potential ecological risks in korea. Environment International 33(3): 370-375.
Kim, Y. M., D. Park, D. S. Lee, K. A. Jung, and J. M. Park. 2009. Sudden failure of biological nitrogen and carbon removal in the full-scale pre-denitrification process treating cokes wastewater. Bioresource Technology 100(19): 4340-4347.
Kiser, M. A., P. Westerhoff, T. Benn, Y. Wang, J. Pérez-Rivera, and K. Hristovski. 2009. Titanium nanomaterial removal and release from wastewater treatment plants. Environmental Science & Technology 43: 6757-6763.
Kohut, K. D., and S. A. Andrews. 2003. Polyelectrolyte age and N-nitrosodimethylamine formation in drinking water treatment. Water Quality Research Journal of Canada 38(4): 719-735.
Kolpin, D., E. T. Furlong, M. T. Meyer, E. M. Thurman, S. D. Zaugg, L. B. Barber, and H. T. Buxton. 2002. Pharmaceuticals, hormones, and other organic wastewater contaminants in U.S. streams, 1999-2000—A national reconnaissance. Environmental Science & Technology 35: 1202-1211.
Kramer, V. J., M. A. Etterson, M. Hecker, C. A. Murphy, G. Roesijadi, D. J. Spade, J. A. Spromberg, M. Wang, and G. T. Ankley. 2011. Adverse outcome pathways and ecological risk assessment: Bridging to population-level effects. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 30(1): 64-76.
Krasner, S., H. Weinberg, S. Richardson, S. Pastor, R. Chinn, M. Sclimenti, G. Onstad, and A. Thurston. 2006. Occurrence of a new generation of disinfection byproducts. Environmental Science & Technology 40: 7175-7185.
Krasner, S., P. Westerhoff, B. Chen, G. Amy, S. Nam, Z. Chowdhury, S. Sinha, and B. Rittman. 2008. Contribution of Wastewater to DBP Formation. Final Report. Denver, CO: AWWA Research Foundation.
Krasner, S. W., P. Westerhoff, B. Chen, B. E. Rittman, and G. Amy. 2009. Occurrence of disinfection byproducts in United States wastewater treatment plant effluents. Environmental Science & Technology 43(21): 8320-8325.
Krauss, M., P. Longrée, F. Dorusch, C. Ort, and J. Hollender. 2009. Occurrence and removal of N-nitrosamines in wastewater plants. Water Research 43: 4381-4391.
Kroes, R., A. G. Renwick, M. Cheeseman, J. Kleiner, I. Mangelsdorf, A. Piersma, B. Schilter, J. Schlatter, F. van Schothorst, J. G. Vos, and G. Wurtzen. 2004. Structure-based thresholds of toxicological concern: Guidance for application to substances present at low levels in the diet. Food and Chemical Toxicology 42: 65-83. Available at http://www.ilsi.org/Europe/Publications/2004Stru_Base.pdf. Accessed on November 17, 2011.
Krueger, A. 2007. Chula Vista center connected to pipes carrying treated sewage. Available at SignOnSanDiego.com, August 22. San Diego, California.
Kühn, W., and U. Müller. 2000. Riverbank filtration: An overview. Journal—American Water Works Association 92(12): 60-69.
Kumamoto, H., and E. J. Henley. 1996. Probabilistic Risk Assessment and Management for Engineers and Scientists, 2nd Ed. New York: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.
Kumar, A. Y., and M. V. Reddy. 2009. Assessment of seasonal effects of municipal sewage pollution on the water quality of an urban canal—a case study of the Buckingham canal at Kalpakkam (India): NO3, PO4, SO4, BOD, COD and DO. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 157(1-4): 223-234.
Küster, A., A. C. Alfredo, B. I. Escher, K. Duis, K. Fenner, J. Garric, T. H. Hutchinson, D. R. Lapen, A. Pery, J. Rombke, J. Snape, T. Ternes, E. Topp, A. Wehrman, and T. Knacker. 2010. Environmental risk assessment of human pharmaceuticals in the European Union: A case study with the β-blocker atenolol. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 6: 514-523.
LACSD (Los Angeles County Sanitation Districts). 2008. Final Project Report for Montebello Forebay Attenuation and Dilution Studies. Prepared by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Kennedy/Jenks/Todd LLC. Oakland, CA.
Lahnsteiner, J., and G. Lempert. 2005. Water Management in Windhoek/Namibia. In Proceedings of the IWA Conference, Wastewater Reclamation & Reuse for Sustainability, November 8-11, Jeju, Korea.
Länge, R., and D. Dietrich. 2002. Environmental risk assessment of pharmaceutical drug substances—conceptual considerations. Toxicology Letters 131(1-2): 97-104.
Länge, R., T. H. Hutchinson, C. P. Croudace, F. Siegmund, H. Schweinfurth, P. Hampe, G. H. Panter, and J. P. Sumpter. 2001. Effects of the synthetic estrogen 17 alpha-ethinylestradiol on the life-cycle of the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 20(6): 1216-1227.
Laposata, M. M., and W. A. Dunson. 1998. Effects of boron and nitrate on hatching success of amphibian eggs. Archives of Environmental Contaminants and Toxicology 35: 615-619.
Lauer, W. C., and S. E. Rogers. 1996. The demonstration of direct potable reuse: Denver’s pioneer project. In AWWA/WEF 1996 Water Reuse Conference Proceedings. Denver, CO: American Water Works Association, pp. 269-289.
Lauer, W. C., F. J. Johns, G. W. Wolfe, B. A. Meyers, L. W. Condie, and J. F. Borzelleca. 1990. Comprehensive health effects testing program for Denver’s potable reuse demonstration project. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 30: 305-321.
Law, I. B. 2003. Advanced reuse—from Windhoek to Singapore and beyond. Water 30(5): 31-36.
Laws, B., E. Dickenson, T. Johnson, S. Snyder, and J. E. Drewes. 2011. Attenuation of contaminants of emerging concern during surface spreading aquifer recharge. Science of the Total Environment 409(6): 1087-1094.
LeChevallier, M. W., T. M. Evans, and R. J. Seidler. 1981. Effect of turbidity on chlorination efficiency and bacterial persistence in drinking water. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 42: 159-167.
Lehmacher, A., J. Bockemuhl, and S. Aleksic. 1995. Nationwide outbreak of human salmonellosis in Germany due to contaminated paprika and paprika-powdered potato chips. Epidemiology and Infection. 115:501-511.
LeClech, P., V. Chen, and T. Fane. 2006. Fouling in membrane bioreactors used in wastewater treatment. Journal of Membrane Science 284: 17-53.
Lee, B. C., M. Kamata, Y. Akatsuka, M. Takeda, K. Ohno, T. Kamei, and Y. Magara. 2004. Effects of chlorine on the decrease of estrogenic chemicals. Water Research 38: 733-739.
Lee, C., J. Yoon, and U. von Gunten. 2007. Oxidative degradation of N-nitrosodimethylamine by conventional ozonation and the advanced oxidation process ozone/hydrogen peroxide. Water Research 41(3): 581-590.
Lenz, K., V. Beck, and M. Fuerhacker. 2004. Behaviour of bisphenol A (BPA), 4-nonylphenol (4-HP) and 4-nonylphenol ethoxylates (4-NP1EO, 4-NP2EO) in oxidative water treatment processes. Water Science and Technology 50(5): 141-147.
Levantesi, C., R. La Mantia, C. Masciopinto, U. Böckelmann, M. Neus Ayuso-Gabella, M. Salgot, V. Tandoi, E. Van Houtte, T. Wintgens, and E. Grohmann. 2010. Quantification of pathogenic microorganisms and microbial indicators in three wastewater reclamation and managed aquifer recharge facilities in Europe. Science of the Total Environment 408(21): 4923-4930.
Li, X., L. W. Y. Yueng, M. Xu, S. Taniyasu, P. K. S. Lam, N. Yamashita, and J. Dai. 2008. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and other fluorochemicals in fish blood collected near the outfall of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Beijing. Environmental Pollution 156(3): 1298-1303.
Liang, J. L., E. J. Dziuban, G. F. Craun, V. Hill, M. R. Moore, R. J. Gelting, R. L. Calderon, M. J. Beach, and S. L. Roy. 2006. Surveillance for waterborne disease and outbreaks associated with drinking water and water not intended for drinking—United States, 2003-2004. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 55: 31-58.
Lightbody, A. F., M. E. Avener, and H. M. Nepf. 2008. Observations of short-circuiting flow paths within a free-surface wetland in Augusta, Georgia, USA. Limnology and Oceanography 53(3): 1040-1053.
Lim, Y. A. L., W. I. W. Hafiz, and V. Nissapatom. 2007. Reduction of Cryptosporidium and Giardia by sewage treatment processes. Tropical Biomedicine 24: 95-104.
Lin, A. Y. C., J. F. Debroux, J. A. Cunningham, and M. Reinhard. 2003. Comparison of rhodamine WT and bromide in the determination of hydraulic characteristics of constructed wetlands. Ecological Engineering 20(1): 75-88.
Lin, C., G. Eshel, I. Negev and A. Banin. 2008. Long-term accumulation and material balance of organic matter in the soil an effluent infiltration basin. Geoderma 148: 35-42.
Livingston, E. 2008. Village of Cloudcroft, NM PUReWater Project. Presentation at 2008 Water Smart Innovations Conference and Exposition, October 8-10, Las Vegas, NV. Available at http://www.watersmartinnovations.com/posters-sessions/2008/PDFs/1000-%20Eddie%20Livingston-%20Village%20of%20Cloudcroft,%20NM%20PURe%20Water%20Project.pdf.
Lopez-Ramirez, J. A., M. D. Coello Oviedo, and J. M. Quiroga Alonso. 2006. Comparative studies of reverse osmosis membranes for wastewater reclamation. Desalination 191: 137-147.
Loveland, J. P., J. N. Ryan, G. L. Amy, R. W. Harvey. 1996. The reversibility of virus attachment to mineral surfaces. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects 107: 205-221.
Loyo-Rosales, J. E., C. P. Rice, and A. Torrents. 2009. Fate and distribution of the octyl- and nonylphenol ethoxylates and some carboxylated transformation products in the Back River, Maryland. Journal of Environmental Monitoring 12: 614-621.
