Bruce Budowle (see Appendix A)
Rocco Casagrande is founder and managing director, Gryphon Scientific. Dr. Casagrande holds a B.A. in chemistry and biology from Cornell University and a Ph.D. in experimental biology from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. From December 2002 to March 2003, Dr. Casagrande worked as a United Nations biological weapons inspector in Iraq, where he participated in more than 50 inspections and acted as the chief of the U.N. biological analysis laboratory. In a prior post, Dr. Casagrande led a team of biologists and engineers at Surface Logix, a Boston-based biotechnology firm, to develop and test real-time detectors for biological agents. In his most recent position, he led the homeland security practice at Abt Associates, one of the nation’s largest public policy research and consulting firms. He has published numerous articles on biological defense and has consulted on chemical and biological warfare and defense for several congressional offices and government agencies.
Jongsik Chun (see Appendix A)
Aaron Darling is associate professor in computational genomics and bioinformatics, University of Technology Sydney Faculty of Science’s ithree institute. Dr. Darling has over a decade of experience developing computational methods for comparative genomics and evolutionary modeling, and in 2013, moved from the University of California, Davis
(UC Davis) to start a computational genomics group at the University of Technology Sydney.
Dr. Darling embarked on his research career at the University of Wisconsin–Madison (UW-Madison). Following a bachelor’s degree in computer science, he worked with members of the UW-Madison Genome Center to sequence and analyze the first genomes of pathogenic Escherichia coli. During this time, Dr. Darling led the development of some widely used computational methods for analyzing genomic data, including the mpiBLAST open-source parallel BLAST software and the Mauve software for comparing multiple genome sequences. Following the award of a Ph.D. at UW-Madison, Dr. Darling received a fellowship from the U.S. National Science Foundation to pursue postdoctoral studies at the University of Queensland (UQ). After 2 years at UQ, he returned to UC Davis to develop a research program in computational metagenomics—the study of uncultivated microorganisms from the environment using computational methods. Dr. Darling now brings his experience to understand the relationship between humans and microorganisms in collaboration with microbiologists at the ithree institute.
Mats Forsman is research director for biological analyses, Swedish Defense Research Agency (FOI). After finishing his Ph.D. in microbiology, he joined the Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), Division for CBRN Defence and Security. In 2002, he was appointed associate professor, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Umeå University. Dr. Forsman has represented Sweden for more than 10 years in various Economic Development Administration and NATO research projects and working groups concerning various biodefense issues. He is currently research director and group leader at FOI for biological analyses, a group involved in both research and applied activities in the field of molecular diagnostics, bioinformatics, ecology, and epidemiology of pathogenic bacteria.
Fernando González-Candelas is full professor of genetics, Department of Genetics, University of Valencia. Dr. González-Candelas’ main research interests are in population and evolutionary genetics, molecular and evolutionary epidemiology, molecular systematics and genomics, bioinformatics, and conservation biology. Dr. González-Candelas is currently working on the molecular evolutionary epidemiology of different pathogens, mainly RNA viruses, such as hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and bacteria, such as Legionella pneumophila. The basic approach is the analysis of nucleotide sequence variability at different levels, from intrapatient to worldwide samples, depending on the specific goals of the different projects.
He has previously studied the population and evolutionary biol-
ogy of Mediterranean endemic Limonium (Plumbaginaceae) species, by using an array of genetic markers (random amplified polymorphic DNAs, amplified fragment length polymorphisms, microsatellites, isozymes) and including the analysis of quantitative traits. In addition, he has been very involved in the establishment of the Bioinformatics Service at the University of Valencia, of which he served as head from 1994 to 2000. He has also helped in the development of the Automated Sequencing Service. Dr. González-Candelas also served as scientific expert on the Spanish National Biosafety Council from 1998 until 2010.
Adam Hamilton is president and CEO, Signature Science. Mr. Hamilton’s background includes experience in engineering (B.S., M.S.), science (chemistry and microbiology), training, statistics, and quality assurance. He is a registered professional engineer (1993-present) and has been heavily involved in applications of science and engineering for public safety and homeland security for more than 25 years. Mr. Hamilton has attained the highest level of certification in homeland security from the American College of Forensic Examiners and is Federal Emergency Management Agency–certified in the National Response Plan and the National Incident Management System. Mr. Hamilton is on the Training Advisory Board for the Texas Attorney General and is a board member of the Greater Austin Crime Commission. He is also a graduate of the FBI Citizen’s Academy and has previously served as the HAZMAT Committee Chairman of the Texas Commission on Law Enforcement Officer Standards and Education. He also serves as the Future Plans Officer (N5) for the Texas State Guard Maritime Regiment and is a certified concealed handgun instructor, wild-land firefighter, diver, and armorer.
