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28 t r a n s p o r t a t i o n r e s i l i e n c e â¢ Research to develop and refine methodologies for formulating recovery plans, including learning from other sectors (e.g., earthquake response programs), was also cited. Breakout Group C Susanne DesRoches Challenges â¢ Challenges discussed by participants in this break- out group included learning from the event and learning from the experiences in other regions. For example, areas experiencing temperature increases can learn from areas that already experience high temperatures on a regular basis. â¢ Some participants thought that resource conflicts, such as conflicts over water and power allocations, may emerge during extreme conditions. Identifying principles for resource allocation in advance was cited as poten- tially beneficial. Addressing water management was part of this discussion. â¢ Participants discussed the demands placed on emergency workers, safety for workers, heat stress on passengers, and other related issues. â¢ Some participants considered how extreme heat might change the demand for different transport services and travel behavior and thought that more research on this topic would be beneficial. â¢ A number of participants discussed the challenges and the importance of communication and coordination among stakeholders, with other groups, and with the public before, during, and after an event. Determining the lead agency or group was noted as important, as was identifying the triggers for activating different outreach levels and messages. â¢ Developing thresholds and plans for implementing different responses and for managing available resources could be valuable. â¢ The capacity of communities, human resource agencies, and other groups was also discussed. It was noted that these groups may not have available funding or staff time to deal with issues related to transportation and extreme weather events. â¢ New design standards based on higher tempera- tures and the stress on equipment were discussed. Research â¢ Some participants suggested exploring the poten- tial to generate energy for the transport sector from the increased heat and higher temperatures as a research topic. â¢ A second research topic focused on assessing the optimal allocation of energy, water, and other resources to different purposes during extreme heat events. â¢ A third research topic was assessing the impacts of heat and humidity on our different transportation system equipment, technology, and component parts. Examining the impact on users of the transport system was also noted as important. â¢ Research examining different combinations of extreme weather events could be beneficial. For example, a drought followed by heavy rains would probably be more catastrophic that just the heavy rains, and explor- ing the impact of these compounding events was noted as an important topic to consider. â¢ Some participants also noted that although sharing experiences and lessons learned was important, there was also a need for region-specific research on the impacts of drought and heat waves. â¢ Research on how to include the potential for higher temperatures in design and construction projects today was suggested as important. Identifying methods to con- duct life-cycle cost analyses and benefitâcost analyses on improvements in current investments in equipment and structures to address extreme temperatures in the future could be part of this research. Breakout Group D Richard Wright Challenges â¢ One challenge discussed in the breakout group was the requirements by the Federal Emergency Management Agency and other agencies on replacing and repairing infrastructure as part of disaster relief programs. Many programs allow only replacement of an existing facility, with no upgrades or improvements. â¢ A second challenge voiced by a number of partici- pants was inadequate and untimely funding for recovery and gaps between available relief funding and the recov- ery needs of different transport agencies. â¢ A third challenge was the adequacy of current codes and standards. One approach to addressing cli- mate change was the use of phased design codes for future adaptation and alternatives. These codes could provide flexibility for design changes in the future based on changing conditions. â¢ Private-sector collaboration during recovery was noted as a challenge. Collaboration between private- sector groups as well as between public- and private- sector groups was also suggested. â¢ Some participants suggested that another challenge was possible: institutional and legal barriers to address-
29s e s s i o n 3 : r e c o v e r y ing uncertainty, which might include limitations on an agencyâs role, authority, and funding. â¢ Other participants discussed that optimal systems tend to be brittle and that operational information sys- tems need to be robust. Further, private-sector just-in- time delivery systems tend to be brittle. â¢ Other individuals suggested that improved disas- ter relief legislation and policies would be beneficial, along with codes and standards supporting adaptable infrastructure. Some noted that a crisis situation may help focus the need for change. Formalizing intergovern- mental collaboration was also noted by participants as needed to manage recovery. Public and private funding during a recovery was also discussed, with participants suggesting that publicâprivate partnerships were impor- tant for crisis response. â¢ Prioritizing recovery actions and investments was noted as an important management strategy by partici- pants, as well as following preestablished networks for emergency recovery. Participants suggested that these elements could also build social capital. Research â¢ One research topic considered by participants was developing approaches to maintain flexibility during the recovery stage of an extreme weather event to respond to changing conditions and priorities. â¢ Another possible research topic was updating infra- structure design standards to address climate change issues. â¢ A related research topic was developing evaluation procedures for performance-based standards. â¢ Identifying future demands on the transportation system, including modal preferences of different groups and the impact of these demands on recovery, was con- sidered a possible research topic. It was noted that travel behavior and mode choice may change during extreme weather events. â¢ Research on organizational collaboration mod- els and methods to evaluate different models would be valuable. â¢ Some participants suggested that assessing alternative sources for disaster relief funding and evaluating methods to allocate available resources would be beneficial. â¢ Research on how to address inertia for existing projects that may not fit with future climate changes could be important. â¢ Research on the use of social media during the recovery phase was considered. Sharing current practices in the use of social media, possible issues, and potential innovative approaches was also suggested. â¢ Research examining the impact of future urbaniza- tion on recovery needs was mentioned as was developing and sustaining methods to share experiences and lessons learned with various approaches in different areas for an effective trans-Atlantic research project.