Lozier, J. C., M. Kitis, J. H. Kim, B. Mi, and B. J. Mariñas. 2006. Evaluation of biologic and nonbiologic methods for assessing virus removal by and integrity of pressure membrane systems. In K. J. Howe, ed., Membrane Treatment for Drinking Water & Reuse Applications: A Compendium of Peer-Reviewed Papers. Denver, CO: American Water Works Association, pp. 399-420.
Lu, G. P., J. K. Fellman, C. H. Edwards, D. S. Mattinson, and J. Navazio. 2003. Quantitative determination of geosmin in red beets (Beta vulgaris L.) using headspace solid-phase microextraction. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 51(4): 1021-1025.
Lundie, S., G. M. Peters, and P. C. Beavis. 2004. Life cycle assessment for sustainable metropolitan water systems planning. Environmental Science & Technology 38: 3465-3473.
Lytle, D. A., and M. R. Schock. 2005. Formation of Pb(IV) Oxides in Chlorinated Water. Journal—American Water Works Association 97(11): 102-114.
Lytle, D. A., and V. L. Snoeyink. 2004. The effect of oxidant on the properties of Fe(III) particles and suspensions formed from the oxidation of Fe(II). Journal—American Water Works Association 96(8): 112-124.
Mac Kenzie, W. R., N. J. Hoxie, M. E. Proctor, M. S. Gradus, K. A. Blair, D. E. Peterson, J. J. Kazmierczak, D. G. Addiss, K. R. Fox, J. B. Rose, and J. P. Davis. 1994. A massive outbreak in Milwaukee of Cryptosporidium infection transmitted through the public water supply. New England Journal of Medicine 331: 161-167.
Macpherson, L., and P. Slovic. 2011. Talking About Water: Vocabulary and Images that Support Informed Decisions about Water Recycling and Desalination. WRF-07-03. Alexandria, VA: WateReuse Foundation.
Maeng, S. K., E. Ameda, S. Sharma, G. Grutzmacher, and G. L. Amy. 2010. Organic micropollutant removal from wastewater effluent-impacted drinking water sources during bank filtration and artificial recharge. Water Research 44: 4003-4014.
Maeng, S. K., S. K. Sharma, K. Lekkerkerker-Teunissen, and G.L. Amy. 2011. Occurrence and fate of bulk organic matter and pharmaceutically active compounds in managed aquifer recharge: A review. Water Research 45: 3015-3033.
Magee, P., R. Montesano, and R. Preussman. 1976. Nitroso Compounds and Related Carcinogens. In C. Searle, ed., Chemical Carcinogens. ACS Monograph 173. Washington, DC: American Chemical Society.
Mankad, A., and S. Tapsuwan. 2011. Review of socio-economic drivers of community acceptance and adoption of decentralised water systems. Journal of Environmental Management 92(3): 380-391.
Marella, R. L. 2009. Water Withdrawals, Use, and Trends in Florida, 2005. USGS Scientific Investigations Report 2009-5125. U.S. Geological Survey. 49 pp. Available at http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2009/5125/.
Marks, J., and M. Zadoroznyj. 2005. Managing sustainable urban water reuse: Structural context and cultures of trust. Society & Natural Resources 18(6): 557-572.
Marks, J. S., B. Martin, and M. Zadoroznyj. 2006. Acceptance of water recycling in Australia: National baseline data. Water Journal of the Australian Water Association 33(2): 151.
Marks, J., B. Martin, and M. Zadoroznyj. 2008. How australians order acceptance of recycled water: National baseline data. Journal of Sociology 44(1): 83-99.
Martin, J. W., S. A. Mabury, S. K. Solomon, and D. C. G. Muir.
2003. Bioconcentration and tissue distribution of perfluorinated acid in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 22: 196-204.
Massmann G., J. Greskowiak, U. Dunnbier, S. Zuehlke, A. Knappe, and A. Pekdeger. 2006. The impact of variable temperatures on the redox conditions and the behaviour of pharmaceutical residuesduring artificial recharge. Journal of Hydrology 328(1-2): 141-156.
Matamoros, V., and J. M. Bayona. 2006. Elimination of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in subsurface flow constructed wetlands. Environmental Science & Technology 40(18): 5811-5816.
Matamoros, V., J. Garcia, and J. M. Bayona. 2005. Behavior of selected pharmaceuticals in subsurface flow constructed wetlands: A pilot-scale study. Environmental Science & Technology 39(14): 5449-5454.
Matthews, E. J., N. L. Kruhlak, R. D Benz, and J. F. Contrera.
2004. Assessment of the health effects of chemicals in humans: I. QSAR estimation of the maximum recommended therapeutic dose (MRTD) and no effect level (NOEL) of organic chemicals based on clinical trial data. Current Drug Discovery Technologies 1(1): 61-76.
Mathiason, C. K., S. A. Hays, J. Powers, J. Hayes-Klug, J. Langenberg, S. J. Dahmes, D. A. Osborn, K. V. Miller, R. J. Warren, G. L. Mason, and E. A. Hoover. 2009. Infectious prions in pre-clinical deer and transmission of chronic wasting disease solely by environmental exposure. PLoS ONE 4(6): e5916.
Maunder, M. J., P. Matthiessen, J. P. Sumpter, and T. G. Pottinger. 2007. Impaired reproduction in three-spined sticklebacks exposed to ethinyl estradiol as juveniles. Biology of Reproduction 77(6): 999-1006.
Mawhinney, D. B., R. B. Young, B. J. Vanderford, T. Borch, and S. A. Snyder. 2011. Artificial sweetener sucralose in U.S. drinking water systems. Environmental Science & Technology 45: 8716-8722.
McDowell-Boyer, L. M., J. R. Hunt, and N. Sitar. 1986. Particle transport through porous media. Water Resources Research 22(13): 1901-1921.
MCES (Metropolitan Council of Environmental Services). 2007. Recycling Treated Municipal Wastewater for Industrial Water Use. St. Paul, Minnesota. Available at http://www.metrocouncil.org/planning/environment/RTMWIWU/Recycling-WastewaterReport.pdf. Accessed November 9, 2011.
McGauhey, P. H. 1968. Engineering Management of Water Quality. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Medema, G. J., M. H. A. Juhasz-Hoterman, and J. A. Luitjen. 2000. Removal of micro-organisms by bank filtration in a gravel-sand soil. In W. Jülich and J. Schubert, eds., Proceedings of International Riverbank Filtration Conference, November 2-4, 2000, Düsseldorf, Germany. Amsterdam: Internationale Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Wasserwerke im Rheineinzugsgebiet.
Medsker, L., D. Jenkins, and J. Thomas. 1968. Odorous compounds in natural waters. An earthy-smelling compound associated with blue-green algae and actinomycetes. Environmental Science & Technology 2(6): 461-464.
Medsker, L., D. Jenkins, J. Thomas, and C. Koch. 1969. Odorous compound in natural waters—2-exo-hydroxy-2-methylbornane, the major odorous compound produced by several actinomycetes. Environmental Science & Technology 3(5): 476-477.
Melosi, M. V. 2000. The Sanitary City: Urban Infrastructure in America from Colonial Times to the Present. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Mena, K. D., and C. P. Gerba. 2008. Waterborne adenovirus. Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 198: 133-167.
Menegaki, A., R. Mellon, A. Vrentzou, G. Koumakis, and K. Tsagarakis. 2009. What’s in a name: Framing treated wastewater as recycled water increases willingness to use and willingness to pay. Journal of Economic Psychology 30(3): 285-292.
Metzler, D. F., R. L. Culp, H. A. Stoltenberg, R. L. Woodward, G. Walton, S. L. Chang, N. A. Clarke, C. M. Palmer, and F. M. Middleton. 1958. Emergency use of reclaimed water for potable supply at Chanute, Kansas. Journal—American Water Works Association. 50: 1021-1060.
Minear, R. A., and G. L. Amy, eds. 1996. Disinfection By-products in Water Treatment: The Chemistry of Their Formation and Control, 1st Ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Mitch, W., J. Sharp, R. Trussell, R. Valentine, L. Alvarez-Cohen, and D. Sedlak. 2003. N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) as a drinking water contaminant: A review. Environmental Engineering Science 20(5): 389-404.
Mitch, W. A., G. L. Oelker, E. L. Hawley, R. A. Deeb and D. L. Sedlak. 2005. Minimization of NDMA formation during chlorine disinfection of municipal wastewater by application of pre-formed chloramines. Environmental Engineering Science. 22(6): 882-890.
Montgomery-Brown, J., J. E. Drewes, P. Fox, and M. Reinhard. 2003. Behavior of alkylphenol polyethoxylate metabolites during soil aquifer treatment. Water Research 37: 3672-3681.
Morgan, J. J. 2004. What Water Quality Is: Matrices of Sources, Uses, Standards, Occurrence and Technology. Abel Wolman Distinguished Lecture, National Academies, Washington, D.C. Available at http://dels.nationalacademies.org/resources/static-assets/wstb/miscellaneous/2004_What_Water_Quality_Is.pdf.
Moss, K., and B. Boethling. 1999 EPA’s new chemicals program PBT chemical category. Paper presented at American Chemical Society Division of Environmental Chemistry Symposium, Anaheim, CA, March 21-25, 1999. Preprints of Extended Abstracts 39(1): 141-143.
Mujeriego, R., J. Compte, T. Cazurra, and M. Gullon. 2008. The water reclamation and reuse project of El Prat de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain. Water Science and Technology 57(4): 567-574.
Munro, I. C. 1990. Safety assessment procedures for indirect food additives: An overview. Report of a workshop. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 12: 2-12.
Munro, I. C., R. A. Ford, E. Kennepohl, and J. G. Sprenger. 1996. Correlation of structural class with no-observed-effect levels: A proposal for establishing a threshold of concern. Food and Chemical Toxicology 34: 829-867.
NACMC (National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods). 1997. Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point Principles and Application Guidelines. Available at http://www.fda.gov/food/foodsafety/HazardAnalysisCriticalControlPointsHACCP/ucm114868.htm.
Najm, I., and R. R. Trussell. 2001. NDMA formation in water and wastewater. Journal—American Water Works Association 93(2): 93-99.
Nalinakumari, B. W. Cha, and P. Fox. 2010. Effects of primary substrate concentration on NDMA transport during simulated aquifer recharge. American Society of Civil Engineers. Journal of Environmental Engineering 36(4): 363-370.
Namkung, E., and B. E. Rittman. 1986. Soluble microbial products (SMP) formation kinetics by biofilms. Water Research 20(6): 795-806.
NAS (National Academy of Sciences). 1975. Principles for Evaluating Chemicals in the Environment. Washington, DC: NAS.
