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36 chapter five RESOURCES AND TRAINING TOOLS The nature and importance of fuel processing, distribution, and delivery require that standards be established for safety and quality purposes. A number of different professional and governing bodies have formed committees or boards to oversee the development of standards throughout the world. There is no regulatory requirement for the acceptance of any one particular standard because conditions, requirements, and operations vary throughout the world. What has emerged has been the development of standards that have gained prominence and acceptance over the years and whose strength as a standard stems from incorporation into operating agreements and contracts. A local governmental unit, an airline, or an airport organization can adopt a certain set of standards to be followed, thereby making the adopted standards the accepted way of doing business. Most standards have evolved from professional organizations having expertise in a particular matter or the members of such groups seeking to standardize equipment, processes, and quality for their benefit. For instance, in the United States, airlines sought to achieve standardization of fueling delivery and distribution through their organization, the Air Transport Association (ATA), which is now called A4A. The work that came out of committee was ATA Specification 103, Standard for Jet Fuel Quality Control at Airports. Because ATA 103 was adopted by member airlines, it has become the de facto standard for how fuel is handled by or for the airlines in the United States. Elsewhere in the world, JIG and EI are the prevalent standards. A comparison of what areas of fuel processing the ATA, JIG, and EI standards cover is shown in Figure 22. ORGANIZATIONS The following list includes descriptions of several major organizations involved in establishing standards and certification and providing training regarding fuel delivery and handling practices at airports. American Petroleum Institute API is an organization that represents oil and natural gas producers, refiners, suppliers, pipeline operators, and marine transporters, as well as service and supply companies that support all segments of the industry. API has developed and published numerous voluntary standards for equipment, materials, operations, and processes for the petroleum and natural gas industry. The standards are used by private industry and governmental agencies. Since 2010, many of the publications generated by API have transitioned to the EI. Energy Institute EI is a professional organization for the energy industry. Its purpose is to deliver good practices and promote professionalism across the depth and breadth of the industry. It achieves its goals by developing and disseminating knowledge and skills about good practices for energy system opera- tion worldwide. In that regard, EI has taken over the distribution of many industry standards and suggested practices, in particular those of global aviation fuel handling equipment standards.
37 Joint Inspection Group Similar to the purpose of ATA Specification 103, JIG was formed to develop a set of standards that govern the operation of shared fuel storage and handling facilities at the worldâs major airports out- side the United States where JIG members operate. Petroleum Equipment Institute PEI is a professional organization made up of companies engaged in the manufacturing and distribu- tion of equipment used in the petroleum and energy handling industry. It offers a variety of items covering technical and regulatory information of special concern to manufacturers, sellers, install- ers, and users of petroleum marketing equipment. It further provides education, testing, and audit services. International Civil Aviation Organization ICAO has responsibility for fostering the orderly development, growth, and safety of international aviation. The 9977 Manual specifies the role and responsibility of a business entity involved in the aviation fuel supply chain. The Manual lists a number of organizations that have developed policies, procedures, and standards for safeguarding aviation fuel quality and ensuring the safe management of fuel operations from the point of manufacture to delivery into aircraft fuel tanks. ASTM Now called ASTM International, this professional organization develops and delivers a large number of voluntary consensus standards for test methods, specifications, guides, and practices that support industries and governments worldwide. Related to aviation, ASTM standards are used to ensure the consistent quality and delivery of fuel. Coordinating Research Council Through committee action, the CRC is a nonprofit organization that directs engineering and environ- mental studies on the interaction between automotive and other mobility equipment (including avia- tion) and the use of petroleum products. The formal objective of CRC is to encourage and promote the arts and sciences by directing scientific cooperative research to develop the most effective possible combinations of fuels, lubricants, and the equipment in which they are used, and to afford a means of cooperation with the government on matters of national or international interest within the field. FIGURE 22 Comparison of API, ATA, JIG, and EI standards and point of industry application. RoW = rest of world. (Courtesy: Shell Aviation Limited.) Used with permission.
