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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G: Food Group and Subgroup Intakes." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Review of WIC Food Packages: An Evaluation of White Potatoes in the Cash Value Voucher: Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20221.
×
Suggested Citation:"Appendix G: Food Group and Subgroup Intakes." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Review of WIC Food Packages: An Evaluation of White Potatoes in the Cash Value Voucher: Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20221.
×

TABLE G-1 Daily Food Group and Subgroup Intakes: Vegetables and Fruits, Children

WIC Participantsc WIC Nonparticipantsd
At Home Away from Home At Home Away from Home
FPED Group/Subgroup Foods Amount (c-eq/d) Percente (%) Amount (c-eq/d) Percent (%) Amount (c-eq/d) Percent (%) Amount (c-eq/d) Percent (%)
Vegetables
   Starchy White Potatoes Chips 0.05 19 0.00 1 0.05 24 0.00 2
“French Fries, Frozen” 0.02 7 0.05 23 0.01 6 0.05 24
Non-WIC-Eligiblea 0.00 1 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0
Potentially WIC-Eligibleb 0.09 40 0.02 9 0.07 37 0.01 7
Total 0.16 68 0.08 32 0.14 67 0.07 33
Other Starchy 0.05 85 0.01 15 0.05 76 0.02 24
Total Starchy 0.21 71 0.08 29 0.18 69 0.08 31
 
   Tomatoes 0.12 80 0.03 20 0.11 74 0.04 26
   Dark Green 0.02 80 0.00 20 0.02 87 0.00 13
   Red-Orange (excluding tomatoes) 0.04 84 0.01 16 0.03 62 0.02 38
   Legumes 0.05 86 0.01 14 0.05 84 0.01 16
   Other Vegetables 0.10 73 0.04 27 0.11 75 0.04 25
Fruit
   Citrus-Melon-Berries 0.14 88 0.02 12 0.14 88 0.02 12
   Other Fruit 0.52 91 0.05 9 0.51 87 0.08 13
   Juices 0.66 92 0.06 8 0.51 87 0.08 13
Suggested Citation:"Appendix G: Food Group and Subgroup Intakes." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Review of WIC Food Packages: An Evaluation of White Potatoes in the Cash Value Voucher: Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20221.
×

NOTE: c-eq/d = cup-equivalents/d.

a “Non-WIC-Eligible” includes white potatoes in jarred baby foods and canned products, including white potatoes in corned beef hash, stews, and soups.

b Although some forms of potatoes that are not fresh might meet the current regulations as allowable forms, it was not possible to distinguish whether the form of non-fresh potato would have been allowable (e.g., whether the “frozen” form had fat added) using information in the NHANES food item codes. If the food item was not specified as to form (from fresh, frozen, or dry mix), it was considered to be from a potentially WIC-eligible source (i.e., “fresh” source).

c Children 1–4.9 years of age participating in the WIC program at the time of the survey (n = 643).

d Children 1–4.9 years of age not participating in the WIC program at the time of the survey (n = 462).

e Percent of the total food group intake; e.g., percent of total starchy vegetable intake.

See additional notes for Tables G-1 and G-2 following Table G-2.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix G: Food Group and Subgroup Intakes." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Review of WIC Food Packages: An Evaluation of White Potatoes in the Cash Value Voucher: Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20221.
×

TABLE G-2 Daily Food Group and Subgroup Intakes: Vegetables and Fruits, Women

WIC Participantsc
At Home Away from Home
FPED Group/Subgroup Foods Amount (c-eq/d) Percentf (%) Amount (c-eq/d) Percent (%)
Vegetables
   Starchy White Potatoes Chips 0.03 9 0.00 0
“French Fries, Frozen” 0.02 5 0.09 26
Non-WIC-Eligiblea 0.00 0 0.00 0
Potentially 0.14 41 0.06 20
WIC-Eligibleb
Total 0.18 54 0.15 46
 
Other Starchy 0.06 90 0.01 10
Total Starchy 0.24 60 0.16 40
   Tomatoes 0.14 61 0.09 39
   Dark Green 0.04 70 0.02 30
   Red-Orange (excluding tomatoes) 0.04 76 0.01 24
   Legumes 0.12 81 0.03 19
 
Other Vegetables 0.22 53 0.20 47
 
Fruit
   Citrus-Melon-Berries 0.13 88 0.02 12
   Other Fruit 0.30 95 0.01 5
   Juices 0.47 92 0.04 8

NOTE: c-eq/d = cup-equivalents/d.

a “Non-WIC-Eligible” includes white potatoes in jarred baby foods and canned products, including white potatoes in corned beef hash, stews, and soups.

b Although some forms of potatoes that are not fresh might meet the current regulations as allowable forms, it was not possible to distinguish whether the form of non-fresh potato would have been allowable (e.g., whether the “frozen” form had fat added) using information in the NHANES food item codes. If the food item was not specified as to form (from fresh, frozen, or dry mix), it was considered to be from a potentially WIC-eligible source (i.e., “fresh” source).