Nataro, J. P. and M. M. Levine. 1994. Escerichia coli diseases in humans. In Escherichia coli in Domestic animals and Humans. CAB International, Wallingford: 285-333.NDWAC (National Drinking Water Advisory Council). 2004. Report on the CCL Classification Process to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. May 19, 2004. Available at http://www.epa.gov/safewater/ndwac/pdfs/report_ccl_ndwac_07-06-04.pdf. Accessed September 18, 2010.
National Drinking Water Advisory Council Report (NDWAC). 2004. National Drinking Water Advisory Council Report on the CCL Classification Process to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Available online at http://www.epa.gov/safewater/ndwac/pdfs/report_ccl_ndwac_07-06-04.pdf. Accessed April 30, 2012.
Neisess, L., R. Baird, S. Carr, J. Gute, J. Strand, and C. Young. 2003. Can N-nitrosomethylamine formation be affected by polymer use during advanced wastewater treatment? Proceedings of the 2003 WateReuse Research Symposium.
Nellor, M. H., and R. Larson. 2010. Assessment of Approaches to Achieve Nationally Consistent Reclaimed Water Standards. Alexandria, VA: WateReuse Research Foundation.
Nellor, M. H., R. B. Baird, and J. R. Smyth. 1985. Health effects of indirect potable water reuse. Journal—American Water Works Association 77: 88-96.
Nemeroff, C., and P. Rozin. 1994. The contagion concept in adult thinking in the United States: Transmission of germs and interpersonal influence. Ethos 22: 157-186.
Neubauer, C. P., G. B. Hall, E. F. Lowe, C. P. Robison, R. B. Hupalo, and L. W. Keenan. 2008. Minimum flows and levels method of the St. Johns River Water Management District, Florida, USA. Environmental Management 42(6): 1101-1114.
NEWater Expert Panel. 2002. Singapore Water Reclamation Study: Expert Panel Review and Findings. Available at http://www.pub.gov.sg/water/newater/NEWaterOverview/Documents/review.pdf.
NHMRC (National Health and Medical Research Council). 2004. Australian Drinking Water Guidelines, Canberra, Australia.
Nichols, T. A., B. Pulford, A. C. Wyckoff, C. Meyerett, B. Michel, K. Gertig, E. A. Hoover, J. E. Jewell, G. C. Telling, and M. D. Zabel. 2009. Detection of protease-resistant cervid prion protein in water from a CWD-endemic area. Prion 3(3): 171-183.
NJDEP (New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection). 2011. Request for Authorization Checklist: Discharge to Surface Water, Category ABR—General Reclaimed Water for Beneficial Reuse Permit Authorization. Available at http://www.state.nj.us/dep/dwq/forms_surfacewater.htm.
Nordgren, J., A. Matussek, A. Mattsson, L. Svensson, and P. E. Lindgren. 2009. Prevalence of norovirus and factors influencing virus concentrations during one year in a full-scale wastewater treatment plant. Water Research 43: 1117-1125.
Norman, W., and C. MacDonald. 2004. Getting to the bottom of “triple bottom line.” Business Ethics Quarterly 14(2): 243-262.
Notermans, S., G. Gallhoff, M. H. Zwietering, and G. C. Mead. 1994. The HACCP concept: Specification of criteria using quantitative risk assessment. Food Microbiology 11(5): 397-408.
NRC (National Research Council). 1977. Chemical contaminants: Safety and risk assessment. In Drinking Water and Health, Volume I. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, pp. 19-62.
NRC. 1982. Quality Criteria for Water Reuse. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
NRC. 1983. Risk Assessment in the Federal Government: Managing the Process. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
NRC. 1984. The Potomac Estuary Experimental Water Treatment Plant: A Review of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Evaluation of the Operation, Maintenance and Performance of the Estuary Experimental Water Treatment Plant. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
NRC. 1989. Irrigation-Induced Water Quality Problems. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
NRC. 1994a. Ground Water Recharge Using Waters of Impaired Quality. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
NRC. 1994b. Public health issues. In Ground Water Recharge Using Waters of Impaired Quality. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, pp. 132-178. Available at http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=4780#toc.
NRC. 1994c. Science and Judgment in Risk Assessment. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
NRC. 1996. Use of Reclaimed Water and Sludge in Food Crop Production. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
NRC. 1998. Issues in Potable Reuse: The Viability of Augmenting Drinking Water Supplies with Reclaimed Water. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
NRC. 1999a. Identifying Future Drinking Water Contaminants. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
NRC. 1999b. Setting Priorities for Drinking Water Contaminants. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
NRC. 2000. Watershed Management for Potable Water Supply: Assessing the New York City Strategy. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
NRC. 2001. Classifying Drinking Water Contaminants for Regulatory Consideration. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
NRC. 2004. Confronting the Nation’s Water Problems: The Role of Research. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
NRC. 2006. Drinking Water Distribution Systems: Assessing and Reducing Risks. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
NRC. 2007. Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A Vision and a Strategy. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
NRC. 2008a. Characterizing the Potential Human Toxicity of Low Doses of Pharmaceuticals in Drinking Water: Are New Risk Assessment Methods or Approaches Required? Sixth Workshop of the Standing Committee on Risk Analysis Issues and Reviews.
NRC. 2008b. Desalination: A National Perspective. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
NRC. 2008c. Prospects for Managed Underground Storage of Recoverable Water. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
NRC. 2009a. Nanotechnology and Oncology: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
NRC. 2009b. Science and Decisions: Advancing Risk Assessment. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. Available at http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=12209.
NRC. 2009c. Urban Stormwater Management in the United States. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
NRC. 2010. Progress Toward Restoring the Everglades: The Third Biennial Review—2010. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
NRC. 2011a. Adapting to the Impacts of Climate Change. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
NRC. 2011b. Review of Federal Strategy for Nanotechnology-Related Environmental, Health, and Safety Research. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
NRMMC/EPHC/NHMC (Natural Resource Management Ministerial Council, Environment Protection and Heritage Council, and National Health and Medical Research Council). 2006. National Guidelines for Water Recycling: Managing Health and Environmental Risks (Phase 1). NRMMC/EPHC/AHMC: Canberra, Australia: Available at http://www.ephc.gov.au/sites/default/files/WQ_AGWR_GL__Managing_Health_Environmental_Risks_Phase1_Final_200611.pdf.
NRMMC/EPHC/NHMRC (Natural Resource Management Ministerial Council, Environment Protection and Heritage Council, and National Health and Medical Research Council). 2008. Australian Guidelines for Water Recycling: Managing Health an Environmental Risks (Phase 2). Augmentation of Drinking Water Supplies. http://www.ephc.gov.au/sites/default/files/WQ_AGWR_GL__ADWS_Corrected_Final_%20200809.pdf.
O’Brien, N., and E. Cummins. 2010. Ranking initial environmental and human health risk resulting from environmentally relevant nanomaterials. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A: Toxic/Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering 45(8): 992-1007.
OCWD (Orange County Water District). 2009. OCWD Response to the Final Report of the September 25-26, 2008 Meeting of the Independent Advisory Panel for the GWR System, March 19.
OCWD. 2010. Technical Memorandum on Mircobial Water Quality. Supplemental Report to the NWRI Groundwater Replenishment System Independent Advisory Panel, July 29.
Odendaal, P. E., J. L. J. van der Westhuizen, and G. J. Grobler. 1998. Wastewater Reuse in South Africa. In T. Asano, ed., Wastewater Reclamation and Reuse. Lancaster, PA: Technomic, pp. 1163-1192.
Odjadjare, E. O., and A. I. Okoh. 2010. Physicochemical quality of an urban municipal wastewater effluent and its impact on the receiving environment. Environmental Monitoring Assessment 170: 393-394.
OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operations and Development) 1996. Test No. 305: Bioconcentration: Flow through Fish Test. In OECD Guidelins for the Testing of Chemicals. Paris. June 14.
OECD. 2011. OECD guidelines for the testing of chemical, Section 2: Effects on Biotic Systems. Available at http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/content/serial/20745761.
Okun, D. A. 1996. A history of nonpotable urban water reuse. In 1996 Water Reuse Conference Proceedings, February 25-28, San Diego, CA. Denver, CO: American Water Works Association, pp. 41-54.
Olivieri, A., D. Eisenberg, R. Cooper, J. Korte, F. Maitski, and K. Thompson. 1987. Advanced Wastewater Treatment System Reliability Evaluation. Prepared for the City of San Diego. Berkeley, CA: Western Consortium for Public Health, May.
Olivieri, A. W., D. M. Eisenberg, R. C. Cooper, G. Tchobanoglous, and P. Gagliardo. 1996. Recycled water—A source of potable water: City of San Diego health effects study. Water Science and Technology 33: 285-296.
Olivieri, A., D. Eisenberg, J. Soller, J. Eisenberg, R. Cooper, G. Tchobanoglous, R. Trussell, and P. Gagliardo. 1999. Estimation of pathogen removal in an advanced water treatment facility using Monte Carlo simulation. Journal of Water Science and Technology 40(4-5): 223-233.
Ong, C. N. and H. Seah. 2003. Singapore Water Reclamation Study. PowerPoint presentation. National University of Singapore and Public Utilities Board, Singapore.
Panguluri, S., G. Meiners, J. Hall, and J. G. Szabo. 2009. Distribution System Water Quality Monitoring: Sensor Technology Evaluation Methodology and Results, EPA/600/R-09/076. Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
Patè-Cornell, M. E. 1996. Uncertainties in risk analysis: Six levels of treatment. Reliability Engineering & System Safety 54(2-3): 95-111.
Patterson, B., M. Shackleton, A. Furness, E. Bekele, J. Pearce, K. Linge, F. Busetti, T. Spadek, and S. Toze. 2011. Behaviour and fate of nine recycled water trace organics during managed aquifer recharge in an aerobic aquifer. Journal of Contamonatn Hydrology 122: 53-62.
Payment, P., J. Siemiatycki, L. Richardson, G. Renaud, E. Franco, and M. Prevost. 1997. A prospective epidemiological study of gastrointestinal health effects due to the consumption of drinking water. International Journal of Environmental Health Research 7: 5-31.
Pehlivanogllu-Mantas, E., E. Hawley, R. Deeb, and D. Sedlak. 2006. Formation of nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) during chlorine disinfection of wastewater effluents prior to use in irrigation systems. Water Research 40: 341-347.
