National Academies Press: OpenBook
« Previous: Appendix A: Details in Support of the Risk Exemplar in Chapter 6
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Computation of Average Daily Dose." National Research Council. 2012. Water Reuse: Potential for Expanding the Nation's Water Supply Through Reuse of Municipal Wastewater. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13303.
×

Appendix B

Computation of Average Daily Dose

The Average Daily Dose from all exposures to reclaimed water (ADDRW) can be estimated using the following equation (modified from Hutcheson et al., 1990):

ADDRW = ADDR + ADDD + ADDI

The Average Daily Dose from ingestion of the reclaimed water (ADDR) can be estimated using the following equation (modified from Hutcheson and Martin, 1992):

image

where

 
  ContaminantR = Concentration of chemical in reclaimed water (mass/volume),
  VI = Daily volume of reclaimed water ingestion (mass/volume),
  BAF = Bioavailability adjustment factor,
  D2 = Duration of the exposure period (time),
  BW = Average body weight (e.g., 70 kg),
  AP = Averaging period (time),
  C = Appropriate units conversion factor.

The Average Daily Dose from dermal contact with reclaimed water (ADDD) can be estimated using the following equation:

image

where

 
  ContaminantR = Concentration of chemical in reclaimed water (mass/volume),
  SA = Skin surface area in contact with the surface water during the period of exposure (area),
  PC = Permeability constant (volume/time × area),
  D1 = Average duration of each exposure event (time/event),
  D2 = Duration of the exposure period (time),
  BAF = Bioavailability adjustment factor,
  F = Number of exposure events during the exposure period divided by the number of days in the exposure period (events/time),
  D1 = Average duration of each exposure event (time/event),
  D2 = Duration of the exposure period (time),
  BW = Average body weight (e.g., 70 kg),
  AP = Averaging period (time),
  C = Appropriate units conversion factor.
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Computation of Average Daily Dose." National Research Council. 2012. Water Reuse: Potential for Expanding the Nation's Water Supply Through Reuse of Municipal Wastewater. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13303.
×

The Average Daily Dose from inhalation of contaminants in reclaimed water (ADDI) can be estimated using the following equation:

image

where

ContaminantR = Concentration of chemical in reclaimed water (mass/volume),
VR = Daily respiratory volume during the period of exposure (volume/time),
BAF = Bioavailability adjustment factor,
F = Number of exposure events during the exposure period divided by the number of days in the exposure period (events/time),
D1 = Average duration of each exposure event (time/event),
D2 = Duration of the exposure period (time),
BW = Average body weight (e.g., 70 kg),
AP = Averaging period (time),
C = Appropriate units conversion factor.
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Computation of Average Daily Dose." National Research Council. 2012. Water Reuse: Potential for Expanding the Nation's Water Supply Through Reuse of Municipal Wastewater. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13303.
×
Page 249
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Computation of Average Daily Dose." National Research Council. 2012. Water Reuse: Potential for Expanding the Nation's Water Supply Through Reuse of Municipal Wastewater. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13303.
×
Page 250
Next: Appendix C: Survey of Water Reclamation Costs »
Water Reuse: Potential for Expanding the Nation's Water Supply Through Reuse of Municipal Wastewater Get This Book
×
Buy Hardback | $64.00 Buy Ebook | $49.99
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

Expanding water reuse--the use of treated wastewater for beneficial purposes including irrigation, industrial uses, and drinking water augmentation--could significantly increase the nation's total available water resources. Water Reuse presents a portfolio of treatment options available to mitigate water quality issues in reclaimed water along with new analysis suggesting that the risk of exposure to certain microbial and chemical contaminants from drinking reclaimed water does not appear to be any higher than the risk experienced in at least some current drinking water treatment systems, and may be orders of magnitude lower. This report recommends adjustments to the federal regulatory framework that could enhance public health protection for both planned and unplanned (or de facto) reuse and increase public confidence in water reuse.

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    Switch between the Original Pages, where you can read the report as it appeared in print, and Text Pages for the web version, where you can highlight and search the text.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  9. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!