38 SAE SAE International is a global association of engineers and related technical experts in the aerospace, automotive, and commercial vehicle industries. It also helps develop voluntary consensus standards in the aerospace industry on safety issues. International Business Aviation Council IBAC is an international, nongovernmental association that represents, promotes, and protects the interests of business aviation in international policy and regulatory forums. It sponsors the Interna- tional Standard for Business Aircraft Handling (IS-BAH), which is a set of most effective practices for the industry and standardization for ground handlers and operators around the world to meet the coming SMS requirements from the ICAO. STANDARDS AND RESOURCES Appendix A provides a sample resource list of the standards, documents, training, and certifications that various organizations have developed regarding airport fuel handling. Many are technical in nature but are useful for better understanding the operation and design of components and enhanc- ing the knowledge and education of individuals. Found within the documents, in particular those of ICAO, ASTM, API, EI, PEI, and FAA, are additional lists of referenced and useful documents. TRAINING A number of factors make it prudent for an organization with responsibility for fueling to have well- trained individuals. Factors include reduced liability and risk exposure, reduced insurance premi- ums, compliance with state or local fire codes, compliance with industry best practices, compliance with fuel supplier or customer requirements, and enhancement of public and business relations. Fuel system operation and training can be obtained through any of five general categories of providers: 1. Airport. 2. Fuel providers and agents. 3. Professional trade organizations. 4. Consulting companies. 5. Educational institutions. For airports certificated under 14 CFR Part 139, FAA requires the development of standards for protection against fire and explosions in the storing, dispensing, and handling of fuel on the airport. The standards, policies, and procedures are more focused on the safety aspects of fueling than on the functional operation of systems and components. Airports that are not certificated under Part 139 do not have the same requirements, although state or local codes may apply to them. FAA AC 150/5230-4B (2012) provides guidance for the training of individuals involved in airport fuel handling. Examples of airports that provide fuel-handling training can be found at the Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport (Study Guide for Fuel Handlers 2006) and the Juneau International Airport (Juneau International Airport Study Guide for Fuel Handlers n.d.). A standard web search will provide information on available courses, consultants, professional organizations, and fuel providers. Cited most frequently as an industry standard in interviews with fuel service agents and providers is the Safety 1st program sponsored by NATA (âEducation & Training Programsâ 2014). Other programs are noted in Appendix A and in an addendum to AC 150/5230-4B (2014). The addendum provides a list of fuel safety training course providers that have been approved by the FAA (AC 150/5230-4BâAddendum 2014). Most of the major aviation fuel providers, because of the importance of delivering safe, clean, dry fuel, will provide specialized training to member organizations. Training programs offered by the oil industry generally are offered and provided as part of their agreements with fuel distributors and fueling agents.
39 A training program for fueling personnel can contain topics similar to those identified in ICAO Document 9977 (Manual on Civil Aviation Jet Fuel Supply 2012), including â¢ receipts; â¢ transfers; â¢ storage; â¢ dispensing; â¢ product inspection and routine check program; â¢ quality control and maintenance record-keeping requirements and record retention times; â¢ emergency response; â¢ reporting of observed deficiencies or hazards that could generate risks to the safety of personnel, facilities, or equipment, including aircraft; â¢ managing and handling contaminated fuel; â¢ procedures for handling defueled fuel products; and â¢ customer notification. JOB DESCRIPTION The responsibilities for the delivery of safe, clear, and bright fuel to aircraft lies with the skill and knowledge of the individuals engaged in the fueling process at all stages of fuel delivery, from the refinery to the into-plane agent. Job duties can vary from position to position in the fuel supply chain. Typical duties and essential knowledge requirements for an individual engaged in fueling operations might include any of the following: â¢ Maintain a safe and efficient operation. â¢ Ensure customer standards are met and contract services are performed. â¢ Ensure company safety and health policies are enforced. â¢ Ensure compliance with FAA, TSA, IATA, ATA, U.S. Customs, airport authority, and company rules and regulations. â¢ Ensure compliance with ATA 103 Fuel Quality Control Specification, NFPA 407, and Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR) Part 139.321. â¢ Ensure accurate accounting of fuel transactions. â¢ Perform daily quality control checks on equipment. â¢ Maintain equipment in clean and functional condition. â¢ Ensure the correct loading and balancing of fuel. â¢ Check equipment for unsafe conditions and take appropriate action to remove any such conditions. â¢ Operate valves and manifolds for product receipt from suppliers by means of pipeline, tanker or barge, tank truck, and railcar deliveries. â¢ Receive/dispatch jet fuel, gasoline, diesel fuel, avgas, and glycol by means of pipelines and trucks. â¢ Sample and test products for quality control and perform inspections and basic maintenance on facilities, fuel systems, and fueling vehicles. â¢ Complete daily fuel reports and log entries of fuel transactions, quality control, and maintenance. â¢ Audit and correct fuel-related paper work, as required. â¢ Transfer product and monitor storage tanks, pipelines, and related equipment to ensure that they are in good working order to prevent spills, releases, overfills, and product contamination.