Pendergast, M., and E. Hoek. 2011. A review of water treatment membrane nanotechnologies. Energy Environmental Science 4: 1946.
Pera-Titus, M., and J. Llorens. 2007. Characterization of meso- and macroporous ceramic membranes in terms of flux measurement: A moment-based analysis. Journal of Membrane Science 302: 218-234.
Pereira, V. J., K. G. Linden, and H. S. Weinberg. 2007. UV degradation kinetics and modeling of pharmaceutical compounds in laboratory grade and surface water via direct and indirect photolysis at 254 nm. Environmental Science & Technology 41(5): 1682-1688.
Pinkston, K. E., and D. L. Sedlak. 2004. Transformation of aromatic, ether- and amine-containing pharmaceuticals during chlorine disinfection. Environmental Science & Technology 38: 4019-4025.
Pisarenko, A. N., B. D. Stanford, O. Quinones, G. E. Pacey, G. Gordon, and S. A. Snyder. 2010. Rapid analysis of perchlorate, chlorate and bromate ions in concentrated sodium hypochlorite solutions. Analytica Chimica Acta 659(1-2): 216-223.
Plewa, M. J., E. D. Wagner, S. D. Richardson, A. D. Thruston, Jr., Y. T. Woo, and B. McKague. 2004. Chemical and biological characterization of newly discovered iodoacid drinking water disinfection byproducts. Environmental Science & Technology 38(18): 4713-4722.
Plumlee, M. H., J. Larabee, and M. Reinhard. 2008. Perfluorochemicals in water reuse. Chemosphere 72: 541-1547.
Po, M., J. Kaercher, and B. Nancarrow. 2003. Literature Review of Factors Influencing Public Perceptions of Water Reuse. CSIRO Land and Water Technical Report 54/03, December. Perth, Australia: Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation
Poiger, T., H. R. Buser, and M. D. Müller. 2001. Photodegradation of the pharmaceutical drug diclofenac in a lake: Pathway, field measurements, and mathematical modeling. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 20: 256-263
Portney, P. 1992. Trouble in Happyville. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 11(1): 131-132.
Postel, S., and B. Richter. 2003. Rivers for Life: Managing Water for People and Nature. Washington, DC: Island Press.
Powell, R. L., R. A. Kimerle, G. T. Coyle, and G. R. Best. 1997. Ecological risk assessment of a wetland exposed to boron. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 16: 2409-2414.
Powelson, D. K., and C. P. Gerba. 1994. Virus removal from sewage effluents during saturated and unsaturared flow through soil columns. Water Research 28(10): 2175-2181.
Powelson, D. K., J. R. Simpson, and C. P. Gerba. 1990. Virus transport and survival in saturated and unsaturated flow through soil columns. Journal of Environmental Quality 19: 396-401.
Puglisi, E., M. J. Cahill, P. A. Lessard, E. Capri, A. J. Sinskey, J. A. Archer, and P. Boccazzi. 2010. Transcriptional response of Rhodococcus aetherivorans I24 to polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated sediments. Microbiology Ecology. Available online at http://www.springerlink.com/content/j26010727m552935/. Accessed on November 17, 2011.
Purdom, C. E., P. A. Hardiman, V. V. J. Bye, N. C. Eno, C. R. Tyler, and J. P. Sumpter. 1994. Estrogenic Effects of Effluents from Sewage Treatment Works. Chemistry and Ecology. 8(4): 275-285.
Pusch, D., D. Y. Oh, S. Wolf, R. Dumke, U. Schroter-Bobsin, M. Hohne, I. Roske, and E. Schreier. 2005. Detection of enteric viruses and bacterial indicators in German environmental waters. Archives of Virology 150: 929-947.
Quanrud, D. M., B. Arnold, K. Lansey, C. Begay, W. Ela, and A. J. Gandolfi. 2003. Fate of effluent organic matter during soil aquifer treatment: Biodegradability, chlorine reactivity and genotoxicity. Journal of Water and Health 1(1): 33-44.
Radcliffe, J. C. 2008. Australian Water Recycling Today—The Big Issues. Presentation at the National Water Recycling and Reuse Conference, May 27. Available at http://www.nwc.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_fle/0004/11488/Aus-Water-Recycling-PRES-2705081.pdf.
Radcliffe, J. C. 2010. Evolution of water recycling in Australian cities since 2003. Water Science and Technology 62(4): 792-802.
Ram, N. M. 1986. Environmental significance of trace organic contaminants in drinking water suppliers. In N. M. Ram, E. J. Calabrese, and R. F. Christman, eds. Organic Carcinogens in Drinking Water: Detection, Treatment, and Risk Assessment. New York: John Wiley & Sons, pp. 3-31.
Ramirez, A. J., R. A. Brain, S. Usenko, M. A. Mottaleb, J. G. O’Donnell, L. L. Stahl, J. B. Wathen, B. D. Snyder, J. L. Pitt, P. Perez-Hurtado, L. L. Dobbind. B. W. Brooks, and C. K. Chambliss. 2009. Occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in fish: Results of a national pilot study in the United States. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 28(12): 2587-2597.
Rasmussen, N. C. 1981. The application of probabilistic risk assessment techniques to energy technologies. Annual Review of Energy 6: 123-138.
Rauch-Williams, T., and J. E. Drewes. 2006. Using soil biomass as an indicator for the biological removal of effluent-derived organic carbon during soil infiltration. Water Research 40: 961-968.
Ray, C., D. K. Borah, D. Soong, and G. S. Roadcap. 1998. Agricultural chemicals: Impacts on riparian wells during floods. Journal—American Water Works Association 90(7): 90-100.
Ray, C., T. Grischek, J. Schubert, J. Wang, and T. Speth. 2002a. A perspective of riverbank filtration. Journal—American Water Works Association 94(4): 149-160.
Ray, C., G, Melin, and R. B. Linsky. 2002b. Riverbank Filtration: Improving Source-Water Quality. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic.
Ray, C., T. Grischek, S. Hubbs, J. E. Drewes, D. Haas, and C. Darnault. 2008. Riverbank filtration for drinking water supply. Encyclopedia of Hydrological Sciences. DOI: 10.1002/0470848944.hsa305.
Redshaw, C. H., M. P. Cooke, H. M. Talbot, S. McGrath, and S. J. Rowland. 2008. Low biodegradability of fluoxetine HCl, diazepam and their human metabolites in sewage sludge-amended soil. Journal of Soils and Sediments 8: 217-230.
Regli, S., J. B. Rose, C. N. Haas, and C. P. Gerba. 1991. Modeling risk from giardia and viruses in drinking water. Journal— American Water Works Association 83(11): 76-84.
Reid, D. 1991. Paris Sewers and Sewermen: Realities and Representations. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Reinke, E. A. 1934. Experience with Sewage Farming in the Southeast United States. Pasadena, CA: California Sewage Works Association and Public Health Engineering Section of the American Public Health Association.
Revankar, S. N., A. D. Bhatt, N. D. Desai, H. V. Bolar, S. P. Sane, and H. P. Tipnis. 1999. Comparative bioavailability study of a conventional and two controlled release oral formulations of Tegretol (carbamazepine)—200 mg. Journal of Association of Physicians of India 47(9): 886-900.
Reynolds, K. A., K. D. Mena, and C. P. Gerba. 2008. Risk of waterborne illness via drinking water in the United States. Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 192: 117-158.
Richardson, S. D., A. D. Thruston, Jr., T. W. Collette, K. S. Patterson, B. W. Lykins, Jr., G. Majetich, and Y. Zhang. 1994. Multispectral Identification of Chlorine Dioxide Disinfection Byproducts in Drinking Water. Environmental Science & Technoogy 28: 592-599.
Richardson, S. D., F. Fasano, J. J. Ellington, F. G. Crumley, K. M. Buettner, J. J. Evans, B. C. Blount, L. K. Silva, T. J. Waite, G. W. Luther, A. B. McKague, R. J. Miltner, E. D. Wagner, and M. J. Plewa. 2008. Occurrence and mammalian cell toxicity of iodinated disinfection byproducts in drinking water. Environmental Science & Technology 42(3): 955-961.
Robertson, L. J., L. Hermansen, and B. K. Gjerde. 2006. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in sewage in Norway. Applications in Environmental Microbiology 72: 5297-5303.
Robins, F. W. 1946. Ancient Rome. In The Story of Water Supply. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 57-65.
Rodgers-Gray, T. P., S. Jobling, C. Kelly, S. Morris, G. Brighty, M. J. Waldock, J. P. Sumpter, and C. R. Tyler. 2001. Exposure of juvenile roach (Rutilus rutilus) to treated sewage effluent induces dose-dependent and persistent disruption in gonadal duct development. Environmental Science & Technology 35(3): 462-470.
Rodriguez, C., A. Cook, Van Buyner, B. Devine, and P. Weinstein. 2007a. Screening health risk assesment of micropollutants for indirect potable reuse schemes: A three-tiered approach. Water Science and Technology 56(11): 35-42.
Rodriguez, C., P. Weinstein, A. Cook, B. Devine, and P. V. Buynder. 2007b. A proposed approach for the assessment of chemicals in indirect potable reuse schemes. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 70(19): 1654-1663.
Rodriguez, C., A. Cook, B. Devine, P. Van Buynder, R. Lugg, K. Linge, and P. Weinstein. 2008. Dioxins, furans, and PCBs in recycled water for indirect potable reuse. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 5(5): 356-367. Available at http://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/5/5/356/pdf. Accessed November 17, 2011.
Rodriguez, C., P. van Buynder, R. Lugg, P. Blair, B. Devine, A. Cook, and P. Weinstein. 2009. Indirect potable reuse: A sustainable water supply alternative. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 6(3): 1174-1209. Available at http://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/6/3/1174/pdf. Accessed November 17, 2011.
Rodriguez, R. A., I. L. Pepper, and C. P. Gerba. 2009. Application of PCR-based methods to assess the infectivity of enteric viruses in environmental samples. Applications in Environmental Microbiology 75: 297-307.
Rohnke, A. T., and R. H. Yahner. 2008. Long-term effects of wastewater irrigation on habitat and a bird community in central Pennsylvania. Wilson Journal of Ornithology 120(1): 146-152.
Rommelmann, D. W., S. J. Duranceau, M. W. Stahl, C. Kaminkar, and R. M. Gonzales. 2004. Industrial Water Quality Requirements for Reclaimed Water. Report prepared for the American Water Works Association Research Foundation, Denver, Colorado.