Suggested Citation:"Appendix G: Food Group and Subgroup Intakes." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Review of WIC Food Packages: An Evaluation of White Potatoes in the Cash Value Voucher: Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20221.
×
WIC Nonparticipants, Eligibled Non-WIC-Eligiblee
At Home Away from Home At Home Away from Home
Amount (c-eq/d) Percent (%) Amount (c-eq/d) Percent (%) Amount (c-eq/d) Percent (%) Amount (c-eq/d) Percent (%)
 
0.05 11 0.00 0 0.06 18 0.01 3
 
0.02 4 0.08 19 0.02 5 0.08 25
 
0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0
0.22 50 0.07 16 0.12 37 0.04 12
 
0.28 65 0.15 35 0.19 60 0.13 40
 
0.06 84 0.01 16 0.06 80 0.02 20
0.34 68 0.16 32 0.26 64 0.14 36
0.23 78 0.07 22 0.16 63 0.09 37
0.07 67 0.03 33 0.06 68 0.03 32
0.06 85 0.01 15 0.05 76 0.02 24
0.04 84 0.01 16 0.08 76 0.02 24
 
0.37 67 0.18 33 0.31 63 0.19 37
 
 
0.13 95 0.01 5 0.11 82 0.03 18
0.51 89 0.06 11 0.32 88 0.04 12
0.40 80 0.10 20 0.23 79 0.06 21

c Women 19–50 years of age participating in the WIC program at the time of the survey (n = 96).

d Women 19–50 years of age identified in the survey as being pregnant, breastfeeding, or postpartum but not participating in WIC (n = 51).

e Women 19–50 years of age identified in the survey as not being pregnant, breastfeeding, or postpartum and not participating in WIC (n = 1,379).

f Percent of the total food group intake; e.g., percent of total starchy vegetable intake. See additional notes for Tables G-1 and G-2 following this table.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix G: Food Group and Subgroup Intakes." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Review of WIC Food Packages: An Evaluation of White Potatoes in the Cash Value Voucher: Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20221.
×

NOTES FOR TABLES G-1 AND G-2: Population groups are ≤ 185 percent poverty income ratio. Appropriate weights were applied to intake estimates to equate recommended food group intake recommendations that differed between groups. In all of the data analyses, the data were weighted to population values by using the method of balanced repeated replication and constructed the replicated weight sets as described by Fuller (2009). To assess food group intake data, the usual intake distributions were estimated using methods that account for the statistical properties of the data (intra-individual variation and reported data that are normally distributed [Carriquiry, 1999; IOM, 2000]). Underreporting of intake in the NHANES survey has been well documented (Archer et al., 2013). Food and intakes are obtained by 1 to 2 24-hour recalls, which can be useful for assessment of dietary intakes by groups (IOM, 2000).

DATA SOURCES FOR TABLES G-1 AND G-2: NHANES 2007–2008 and NHANES 2009–2010 (USDA/ARS, 2007–2010).

REFERENCES

Archer, E., G. A. Hand, and S. N. Blair. 2013. Validity of U.S. Nutritional Surveillance: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey caloric energy intake data, 1971-2010. PLoS ONE 8(10):e76632.

Carriquiry, A. L. 1998. Assessing the prevalence of nutrient inadequacy. Public Health Nutrition 2(1):23-33.

Fuller, W. 2009. Sampling Statistics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

IOM (Institute of Medicine). 2000. Dietary reference intakes for vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, and carotenoids. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

USDA/ARS (U.S. Department of Agriculture/Agricultural Research Service). 2007–2010. What we eat in America, NHANES 2007-2010. Beltsville, MD: USDA/ARS. http://www.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid=18349 (accessed December 15, 2014).

Suggested Citation:"Appendix G: Food Group and Subgroup Intakes." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Review of WIC Food Packages: An Evaluation of White Potatoes in the Cash Value Voucher: Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20221.
×
Page 57
Suggested Citation:"Appendix G: Food Group and Subgroup Intakes." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Review of WIC Food Packages: An Evaluation of White Potatoes in the Cash Value Voucher: Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20221.
×
Page 58
Suggested Citation:"Appendix G: Food Group and Subgroup Intakes." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Review of WIC Food Packages: An Evaluation of White Potatoes in the Cash Value Voucher: Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20221.
×
Page 59
Suggested Citation:"Appendix G: Food Group and Subgroup Intakes." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Review of WIC Food Packages: An Evaluation of White Potatoes in the Cash Value Voucher: Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20221.
×
Page 60
Suggested Citation:"Appendix G: Food Group and Subgroup Intakes." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Review of WIC Food Packages: An Evaluation of White Potatoes in the Cash Value Voucher: Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20221.
×
Page 61
Suggested Citation:"Appendix G: Food Group and Subgroup Intakes." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Review of WIC Food Packages: An Evaluation of White Potatoes in the Cash Value Voucher: Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/20221.
×
Page 62
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Review of WIC Food Packages: An Evaluation of White Potatoes in the Cash Value Voucher assesses the impact of 2009 regulation to allow the purchase of vegetables and fruits, excluding white potatoes, with a cash value voucher on food and nutrient intakes of the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) population and to consider whether white potatoes should be permitted for purchase with the voucher. This report considers the effects on diet quality, the health and cultural needs of the WIC population, and allows for effective and efficient administration nationwide in a cost-effective manner. Review of WIC Food Packages: An Evaluation of White Potatoes in the Cash Value Voucher recommends that the U.S. Department of Agriculture should allow white potatoes as a WIC-eligible vegetable, in forms currently permitted for other vegetables, in the cash value voucher pending changes to starchy vegetable intake recommendations in the 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans.

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