Al-Samarrai, T., W. Wu, E. Begier, J. Lurio, R. Tokarz, M. Plagianos, N. Calman, F. Mostashari, T. Briese, W. I. Lipkin, and C. Greene. 2013. Evaluation of a pilot respiratory virus surveillance system linking electronic health record and diagnostic data. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice 19(4):322–329.
Borch, K. H., C. Nyegaard, J. B. Hansen, E. B. Mathiesen, I. Njølstad, T. Wilsgaard, and S. K. Brækkan. 2011. Joint effects of obesity and body height on the risk of venous thromboembolism. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology 31(6):1439–1444.
Clark, S. L., J. A. Meyers, D. K. Frye, and J. A. Perlin. 2011. Patient safety in obstetrics—The Hospital Corporation of America experience. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 204(4):283–287.
Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group. 1993. The effect of intensive treatment of diabetes on the development and progression of long-term complications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. New England Journal of Medicine 329(14):977–986.
Eddy, D. M., and R. Shachter. 1992. Meta-analysis by the confidence profile method. Waltham, MA: Academic Press.
Friedberg, M. W., E. C. Schneider, M. B. Rosenthal, K. G. Volpp, and R. M. Werner. 2014. Association between participation in a multipayer medical home intervention and changes in quality, utilization, and costs of care. JAMA 311(8):815–825.
Good Stewardship Working Group. 2011. The “top 5” lists in primary care. Archives of Internal Medicine 171(15):1385–1390.
Grady, D., and R. F. Redberg. 2010. Less is more: How less health care can result in better health. Archives of Internal Medicine 170(9):749–750.
Huang, S. S., E. Septimus, K. Kleinman, J. Moody, J. Hickok, T. R. Avery, J. Lankiewicz, A. Gombosev, L. Terpstra, F. Hartford, M. K. Hayden, J. A. Jernigan, R. A. Weinstein, V. J. Fraser, K. Haffenreffer, E. Cui, R. E. Kaganov, K. Lolans, J. B. Perlin, R. Platt, CDC Prevention Epicenters Program, AHRQ DECIDE Network, and Health Care-Associated Infections Program. 2013. Targeted versus universal decolonization to prevent ICU infection. New England Journal of Medicine 368(24):2255–2265.
IOM (Institute of Medicine). 2013. Observational studies in a learning health system: Workshop summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
Kass, N. E., R. R. Faden, S. N. Goodman, P. Pronovost, S. Tunis, and T. L. Beauchamp. 2013. An ethics framework for a learning health care system: A departure from traditional research ethics and clinical ethics. Hastings Center Report Jan.–Feb.; Spec. No.:S16–S27.
L&M Policy Research, Abt Associates, Avalere Health, Social & Scientific Systems, and Truven Health Analytics. 2013. Evaluation of CMMI accountable care organization initiatives: Effect of pioneer ACOs on Medicare spending in the first year. Washington, DC: L&M Policy Research. http://innovation.cms.gov/Files/reports/PioneerACOEvalReport1.pdf (accessed June 17, 2014).
Maeng, D. D., T. R. Graf, D. E. Davis, J. Tomcavage, and F. J. Bloom. 2012a. Can a patient-centered medical home lead to better patient outcomes?: The quality implications of Geisinger’s ProvenHealth Navigator. American Journal of Medical Quality 27(3):210–216.
Maeng, D. D., J. Graham, T. R. Graf, J. N. Liberman, N. B. Dermes, J. Tomcavage, D. E. Davis, F. J. Bloom, and G. D. Steele. 2012b. Reducing long-term cost by transforming primary care: Evidence from Geisinger’s medical home model. American Journal of Managed Care 18(3):149–155.
Milstone, A. M., A. Elward, X. Song, D. M. Zerr, R. Orscheln, K. Speck, D. Obeng, N. G. Reich, S. E. Coffin, T. M. Perl, and the Pediatric SCRUB Trial Study Group. 2013. Daily chlorhexidine bathing to reduce bacteraemia in critically ill children: A multicentre, cluster-randomised, crossover trial. Lancet 381(9872):1099–1106.
National Center for Health Statistics. 2002. Deaths: Leading causes for 2001. National Vital Statistics Reports 52(9).
Pawson, R., and N. Tilley. 1997. Realistic evaluation. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Rajkumar, R., P. H. Conway, and M. Tavenner. 2014. CMS—Engaging multiple payers in payment reform. JAMA 311(19):1967–1968.
Ray, W. A., K. T. Murray, K. Hall, P. G. Arbogast, and C. M. Stein. 2012. Azithromycin and the risk of cardiovascular death. New England Journal of Medicine 366(20):1881–1890.
Redberg, R., M. Katz, and D. Grady. 2011. Diagnostic tests: Another frontier for less is more, or why talking to your patient is a safe and effective method of reassurance. Archives of Internal Medicine 171(7):619.
Stephens, S. C., C. K. Fann, F. V. Strona, W. Wolf, S. E. Cohen, S. S. Philip, and K. T. Bernstein. 2014. Identifying syphilis risk networks through venue attendance in San Francisco. Sexually Transmitted Diseases 41(5):333–337.
Weinstein, J. N., T. D. Tosteson, J. D. Lurie, A. N. A. Tosteson, B. Hanscom, J. S. Skinner, W. A. Abdu, A. S. Hillbrand, S. D. Boden, and R. A. Deyo. 2006a. Surgical vs. nonoperative treatment for lumbar disk herniation. The Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT): A randomized trial. JAMA 296(20):2441–2450.
Weinstein, J. N., J. D. Lurie, T. D. Toteston, J. S. Skinner, B. Hanscom, A. N. A. Tosteson, H. Herkowitz, J. Fischgrund, F. P. Cammisa, T. Albert, and R. A. Deyo. 2006b. Surgical vs. nonoperative treatment for lumbar disk herniation. The Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT) Observational Cohort. JAMA 296(20):2451–2459.
Weinstein, J. N., J. D. Lurie, T. D. Tosteson, B. Hanscom, A. N. A. Tosteson, E. A. Blood, N. J. O. Birkmeyer, A. S. Hillbrand, H. Herkowitz, F. P. Camissa, T. J. Albert, S. E. Emery, L. G. Lenke, W. A. Abdu, M. Longley, T. J. Errico, and S. S. Hu. 2007. Surgical versus nonsurgical treatment for lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis. New England Journal of Medicine 356(22):2257–2270.
Zhou, E. H., K. Gelperin, M. S. Levenson, M. Rose, Y. H. Hsueh, and D. J. Graham. 2014. Risk of acute myocardial infarction, stroke, or death in patients initiating olmesartan or other angiotensin receptor blockers—A cohort study using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety 23(4):340–347.