Rosario-Ortiz, F. L., E. C. Wert, and S. A. Snyder. 2010. Evaluation of UV/H2O2 treatment for the oxidation of pharmaceuticals in wastewater. Water Research 44(5): 1440-1448.
Rose, J. B., C. N. Haas, and S. Regli. 1991. Risk assessment and the control of waterborne giardiasis. American Journal of Public Health 81: 709-713.
Rose, J. B., L. J. Dickson, S. R. Farrah, and R. P. Carnahan. 1996. Removal of pathogenic and indicator microorganisms by a full scale water reclamation facility. Water Research 30: 2785-2797.
Roseberry, A. M., and D. E. Burmaster. 1992. Lognormal distributions for water intake by children and adults. Risk Analysis 12(1): 99-104.
Rostad, C. E., B. S. Martin, L. B. Barber, and J. A. Leenheer. 2000. Effect of a constructed wetland on disinfection byproducts: Removal processes and production of precursors. Environmental Science & Technology 34(13): 2703-2710.
Roy, L., E. Scallan, and M. J. Beach. 2006. The rate of acute gastrointestinal illness in developed countries. Journal of Water and Health. 4(2).
Rozin, P., and E. Royzman. 2001. Negativity bias, negativity dominance, and contagion. Personal and Social Psychology Review 5: 296-320.
Ruetten, J., J. Birkhoff, K. Darr, J. E. Drewes, J. Flatt, D. Kelso, M. McDaniel, and D. Noble. 2004. Best Practices for Developing Indirect Potable Reuse Projects: Phase 1 Report. Alexandria, VA: WateReuse Foundation.
Ruiz, A. M., J. C. Maerz, A. K. Davis, M. K. Keel, A. R. Ferreira, M. J. Conroy, L. A. Morris, and A. T. Fisk. 2010. Patterns of development and abnormalities among tadpoles in a constructed wetland receiving treated wastewater. Environmental Science & Technology 44(13): 4862-4868.
Rule, K. L., V. R. Ebbett, and P. J. Vikesland. 2005. Formation of chloroform and chlorinated organics by free-chlorine-mediated oxidation of triclosan. Environmental Science & Technology 39(9): 3176-3185.
Rulis, A. 1987. Safety assurance margins for food additives currently in use. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 7: 160-168.
Rulis, A. 1989. The Food And Drug Administration’s food additive petition review process. Food Drug Cosmetic Law Journal 45: 533-544.
Russell, S., and C. Lux. 2006. Water Recycling & the Community. Public Responses and Consultation Strategies: A Literature Review and Discussion. Oz-AQUAREC WP5. Wollongong, NSW, Australia: University of Wollongong.
Russell, S., and C. Lux. 2009. Getting over yuck: Moving from psychological to cultural and sociotechnical analyses of responses to water recycling. Water Policy 11(1): 21-35.
Rygaard, M. P. J. Binning, and H. J. Albrechtsen. 2011. Increasing urban water self-sufficiency: New era, new challenges. Journal of Environmental Management 92: 185-194.
Sanches, S., M. T. Crespo, and V. J. Pereira. 2010. Drinking water treatment of priority pesticides using low pressure UV photolysis and advanced oxidation processes. Water Research 44(6): 1809-1818.
Sanchez, C. A., R. I. Krieger, N. Khandaker, R. C. Moore, K. C. Holts, and L. L. Neidel. 2005. Accumulation and perchlorate exposure potential of lettuce produced in the lower Colorado River region. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 53(13): 5479-5486.
Savage, N., and M. Diallo. 2005. Nanomaterials and water purification: Opportunities and challenges. Journal of Nanoparticle Research 7: 331-342.
SCCP (Scientific Committee on Consumer Products). 2008. Use of the Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC) Approach for the Safety Assessment of Chemical Substances. SCCP/1171/08.
Schempp, A., and J. Austin. 2007. Water Right Impairment in Reclamation and Reuse: How Other Western States Can Inform Washington Law. Washington, DC: Environmental Law Institute.
Schets, F. M., J. H. van Wijnen, J. F. Schijven, H. Schoon, and A. M. de Roda Husman. 2008. Monitoring of Waterborne Pathogens in Surface Waters in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, and the Potential Health Risk Associated with Exposure to Cryptosporidium and Giardia in These Waters. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 74(7): 2069-2078.
Schijven, J. F., W. Hoogenboezem, P. J. Nobel, G. J. Medema, and A. Stakelbeek. 1998. Reduction of FRNA-bacteriophages and faecal indicator bacteria by dune infiltration and estimation of sticking efficiencies. Water Science and Technology 38(12): 127-131.
Schijven, J. F., W. Hoogenboezem, S. M. Hassanizadeh, and J. H. Peters. 1999. Modelling removal of bacteriophages MS2 and PRD1 by dune recharge at Castricum, Netherlands. Water Resources Research 35(4): 1101-1111.
Schijven, J. F., G. Medema, A. J. Vogelaar, and M. Hassanizadeh. 2000. Removal of microorganisms by deep well injection. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 44: 301-327.
Schijven, J., P. Berger, and I. Miettinen. 2002. Removal of pathogens, surrogates, indicators, and toxins using riverbank filtration. In C. Ray, G. Melin, and R. B. Linsky, eds., Riverbank Filtration Improving Source-Water Quality, Dodrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic.
Schlenk, D., D. Hinton, and G. Woodside. 2006. Online Methods for Evaluating the Safety of Reclaimed Water. Report No. 01-HHE-4a. Alexandria, VA: Water Environment Research Foundation.
Schlindwein, A. D., C. Rigotto, C. M. O. Simoes, and C. R. M. Barardi. 2010. Detection of enteric viruses in sewage sludge and treated wastewater effluent. Water Science and Technology 61: 537-544.
Schmidt, C., F. Lange, and H. J. Brauch. 2004. Assessing the impact of different redox conditions and residence times on the fate of organic micropollutants during riverbank filtration. Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Pharmaceutically Active Compounds and Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals, Minneapolis, Minnesota, Oct. 13-15, 2004.
Schreiber, R., U. Gündel, S. Franz, A. Küster, B. Rechenberg, and R. Altenburger. 2011. Using the fish plasma model for comparative hazard identification for pharmaceuticals in the environment by extrapolation from human therapeutic data. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 61: 261-275.
Scown, T. M., R. van Aerle, and C. R. Tyler. 2010. Review: Do engineered nanoparticles pose a significant threat to the aquatic environment? Critical Reviews in Toxicology 40(7): 653-670.
Sedgwick, W. 1914. Principles of Sanitary Science and Public Health. London: Macmillan.
Sedlak, D., R. Deeb, E. Hawley, W. Mitch, T. Durbin, S. Mowbray, and S. Carr. 2005. Sources and fate of nitrosodimethylamine and its precursors in municipal wastewater treatment plants. Water Environment Research 77(1): 32-39.
Sedlak, D. L., and U. von Gunten. 2011. The chlorine dilemma. Science 331(6013): 42-43.
Servais, P., G. Billen, and M. C. Hascoet. 1987. Determination of the biodegradable fraction of dissolved organic matter in waters. Water Research 21: 445.
Sharp, J. O., Wood, T. K., & Alvarez-Cohen, L. 2005. Aerobic biodegradation of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) by axenic bacterial strains. Biotechnology and Bioengineering 89(5): 608-618.
Sharp, J. O., C. Sales, J. LeBlanc, J. Liu, T. Wood, L. Eltis, W. Mohn, and L. Alvarez-Cohen. 2007. An inducible propane monooxygenase is responsible for N-nitrosodimethylamine degradation by Rhodococcus sp. strain RHA1. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 73: 6930-6938.
Sharpless, C., and K. Linden. 2003. Experimental and model comparisons of low- and medium-pressure Hg lamps for the direct and H2O2 assisted UV photodegradation of N-nitrosodimethylamine in simulated drinking water. Enivronmental Science & Technology 37: 1933-1940.
Shaviv, A. 2009. Use of reclaimed wastewater for irrigation in Israel. In A. Shaviv, D. Broday, S. Cohen, A. Furman, and R. Kanwar, eds., Proceedings of the Dahlia Greidinger International Symposium, Crop Production in the 21st Century: Global Climate Change, Environmental Risk, and Water Security, pp. 300-315. Available at http://dgsymp09.technion.ac.il/Proceedings%20finalized%20for%20dist.pdf.
Shen, R., and S. A. Andrews. 2011. Demonstration of 20 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) as nitrosamine precursors during chloramine disinfection. Water Research 45(2): 944-952.
Shepherd, J. L., and R. L. Corsi. 1996. Chloroform in indoor air and wastewater: The role of residential washing machines. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 46(7): 631-642.
Shon, H. K., S. Vigneswaran, and S. A Snyder. 2006. Effluent organic matter (EfOM) in wastewater: Constituents, effects, and treatment. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology 36: 327-374.
Shuval, H. I., A. Adin, B. Fattal, E. Rawitz, and P. Yekutiel. 1986. Wastewater irrigation in developing countries: Health effects and technical solutions. Washington, DC: World Bank.
Simmons, F. J., and I. Xagoraraki. 2011. Release of infectious human enteric viruses by full-scale wastewater utilities. Water Research 45: 3590-3598.
Sinclair, M., J. O’Toole, A. Forbes, D. Carr, and K. Leder. 2010. Health status of residents of an urban dual reticulation system. International Journal of Epidemiology 39(6): 1667-1675. Available at http://ije.oxfordjournals.org/content/39/6/1667.abstract. Accessed November 10, 2011.
Singapore Public Utilities Board and Ministry of the Environment. 2002. Singapore Water Reclamation Study: Expert Panel Review and Findings. Available at http://www.pub.gov.sg/water/newater/NEWaterOverview/Documents/review.pdf.
Singer, H., S. Mueller, C. Tixier, and L. Pillonel. 2002. Triclosan: Occurrence and fate of a widely used biocide in the aquatic environment: Field measurements in wastewater treatment plants, surface waters, and lake sediments. Environmental Science & Technology 36(23): 4998-5004.
Singer, P., and D. A. Reckhow. 2010. Chemical Oxidation. Water Quality and Treatment Handbook, 6th Ed. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Slifko, T., D. Huffman, and J. Rose. 1999. A most-probable-number assay for enumeration of infectious Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 65: 3936-3941.
Sloan, D. W., C. Wingert, and I. Cadena. 2010. Potable reuse in the Permian Basin. Presentation at the 25th WateReuse Symposium, Washington, DC, September 13. Available at http://www.watereuse.org/sites/default/files/u3/David%20Sloan.pdf.