Mr. Hamilton graduated with honors from the University of Texas at Austin with a bachelor of science in engineering and received his master of science in engineering from the University of Texas.
Dag Harmsen is head of research, Periodontology Department, University Hospital Münster. He is an M.D. specializing in microbiology and the epidemiology of infectious diseases. He commenced his training in 1991 at the Institute of Hygiene and Microbiology, University of Würzburg (Germany). From September 2000 to January 2002 he headed the Research and Development Diagnostics division of CREATOGEN AG (Augsburg, Germany). From February 2002 to September 2004 was senior research scientist at the Institute of Hygiene, University of Münster (Germany). From June 2005 until July 2008, he was temporary head of the Department of Periodontology, University of Münster. He is now head of research of this department. His scientific interests focus on molecular diagnostics,
epidemiology, and the phylogeny of microorganisms. Furthermore, he is specialized in applied bioinformatics in microbiology.
Dana R. Kadavy is senior microbiologist, Signature Science. Dr. Kadavy joined Signature Science in 2003, serving as a microbiologist and principal investigator to multiple microbiological and molecular research projects. She has developed unique field deployment and sampling, development, and validation assays for molecular detection of microorganisms and alternative collection TTP to support national security and law enforcement scientific applications. Leveraging her academic teaching experience, Dr. Kadavy has developed very popular and effective training programs in Hazardous Materials Response and Applied Foundational Biology (for response units). Prior to joining Signature Science, Dr. Kadavy served as Chief of Bacteriology with the Armed Forces Institute of Technology.
Dr. Kadavy earned a doctorate in microbiology from the University of Nebraska–Lincoln in 2001. She has published multiple professional papers and presents regularly at professional conferences.
Paul Keim (see Appendix A)
Raymond Lin Tzer Pin is head and senior consultant, Division of Microbiology; Clinical Director, Molecular Diagnostic Centre. Dr. Lin is a senior consultant at the Department of Laboratory Medicine, head of the Microbiology Division, and clinical director of the Molecular Diagnosis Centre. He is adjunct associate professor with the Department of Microbiology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore. He studied medicine at the National University of Singapore and obtained his M.Sc. with distinction in medical microbiology at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (University of London). He is a Fellow of the Royal College of Pathologists of Australia and of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore. Professor Lin has wide-ranging interests related to medical microbiology, including antibiotic resistance, strain typing, molecular diagnostics, and emerging infections.
Dr. Lin is actively engaged in infection control issues and has had experience in several hospitals in this respect. He also believes strongly in promoting quality systems in the laboratory and the use of informatics in microbiology practice. He has published in many refereed journals and has coauthored a monograph on enteroviruses. He sits on committees on the hospital and national level, and is involved in two committees of the Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia.
Juncai Ma (see Appendix A)
Alemka Markotić (see Appendix A)
Piers Millet is deputy head of the Implementation Support Unit, Biological Weapons Convention (CBWC), United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs, in Geneva, Switzerland. His duties there include acting as deputy secretary to meetings of the BWC, liaising with international, regional, and expert bodies as well as developments in science and technology relevant to the treaty regime. Dr. Millett has served as a member of the Secretariat for all meetings of the BWC since 2001.
He trained originally as a microbiologist and is a chartered biologist in the United Kingdom. He has a doctorate from the University of Bradford on the past, present, and future of anti-animal biological warfare which focused heavily on the impact of developments in the life sciences on biological weapons.
Dr. Millet also holds postgraduate degrees in international politics and security studies as well as research methodology. He is widely published on issues related to preventing the acquisition and use of biological weapons and is a regular speaker at conferences around the world. His efforts have seen him collaborate with a range of other intergovernmental organizations, including the World Health Organization, the World Organisation for Animal Health, the Food and Agriculture Organization, the International Committee for the Red Cross, INTERPOL, the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, the U.N. Institute for Disarmament Research and the U.N. Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute. He is also a member of the Advisory Board of the Virtual Biosecurity Center and a founding member of the Safety Committee of the International Genetically Engineered Machines Competition.
Stephen A. Morse is associate director for environmental microbiology, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia. Dr. Morse’s previous post at the CDC was associate director for science. He is the coauthor of the Atlas of Sexually Transmitted Diseases and AIDS, 4th Edition. Before he joined the CDC, Dr. Morse was a professor of microbiology and infectious diseases at the Harvard School of Public Health and at Oregon Health Sciences University. In 1984, the CDC recruited him to direct their sexually transmitted disease research program. He was subsequently named deputy director of the bioterrorism program. In 2008, he became associate director for environmental microbiology at the National Center for Preparedness, Detection and Control of Infectious Diseases at the CDC, a post that also encompassed bioterrorism issues.