Sloss, E. M., S. A. Geschwind, D. F. McCaffrey, and B. R. Ritz. 1996. Groundwater Recharge with Recycled Water: An Epidemiologic Assessment in Los Angeles, County, 1987-1991. Report prepared for the Water Replenishment District of Southern California by RAND, Santa Monica, CA.
Sloss, E. M., D. F. McCaffrey, R. D. Fricker, S. A. Geschwind, and B. R. Ritz. 1999. Groundwater Recharge with Recycled Water: Birth Outcomes in Los Angeles County 1982-1993. Report prepared for the Water Replenishment District of Southern California by RAND, Santa Monica, CA.
Slovic, P. 1987. Perception of risk. Science 236(4799): 280-285.
Slovic, P. 1993. Perceived risk, trust, and democracy. Risk Analysis 13: 675-682.
Slovic, P., M. Finucane, E. Peters, and D. G. MacGregor. 2002. The affect heuristic. In T. Gilovich, D. Griffin, and D. Kahneman, eds., Heuristics and Biases: The Psychology of Intuitive Judgment. New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. 397-420.
Slovic, P., M. Finucane, E. Peters, and D. MacGregor. 2004. Risk as analysis and risk as feeling: Some thoughts about affect, reason, risk, and rationality. Risk Analysis 24: 311-322.
Slye, J. L, J. H. Kennedy, D. R. Johnson, S. F. Atkinson, S. D. Dyer, M. Ciarlo, K. Stanton, H. Sanderson, A. M. Nielsen, and B. B. Price. 2011. Relationships between benthic macroinvertebrate community structure and geospatial habitat, in-stream chemistry, and surfactants in the effluent-dominated Trinity River, Texas USA. Environmental Toxicology 30(5): 1127-1138.
Snyder, S. A. 2007. Evaluation of Conventional and Advanced Treatment Processes to Remove Endocrine Disruptors and Pharmaceutically Active Compounds. Denver, CO: American Water Works Research Foundation.
Snyder, S. A., T. L. Keith, D. A. Verbrugge, E. M. Snyder, T. S. Gross, K. Kannan, and J. P. Giesy. 1999. Analytical methods for detection of selected estrogenic compounds in aqueous mixtures. Environmental Science & Technology 33(16): 2814-2820.
Snyder, S. A., T. L. Keith, C. G. Naylor, C. A. Staples, and J. P. Giesy. 2001a. Identification and quantitation method for nonylphenol and lower oligomer nonylphenol ethoxylates in fish tissues. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 20: 1870-1873.
Snyder, S. A., D. L. Villeneuve, E. M. Snyder, and J. P. Giesy. 2001b. Identification and quantification of estrogen receptor agonists in wastewater effluents. Environmental Science & Technology 35(18): 3620-3625.
Snyder S. A., J. Leising, P. Westerhoff, Y. Yoon, H. Mash and B. Vanderford. 2004. Biological and physical attenuation of endocrine disruptors and pharmaceuticals: implications for water reuse. Ground Water Monitoring and Remediation. 24(2): 108-188.
Snyder, S. A., B. J. Vanderford, and D. J. Rexing. 2005. Trace analysis of bromate, chlorate, iodate, and perchlorate in natural and bottled waters. Environmental Science & Technology 39(12): 4586-4593.
Snyder, S. A., S. Adham, A. M. Redding, F. S. Cannon, J. DeCarolis, J. Oppenheimer, E. C. Wert, and Y. Yoon. 2006a. Role of membranes and activated carbon in the removal of endocrine disruptors and pharmaceuticals. Desalination 202: 156-181.
Snyder, S. A., R. C. Pleus, B. J. Vanderford, and J. C. Holady. 2006b. Perchlorate and chlorate in dietary supplements and flavor enhancing ingredients. Analytica Chimica Acta 567: 23-32.
Snyder, S. A., E. C. Wert, D. J. Rexing, R. E. Zegers, and D. D. Drury. 2006c. Ozone oxidation of endocrine disruptors and pharmaceuticals in surface water and wastewater. Ozone Science and Engineering 28: 445-460.
Snyder, S., E. Wert, H. Lei, P. Westerhoff, and Y. Yoon. 2007. Removal of EDCs and Pharmaceuticals in Drinking and Reuse Treatment Processes. Denver, CO: American Water Works Research Foundation.
Snyder, S., R. Trenholm, E. M. Synder, G. M. Bruce, R. C. Pleus, and J. D. Hemming. 2008a. Toxicological Relevance of EDCs and Pharmaceuticals in Drinking Water. Denver, CO: American Water Works Research Foundation. Available at http://environmentalhealthcollaborative.org/images/91238_Toxicological_Relevance.pdf.
Snyder, S., B. Vanderford, J. E. Drewes, E. Dickenson, E. M. Snyder, G. M. Bruce, and R. C. Pleus. 2008b. State of Knowledge of Endocrine Disruptors and Pharmaceuticals in Drinking Water. Denver, CO: American Water Works Research Foundation.
Snyder, S. A., B. D. Stanford, A. N. Pisarenko. G. Gordon, and M. Asami. 2009. Hypochlorite—an Assessment of Factors That Influence the Formation of Perchlorate and Other Contaminants. Denver, CO: American Water Works Association Research Foundation. Available at http://www.awwa.org/files/GovtPublicAffairs/PDF/HypochloriteAssess.pdf. Accessed November 20, 2011.
Snyder, S. A., M. Benotti, F. Rosario-Ortiz, B. Vanderford, J. E. Drewes, and E. Dickenson. 2010a. Comparison of Chemical Composition of Reclaimed and Conventional Waters. Final Report. Alexandria, VA: WateReuse Foundation.
Snyder, S., B. D. Stanford, G. M. Bruce, R. C. Pleus, and J. E. Drewes. 2010b. Identifying Hormonally Active Compounds, Pharmaceuticals, and Personal Care Product Ingredients of Health Concern from Potential Presence in Water Intended for Indirect Potable Reuse. Report WRF-05-005-01. Alexandria, VA: WateReuse Foundation.
Sobral, P., and J. Widdows. 1997. Effects of elevated temperatures on the scope for growth and resistance to air exposure of the clam ruditapes decussatus (L.), from southern portugal. Scientia Marina. 61(2): 163-171.
Soller, J. A., and M. H. Nellor. 2011a. Development and Application of Tools to Assess and Understand the Relative Risks of Regulated Chemicals in Indirect Potable Reuse Project: the Montebello Forebay Groundwater Recharge Project. Tools to Assess and Understand the Relative Risks of Indirect Potable Reuse and Aquifer Storage & Recovery Projects. 1(a). Alexandria, VA: WaterReuse Foundation.
Soller, J. A., and M. H. Nellor. 2011b. Development and Application of Tools to Assess and Understand the Relative Risks of Regulated Chemicals in Indirect Potable Reuse Projects: the Chino Basin Groundwater Recharge Project. In Tools to Assess and Understand the Relative Risks of Indirect Potable Reuse and Aquifer Storage & Recovery Projects. 1 (b). Alexandria, VA: WaterReuse Foundation.
Soller, J. A., A. W. Olivieri, J. Crook, R. C. Cooper, G. Tchobanoglous, R. T. Parkin, R. C. Spear, and J. N. Eisenberg.
2003. Risk-based approach to evaluate the public health benefit of additional wastewater treatment. Environmental Science & Technology 37(9): 1882-1891.
Solley, W. B., R. R. Pierce, and H. A. Perlman, 1998. Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 1995. U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1200. Denver, Colorado. Song, G. X., J. Wang, C. Chiu, and P. Westerhoff. 2010. Biogenic Nanoscale Colloids in Wastewater Effluents. Environmental Science & Technology 44(21): 8216-8222.
Sontheimer, H. 1980. Experience with Riverbank Filtration Along the Rhine River. Journal—American Water Works Association 72(7): 386-390.
Sontheimer, H. 1991. Trinkwasser aus dem Rhein? Sankt Augustin, Germany: Academia Verlag. (in German).
Sontheimer, H., and W. Nissing. 1977. Änderung der Wasserbeschaffenheit bei der Bodenpassage unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Uferfiltration am Niederrhein. Gas und Wasserfach Wasser/Abwasser 57(9): 639-645.
Soucek, D. J., T. K. Linton, C. D. Tarr, A. Dickinson, N. Wickramanayake, C. G. Delos, and L. A. Cruz. 2011. Influence of water hardness and sulfate on the acute toxicity of chloride to sensitive freshwater invertebrates. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 30(4): 930-938.
Sowers, A. D., K. M. Gaworecki, M. A. Mills, A. P. Roberts, and S. J. Klaine. 2009. Developmental effects of a municipal wastewater effluent on two generations of the fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas. Aquatic Toxicology 95(3): 173-181.
Sperber, W. H., and R. F. Stier. 2009. Happy 50th Birthday to HACCP: Retrospective and Prospective. FoodSafety Magazine. December. Available at http://w.foodsafetymagazine.com/article.asp?id=3481&sub=sub1.
Stalter, D., A. Magdeburg, M. Weil, T. Knacker, and J. Oelmann. 2010. Toxication or detoxication? In vivo toxicity assessment of ozonation as advanced wastewater treatment with the rainbow trout. Water Research 44: 439-448.
Stanford, B. D., R. A. Trenholm, J. C. Holady, B. J. Vanderford, and S. A. Snyder. 2010. Estrogenic activity of US drinking waters: A relative exposure comparison. Journal—American Water Works Association 102(11): 55-65.
Staples, C., E. Mihaich, J. Carbone, K. Woodburn, and G. Klecka.
2004. A weight of evidence analysis of the chronic ecotoxicity of nonylphenol ethoxylates, nonylphenol ether carboxylates, and nonylphenol. Human Ecological Risk Assessment 10: 999-1017.
Starko, K. M., E. C. Lippy, L. B. Dominguez, C. E. Haley, and H. J. Fisher. 1986. Campers’ diarrhea outbreak traced to water-sewage link. Public Health Reports 101(5): 527-531.
Steinberg C. E., S. R. Sturzenbaum, and R. Menzel. 2008. Genes and environment—striking the fine balance between sophisticated biomonitoring and true functional environmental genomics. Science and the Total Environment 400: 142-161.
Stenekes, N., H. Colebatch, T. Waite, and N. Ashbolt. 2006. Risk and governance in water recycling public acceptance revisited. Science Technology & Human Values 31(2): 107-134.
Stephenson, T., S. Judd, B. Jefferson, and K. Brindle. 2000. Membrane Bioreactors for Wastewater Treatment. London: IWA Publishing.
Stokes, J. R., and A. Horvath. 2006. Life cycle energy assessment of alternative water supply systems. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 5: 335-343.
Stokes, J. R., and A. Horvath. 2009. Energy and air emission effects of water supply. Environmental Science & Technology 43: 2680-2687.
Strachan, N., M. Doyle, F. Kasuga. O. Rotariu, and I. D. Ogden.
2005. Dose response modelling of Escherichia coli O157 incorporating data from foodborne and environmental outbreaks. International Journal of Food Microbiology 103(1): 35-47.
Sumpter, J. P., and A. C. Johnson. 2008. 10th Anniversary perspective: Reflections on endocrine disruption in the aquatic environment: from known knowns to unknown unknowns (and many things in between). Journal of Environmental Monitoring 10: 1476-1485.
Suttle, C. A. 2007. Marine viruses—major players in the global ecosystem. Nature Reviews Microbiology. 5(10): 801-812. Available at http://www.scopus.com. Accessed December 13, 2011.
Swayne, M., G. Boone, D. Bauer, and J. Lee. 1980. Wastewater in Receiving Waters at Water Supply Abstraction Points. EPA-60012-80-044. Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
SWFWMD (Southwest Florida Water Management District).
2006. Estimating Reclaimed Water Capital Costs. White Paper. SWFWMD. 2008. Estimating Reclaimed Water Residential Distribution Capital Costs. White Paper.
Sydney Water. 2004. Media Release: Sydney Water working closely with Rouse Hill residents. Sydney, Australia: Sydney Water.
Taguchi, V., S. Jenkins, D. Wong, J. Palmentier, and E. Reiner. 1994. Determination of N-nitrosodimethylamine by isotope dilution, high resolution mass spectrometry. Canadian Journal of Applied Spectroscopy 39: 87-89.
Tanaka, H., T. Asano, E. D. Schroeder, and G. Tchobanoglous. 1998. Estimating the safety of wastewater reclamation and reuse using enteric virus monitoring data. Water Environment Research 70(1): 39-51.
Tang, C., S. Huitric, J. Kuo, R. Horvath, and J. Stahl. 2006. Disinfection alternatives to avoid NDMA formation. Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation Technical Exhibition and Conference 2006. Alexandria, VA: Water Environment Federation.
Tanji, K., S. Grattan, C. Grieve, A. Harivandi, L. Rollins, D. Shaw, B. Sheikh, and L. Wu. 2008. Salt Management Guide for Landscape Irrigation with Recycled Water in Coastal Southern California: A Comprehensive Literature Review. Alexandria, VA: WateReuse.
Tarlock, D. 2009. Law of Water Rights and Resources. Supplement 5:18. Clark Boardman. New York, NY.
Tarquin, A. 2009. High Tech Methods to Reduce Concentrate Volume Prior to Disposal. Research Report. University of Texas at El Paso, Department of Civil Engineering. Available at http://www.twdb.state.tx.us/RWPG/rpgm_rpts/0704830769_ConcentrateVolume.pdf.
Tarr, J. A. 1979. Separate vs. combined sewer problem—case study in urban technology design choice. Journal of Urban History 5: 308-339.
Tarr, J. A., J. McCurley, F. C. McMichael, and T. Yosie. 1984. Water and wastes retrospective assessment of wastewater technology in the United States, 1800-1932. Technology and Culture 25: 226-263.
Tchobanoglous, G., F. L. Burton, and H. D. Stensel. 2002. Wastewater Engineering: Treatment and Reuse. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Tchobanoglous, G., F. Burton, and H. D. Stensel. 2003. Wastewater Engineering. Treatment and Reuse. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Tchobanoglous, G., H. Leverenz, M. H. Nellor, and J. Crook. 2011. Direct: Potable Reuse: A Path Forward. Alexandria, VA: WateReuse Research Foundation.
Ternes, T. A., J. Stuber, N. Herrmann, D. McDowell, A. Ried, M. Kampmann, and B. Teiser. 2003. Ozonation: a tool for removal of pharmaceuticals, contrast media, and musk fragrances from water. Water Research 37: 1976-1982.
Teunis, P., K. Takumi, and K. Shinagawa. 2004. Dose response for infection by Escherichia coli O157:H7 from outbreak data. Risk Analysis 24(2): 401.
Teunis, P. F. M., C. L. Moe, P. Liu, S. E. Miller, L. Lindesmith, R. S. Baric, J. Le Pendu, and R. L. Calderon. 2008. Norwalk virus: How infectious is it? Journal of Medical Virology 80: 1468-1476.
Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. 1997. Use of reclaimed water. Texas Administrative Code Title 30, Chapter 210). Austin, TX: State of Texas. Available at http://info.sos.state.tx.us/pls/pub/readtac$ext.ViewTAC?tac_view=4&ti=30&pt=1&ch=210.
Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. 2010. Use of Reclaimed Water. Title30, Chapter 210, Part 1. Texas Administrative Code. Austin, Texas. Available online at http://info.sos.state.tx.us/pls/pub/readtac$ext.ViewTAC?tac_view=4&ti=30&pt=1&ch=210. Accessed November 30, 2011.
Thompson, K., R. C. Cooper, A. W. Olivieri, D. M. Eisenberg, L. A. Pettegrew, R. C. Cooper, and R. E. Danielson. 1992. City of San Diego study of direct potable reuse of reclaimed water: Final results. Desalination 88: 201-214.
Thorpe, K. L., R. I. Cummings, T. H. Hutchinson, M. Scholze, G. Brighty, J. P. Sumpter, and C. R. Tyler. 2003. Relative potencies and combination effects of steroidal estrogens in fish. Environmental Science & Technology 37:1142-1149.
Tibbets, J. 1995. What’s in the water: The disinfection dilemma? Environmental Health Perspectives 103: 30-34.
TRA (Trinity River Authority of Texas). 2010. Trinity River Basin Master Plan. Available at http://www.trinityra.org/downloads/Master%20Plan%20Justified%20REV.pdf.
Trussell, R. R., and M. Umphres. 1978. Formation of trihalomethanes. Journal—American Water Works Association 70(11): 604.
Trussell, R., S. Adham, and J. Jacangelo. 2000. Potable Water Reuse and the Role of Membranes, in the proceedings of Membrantechnik in der Wasseraufbereitung und Abwasserbehandlung Aachen, Germany: ITV.
Tufenkji, N., J. N. Ryan, and M. Elimelech. 2002. The promise of bank filtration. Environmental Science & Technology 36(21): 422a-428a.
Turbow, D. J., N. D. Osgood, and S. C. Jiang. 2003. Evaluation of recreational health risk in coastal waters based on enterococcus densities and bathing patterns. Environmental Health Perspectives 111(4): 598-603.
Turbow, D. J., E. E. Kent, and S. C. Jiang. 2008. Web-based investigation of water associated illness in marine bathers. Environmental Research 106(1): 101-109.
TWDB. 2009. General Frequently Asked Questions. S. Kalaswad, Ed. Available at http://www.twdb.state.tx.us/innovativewater/desal/faq.asp. Accessed December 12, 2011.
UNEP (United Nations Environmental Programme). 2005. Water and Wastewater Reuse: An Environmentally Sound Approach for Sustainable Urban Water Management. Osaka, Japan: UNEP Division of Technology, Industry and Economics.
University of Florida TREEO Center. 2011. Case Histories of Selected Backflow Incidents: Backflow at a Premises with a Reclaimed Water System. University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.
Unnevehr, L. J., and H. H. Jensen. 1996. HACCP as a regulatory innovation to improve food safety in the meat industry. American Journal of Agricultural Economics 78(3): 764-769.
U.S. Bureau of Reclamation. 2005. Quality of Water: Colorado River Basin—Progress Report No. 22. Reclamation: Managing Water in the West. Available at http://www.usbr.gov/uc/progact/salinity/pdfs/PR22.pdf. Accessed December 14, 2011.
U.S. Census. 2008. 2008 National Population Projections. Available at http://www.census.gov/population/www/projections/2008projections.html. Accessed November 16, 2010.
U.S. Census. 2010b. State Population Estimates 1970-1980, on U.S. Census website, accessed on November 16, 2010: http://www.census.gov/popest/archives/1980s/st7080ts.txt
U.S. Census. 2010c. Table of Historical National Population Estimates. Available at http://www.census.gov/statab/hist/HS-01.pdf. Accessed October 30, 2010:
U.S. Census. 2010d. Total Midyear Population for the World: 1950-2050 on U.S. Census website, accessed on October 30, 2010: http://www.census.gov/ipc/www/idb/worldpop.php.
U.S. Census. 2010e. Upper and lower UN Estimates. Available at http://www.census.gov/ipc/www/worldhis.html. Accessed October 30, 2010.
U.S. Census. 2011. U.S. Population Clock. Available at http://www.census.gov/population/www/popclockus.html. Accessed Feb. 25, 2011:
USGCRP (U.S. Global Change Research Program). 2000. Climate Change Impacts on the United States: The Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change. Available at http://www.globalchange.gov/publications/reports/scientific-assessments/first-national-assessment/468. Accessed on December 8, 2011..
U.S. Public Health Service. 1962. Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards. PHS Publication No. 956. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare.
Urbansky, E. T., ed. 2000. Perchlorate in the Environment. Environmental Science Research. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum.
USACE/SFWMD (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and South Florida Water Management District). 1999. Central and Southern Florida Project Comprehensive Review Study, Final Integrated Feasibility Report and Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement. Available at http://www.evergladesplan.org/pub/restudy_eis.cfm#mainreport. Accessed August 13, 2010.
Utah Department of Environmental Quality. 2011. Design Requirements for Wastewater Collection, Treatment and Disposal Systems. Utah Administrative Code, Rule R317-3, Salt Lake City, Utah. Available at http://www.rules.utah.gov/publicat/code/r317/r317-003.htm#T11.
Valenti Jr., T. W., P. Perez-Hurtado, C. K, Chambliss, and B. W. Brooks. 2009. Aquatic toxicity of sertraline to pimephales promelas at environmentally relevant surface water pH. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 28(12): 2685-2694.