Dr. Morse earned his M.S.P.H. and Ph.D. degrees in microbiology and public health at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. He is cur-
rently a member of the Public Health Foundation Board at the University of North Carolina’s Gillings School of Global Public Health. In 2000, he received the school’s Harriet Hylton Barr Distinguished Alumni Award, which recognizes the achievements of alumni and their outstanding contributions to public health.
Randall Murch is associate director, Research Program Development, National Capital Region, Virginia Tech, adjunct professor, School of Public and International Affairs, and adjunct professor, Department of Plant Pathology, Virginia Tech, and visiting professor, Department of War Studies, King’s College London, United Kingdom. Following graduate school and brief service in the U.S. Army Reserve, Dr. Murch’s first career was with the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), where he was a special agent. In his early years with the FBI, he was assigned to the Indianapolis and Los Angeles Field Offices where he performed counterterrorism, counterintelligence, and other investigations. During his career, he was assigned to the FBI Laboratory as a forensic biologist, research scientist, department head, and deputy director at various times. Interspersed with his laboratory assignments were four assignments in the bureau’s technical investigative program: as a program manager for complex operations planning, Intelligence Division; unit chief for a technology development and deployment group, Technical Services Division; squad supervisor, New York Field Office; and deputy director, Investigative Technology Division. Between his last two FBI assignments, he was detailed to the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Department of Defense, where he was the director of the Advanced Systems and Concepts Office, where he led advanced studies on complex current and future challenges dealing with weapons of mass destruction (WMDs). While in the FBI, he created the FBI’s WMD forensic investigative program, served as the FBI’s science advisor to the 1996 Olympic Games, led forensic investigative aspects of a number of major terrorism cases, and initiated a number of new programs for both the FBI Laboratory and technical investigative program. In 1996, Dr. Murch created the FBI’s Hazardous Materials Response Unit, the nation’s focal point for the forensic investigation of WMD threats, events, and hoaxes; this laid the foundation for the creation of new fields in nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons forensics. Throughout his FBI career, he also was involved with extensive liaison at the national and international levels in furthering science and technology for law enforcement, counterterrorism, and national security purposes. He retired from the FBI in November 2002 after nearly 23 years of service, and as a member of the Senior Executive Service for the last 7 of those years.
From December 2002 to December 2004, Dr. Murch was employed as a research staff member, Institute for Defense Analyses (IDA), a lead-
ing federally funded research and development center, where he led and participated in studies for the defense, intelligence, and homeland security communities. He is still an adjunct staff member at IDA. He joined Virginia Tech in December 2004, where he now works in the areas of life science research program development, microbial systems biology, microbial forensics, biosecurity, and university strategic planning. He has served or still serves on the Board of Life Sciences, National Research Council; DTRA’s Threat Reduction Advisory Committee; the Defense Intelligence Agency’s BioChem 2020, the FBI’s Scientific Working Group on Microbial Genomics and Forensics, and a new standing committee of the National Academy of Sciences for the Department of Homeland Security’s National Biodefense Analysis and Countermeasures Center. He has also been or is a member of, or has advised study committees of, the National Research Council, National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Medicine, Defense Science Board, and Threat Reduction Advisory Committee.
Dr. Murch received his bachelor of science in biology from the University of Puget Sound, Tacoma, Washington, in 1974; his master of science degree in botanical sciences from the University of Hawaii in 1976, and his Ph.D. in plant pathology from the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign in 1979.
Dana Perkins is a member of the Group of Experts established pursuant to United Nations Security Council Resolution 1540. Dr. Perkins earned a master’s degree in biochemistry from the University of Bucharest, Romania. She also earned a Ph.D. in pharmacology and experimental therapeutics in 2002 from the University of Maryland, Baltimore, where she specialized in microbiology/neurovirology. In her prior position, she led the Biological Weapons Nonproliferation and Counterterrorism Branch in the Office of Policy and Planning, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response (ASPR), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS). At DHHS/ASPR, some of her responsibilities and duties included providing subject-matter expertise, interagency coordination, and senior-level policy advice on the scientific (biodefense and biosecurity) and public health aspects of national and international emergency preparedness and response; directing and coordinating national and international progress on issues related to biodefense and biosecurity; developing and reviewing policies on biosecurity, biological weapons nonproliferation, and health security; and performing expert analysis and preparing implementation plans to support the U.S. government biodefense and biosecurity policy.
Currently, Dr. Perkins serves in a U.S. government-seconded position as a member of the Group of Experts supporting a subsidiary body
of the U.N. Security Council, the 1540 Committee. The 1540 Committee was established pursuant to Resolution 1540 (2004) to monitor the implementation of this resolution worldwide. U.N. Security Council Resolution 1540 imposes binding obligations on all states to prevent the proliferation of nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons, related materials, and their means of delivery to terrorists and other non-State actors. It also encourages enhanced international cooperation on such efforts.