Valentine, R., J. Choi, Z. Chen, S. Barrett, C. Hwang, Y. Guo, M. Wehner, S. Fotzsimmons, S. Andrews, A. Werker, C. Brubacher, and K. Kohut. 2005. Factors Affecting the Formation of NDMA in Water and Occurrence. Denver CO: American Water Works Association Research Foundation and Alexandria, VA: Water Environment Research Foundation.
van Nieuwenhuijsen, M. J., M. B. Toledano, N. E. Eaton, J. Fawell, and P. Elliott. 2000. Chlorination disinfection by-products in water and their association with adverse reproductive outcomes: A review. Occupational and Environmental Medicine 57: 73-85.
van Nieuwenhuijzen, A. F., H. Evenblij, C. A. Uijterlinde, and F. L. Schulting. 2008. Review on the state of science on membrane bioreactors for municipal wastewater treatment. Water Science and Technology 57(7): 979-986.
van Vuuren, K. 2009. Press bias and local power in the Toowoomba water referendum. Communication, Politics and Culture 42 (1): 55-73.
Vanderford, B. J., D. B. Mawhinney, F. Rosario-Ortiz, and S. A. Snyder. 2008. Real-time detection and identification of aqueous chlorine transformation products using QTOF MS. Analytical Chemistry 80(11): 4193-4199.
Veil, J. A. 2007. Use of Reclaimed Water for Power Plant Cooling. ANL/EVS/R-07/3. Argonne, IL: Argonne National Laboratory, Environmental Science Division.
Venkatesan, A. K., S. Ahmad, W. Johnson, and J. R. Batista. 2011. Systems dynamic model to forecast salinity load to the Colorado River due to urbanization within the Las Vegas Valley. Science of the Total Environment 409(13): 2616-2625.
Verdonck, F. A., T. Aldenberg, J. Jaworska, and P. A. Vanrollegham. 2003. Limitations of current risk characterization methods in probablistic environmental risk assessment. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 22: 2209-2213.
Verstraeten, I. M., J. D. Carr, G. V. Steele, E. M. Thurman, K. C. Bastian, and D. F. Dormedy. 1999. Surface-water/groundwater interaction: Herbicide transport into municipal collector wells. Journal of Environmental Quality 28(5): 1396-1405.
Victoria, M., F. R. Guimaraes, T. M. Fumian, F. F. Ferreira, C. B. Vieira, T. Shubo, J. P. Leite, and M. P. Miagostovich. 2010. One year monitoring of norovirus in a sewage treatment plant in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Journal of Water Health 8: 158-165.
von Gunten, U. 2003. Ozonation of drinking water: Part II. Disinfection and by-product formation in presence of bromide, iodide or chlorine. Water Research 37: 1469-1487.
von Gunten, U., E. Salhi, C. K. Schmidt, and W. A. Arnold. 2010. Kinetics and mechanisms of N-nitrosodimethylamine formation upon ozonation of N,N-dimethylsulfamide-containing waters: Bromide catalysis. Environmental Science & Technology 44(15): 5762-5768.
Waltman, E. L., B. J. Venables, and W. Z. Waller. 2006. Triclosan in a North Texas wastewater treatment plant and the influent and effluent of an experimental constructed wetland. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 25(2): 367-372.
Wang, J. Z., S. A. Hubbs, and R. Song. 2002. Evaluation of Riverbank Filtration as a Drinking Water Treatment Process. Final Report. Denver, CO: American Water Works Association Research Foundation.
Ward, R. L., D. L. Bernstein, E. C. Young, J. R. Sherwood, D. R. Knowlton, and G. M. Schiff. 1986. Human Rotavirus Studies in Volunteers: Determination of Infectious Dose and Serological Response to Infection. Journal of Infectious Diseases 154(5): 871.
Washington State Department of Health. 2007. Report from Department of Health on Related Public Health Issues. In Reclaimed Water Use Legislative Report, December. Olympia, WA: Office of Shellfish and Water Protection, Chapter 8. 8-61.
Washington State Department of Ecology. 1997. Water Reclamation and Reuse Standards 97: 23. Washington State Department of Health ad Washington State Department of Ecology. Olympia, Washington.
Weber, N. M., H. R. Sawyer, M. E. Legare, and D. N. R. Veeramachaneni.2006. Sub-chronic exposure to dibromoacetic acid, a water disinfection by-poduct, does not affect gametogenic potential in mice. Toxicological Sciences 89 (1): 325-330.
Wehner, M. 2009. Groundwater Replenishment System Product Water Quality. Presentation to the NRC Panel, Fountain Valley, Orange County.
Weisbrod, A. V., K. B. Woodburn, A. A. Koelmans, T. F. Parkerton, A. E. McElroy, and K. Borgä. 2009. Evaluation of bioaccumulation using in vivo laboratory and field studies. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 5: 598-623.
Weisel, C. P., and J. Wan-Kuen. 1996. Ingestion, inhalation, and dermal exposures to chloroform and trichloroethene from tap water. Enviromental Health Perspectives 104(1): 48-51.
Weisner, M., and J.-Y. Bottero. 2007. Nanotechnogology and the environment. In Environmental Nanotechnology: Applications and Impacts of Nanomaterials. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Weiss, W. J., E. J. Bouwer, W. P. Ball, C. R. O‘Melia, H. Arora, and T. F. Speth. 2002. Chapter 8: Reduction in Disinfection Byproduct Precursors and Pathogens During Riverbank Filtration at Three Midwestern United States Drinking-Water Utilities. In Riverbank Filtration: Improving Source Water Quality by C. Ray, G. Melin, and R. B. Linsky, pp. 147-173.
Weiss, W. J., E. J. Bouwer, R. Aboytes, M. W. LeChevallier, C. R. O’Melia, B. T. Le, and K. J. Schwab. 2005. Riverbank filtration for control of microorganisms results from field monitoring. Water Research 39: 1990-2001.
Wert, E., F. L. Rosario-Ortiz, D. D. Drury, and S. A. Snyder. 2007. Formation of oxidation byproducts from ozonation of wastewater. Water Research 41(7): 1481-1490.
Wert, E., J. E. Neemann, D. J. Rexing, and R. E. Zegers. 2008. Biofiltration for removal of BOM and residual ammonia following control of bromate formation. Water Research 42(1-2): 372-378.
Westerhoff, P., Y. Yoon, S. Snyder, and E. Wert. 2005. Fate of endocrine-disruptor, pharmaceutical, and personal care product chemicals during simulated drinking water treatment processes. Environmental Science & Technology 39: 6649-6663.
WHO (World Health Organization). 1989. Health Guidelines for the Use of Wastewater in Agriculture and Aquaculture. Geneva.
WHO. 2004. Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality, 3rd Ed., Volume 1, Recommendations. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO Press.
WHO. 2005. Water Safety Plans: Managing Drinking-Water Quality from Catchment to Consumer. Available at http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/wsp170805.pdf.
WHO. 2006a. Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater, Volume 2, Wastewater Use in Agriculture. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO Press.
WHO. 2006b. Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater, Volume 3: Wastewater and Excreta Use in Aquaculture, Geneva, Switzerland: WHO Press.
WHO. 2006c. Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater, Volume Volume 4, Excreta and Greywater Use in Aquaculture. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO Press.
WHO. 2008. Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality, 3rd Ed. Incorporating the First and Second Addenda, Volume 1, Recommendations. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO Press.
WHO. 2009. Principles for modelling dose-response for the risk assessment of chemicals. Environmental Health Criteria 239. Available at http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2009/9789241572392_eng.pdf
WHO. 2011. Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality, 4th Ed. Available at http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/publications/2011/dwq_guidelines/en/.
Williams, B. L., Y. Florez, and S. Pettygrove. 2001. Inter- and intra-ethnic variation in water intake, contact, and source estimates among Tucson residents: Implications for exposure analysis. Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology 11(6): 510-521.
Wintgens, T., F. Salehi, R. Hochstrat, and T. Melin. 2008. Emerging contaminants and treatment options in water recycling for indirect potable use. Water Science and Technology 57: 99-107.
WPCF (Water Pollution Control Federation). 1989. Water Reuse Manual of Practice SM-3, 2nd Ed, Alexandria, VA: WPCF.
Wu, L., and L. Dodge. 2005. Landscape plant salt tolerance guide for recycled water irrigation. Slosson Research Endowment for Ornamental Horticulture, Department of Plant Sciences, University of California, Davis. Available at ucce.ucdavis.edu/files/filelibrary/5505/20091.pdf. Accessed on July 1, 2011.
Wu, Q. L., and W. T. Liu. 2009. Determination of virus abundance, diversity and distribution in a municipal wastewater treatment plant. Water Research 43(4): 1101-1109.
Xu, X., and C. P. Weisel. 2003. Inhalation exposure to haloacetic acids and haloketones during showering. Environmental Science & Technology 37(3): 569-576.
Xu, X. and C. P. Weisel. 2005. Human respiratory uptake of chloroform and haloketones during showering. Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology 15(1): 6-16.
Yang, W., J. Gan, W. Liu, and R. Green. 2005. Degradation of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) in landscape soils. Journal of Environmental Quality 34(1): 336-341.
Yates, M. V., C. P. Gerba, and L. M. Kelley. 1985. Virus persistence in groundwater. Applied Environmental Microbiology 49: 778-781.
Yates, M. V., S. R. Yates, J. Wagner, and C. P. Gerba. 1987. Modeling virus survival and transport in the subsurface. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 1: 329-345.
Yoder, J., V. Roberts, G. F. Craun, V. Hill, L. Hicks, N. T. Alexander, V. Radke, R. L. Calderon, M. C. Hlavsa, M. J. Beach, and S. L. Roy. 2008. Surveillance for waterborne disease and outbreaks associated with drinking water and water not intended for drinking—United States, 2005-2006. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 57(SS09): 39-62.
You, S. J., Y. P. Tsai, and R. Y. Huanf. 2009. Effect of heavy metals on nitrification performance in different activated sludge processes. Journal of Hazardous Materials 165(1-3): 987-994.
Yuan, F., C. Hu, X. Hu, J. Qu, and M. Yang. 2009. Degradation of selected pharmaceuticals in aqueous solution with UV and UV H2O2. Water Research 43(6): 1766-1774.
Zhang, J., H. C. Chua, J. Zhou, and A. G. Fane. 2006. Factors affecting the membrane performance in membrane bioreactors. Journal of Membrane Science 284: 54-66.
Zhou, Q., S. McCraven, J. Garcia, M. Gasca, T. Johnson, and W. Motzer. 2009. Field evidence of biodegradation of N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) in groundwater with incidental and active recycled water recharge. Water Research 43: 793-805.