Dragan Primorac is a pediatrician, forensic expert, and geneticist, adjunct professor, Eberly College of Science, The Pennsylvania State University, and Henry C. Lee College of Criminal Justice and Forensic Sciences, University of New Haven, Professor at Medical Schools in Split and Osijek, Croatia; founder of the Special Hospital for Orthopaedics, Neurology and Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation “St. Catherine,” Croatia; and cofounder of Department of Forensic Sciences, University of Split, Croatia.
Professor Primorac is a pioneer in the application of DNA analysis for identification of bodies in mass graves and one of the founders of forensic DNA analysis in the region. He authored more than 100 scientific papers and abstracts in clinical medicine, molecular genetics, forensic science, population genetics, genetic legacy of Homo sapiens sapiens, and education, science, and technology policy. His papers have been cited more than 1,500 times and currently he is the most cited clinician in Croatia in his age group in the field of biomedicine. Currently, he is involved in two FP-7 projects (diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for inflammatory bowel disease IBD-BIOM and multidimensional omics approach to stratification of patients with low back pain), altogether worth over 12 million euros.
Professor Primorac has been an invited speaker at 60 conferences around the world and he is the cofounder of International Society of Applied Biological Sciences (ISABS) in which the Scientific Committee for Nobel Prize Laureates is involved. Several renowned media outlets, both electronic and print, have reported on the results of his work, such as the New York Times, USA Today, Chicago Tribune, Hartford Courant, JAMA, The Lancet, Science, NBC, and Channel 8 (Connecticut TV station).
Professor Primorac has received 21 domestic and international awards including the Young Investigator Award of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research in 1992, the Michael Geisman Fellowship Award of the Osteogenesis Imperfecta Foundation in 1993, the Life Time Achievement Award from the Henry C. Lee’s Institute of Forensic Science in 2002, the Award of the Italian Region Veneto for Special Achievements in Promoting Science in the EU in 2007, the University of New Haven’s International Award for Excellence in 2010, and the Presidential Award by the president of the International Association of Forensic Sciences for
his contribution to forensic sciences in 2011. He is an honorary citizen of five cities in and outside of Croatia.
From 2003 to 2009 he served as minister of science, education and sports, Republic of Croatia. According to the International Republican Institute survey of October 1, 2007, he was rated as the most successful minister in the Croatian government with 31 percent approval rate. As the minister of science, education and sports, Dr. Primorac launched a series of successful reforms in primary, secondary, and tertiary education as well as in science, technology, and sports that significantly improved the system. The award for numerous efforts made in the Croatian educational system is the survey of Newsweek (2010) which rated Croatia 22nd in education, ahead of 12 countries from the G20 group.
Cerys Rees is capability lead, CB Analysis and Attribution, Detection Department, Dstl Porton Down, and is responsible for both the operational and research aspects in this area. She is a microbiologist with 15 years of experience handling dangerous pathogens, and for the last nine years has been the technical leader for the development of the CB analysis capability for defense and security (law enforcement) purposes in the United Kingdom.
Richard Vipond is operations manager, Rare and Imported Pathogens Laboratory (RIPL), Public Health England, Porton Down, and project manager for groups providing diagnostic support for RIPL and research into related pathogens. He is responsible for assessment and application of new diagnostics, genotyping, and genomic methods to study high-containment pathogens. His interests include bacterial pathogenicity, genomics, proteomics, diagnostics, epidemiology, and high-containment bacterial pathogens. Dr. Vipond has published on bacterial pathogenicity, vaccine evaluation, vaccine characterization, genome analysis, and epidemiology.
Haruo Watanabe is director general, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan, and professor, Faculty of Medicine, Tokyo University, Japan. Dr. Watanabe’s research interest areas are in understanding the molecular pathogenesis of enteric bacteria including enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and Shigella, and development and application of molecular epidemiological methods for outbreak investigations. Dr Watanabe holds M.D. and Ph.D. degrees from Gunma University in microbiology.
Ruifu Yang is a professor at the Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, China. His research is focused on bacterial genomics, evo-
lution, and pathogenesis. He has published more than 150 papers in peer-reviewed journals, including the New England Journal of Medicine, Nature, Nature Genetics, PNAS, PLOS Genetics, and Clinical Infectious Diseases. He is vice director of the Chinese Society of Microbiology and a member of the National Evaluation Committee for Food Safety Risk Assessment. He is also associate editor for PLOS NTD, Microbiologica Sinica, Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine, Journal of Zoonosis, and editor for Pathogens and Diseases, New Microbes and New Infections, and Chinese Journal of Microbiology and Immunology.