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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Glossary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Redesigning the Process for Establishing the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24883.
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Appendix A

Glossary

conclusion statements—Term used to describe concise statements developed by Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committees (DGACs) to directly answer a specific question.

data integration—In this report, this term refers to the process of combining the results of systematic reviews, food pattern modeling, descriptive data analysis, and any other types of evidence to develop the DGAC’s conclusions on the totality of the body of evidence for the DGA.

data interpretation—In this report, this term refers to the subjective process of building on synthesis results to develop the DGAC’s conclusions about a single study, multiple studies, or systematic reviews (e.g., interpretation of a risk of bias assessment for an individual study; interpretation of heterogeneity across multiple studies to decide whether to combine studies; interpretation of whether or not there is a strong relationship between diet and cardiovascular disease based on a systematic review).

data synthesis—In this report, this term includes both the evaluation of the results across multiple studies in a systematic review (e.g., the qualitative or quantitative analysis of study results), as well as the evaluation of multiple components within a single study (e.g., the combination of correlated outcomes in a single study).

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Glossary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Redesigning the Process for Establishing the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24883.
×

de novo systematic reviews—A type of analysis involving original, comprehensive assessments of the literature.

descriptive data analysis—In this report, this term refers to a type of analysis used by DGACs to answer descriptive questions, generally about overall population trends and population subgroups.

DGA cycle—In this report, this term refers to the 5-year time period between the release of successive editions of the DGA Policy Report.

DGA Policy ReportIn this report, this term is used to refer to the report released every 5 years by the secretaries of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) in response to the National Nutrition Monitoring and Related Research Act that is used by policy makers.

DGA recommendations—In this report, this term refers to the main messages from USDA and HHS.

DGAC Scientific ReportIn this report, this term is used to describe the technical report that is prepared for the secretaries of USDA and HHS by the DGAC; it serves as the scientific evidence base for developing the DGA Policy Report.

evidence grading—The process of determining the strength of a body of evidence in a systematic review, using established criteria.

food pattern modeling—A type of sensitivity analysis used to incorporate various data inputs, constraints, goals, and assumptions to inform food patterns and resulting nutrient profiles, as well as to answer various questions regarding the effects of modifications to food patterns.

guidelines—Term used in the various editions of the DGA Policy Report to highlight overarching guidance.

implication statements—Term used by the DGAC to provide context and describe actions that individuals, programs, or policies might take in light of the conclusion statement.

key recommendations—Term used in the various editions of the DGA Policy Report to make statements with strong scientific evidence or rationale that will not likely result in substantial changes in the face of new evidence.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Glossary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Redesigning the Process for Establishing the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24883.
×

nutrient of concern—A nutrient that is under- or overconsumed by the U.S. population and/or select population group, as categorized by the DGAC. The terms nutrients of concern and nutrients of public health concern were used interchangeably in this report.

Nutrition Evidence Library—A program housed in the USDA’s Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion that conducts systematic reviews to inform federal nutrition policy and programs.

risk of bias assessment—Evaluating the potential for bias in an individual study (e.g., the potential for selection bias in a study).

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Glossary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Redesigning the Process for Establishing the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24883.
×

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Glossary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Redesigning the Process for Establishing the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24883.
×
Page 211
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Glossary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Redesigning the Process for Establishing the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24883.
×
Page 212
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Glossary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Redesigning the Process for Establishing the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24883.
×
Page 213
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Glossary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Redesigning the Process for Establishing the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24883.
×
Page 214
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What foods should Americans eat to promote their health, and in what amounts? What is the scientific evidence that supports specific recommendations for dietary intake to reduce the risk of multifactorial chronic disease? These questions are critically important because dietary intake has been recognized to have a role as a key determinant of health.

As the primary federal source of consistent, evidence-based information on dietary practices for optimal nutrition, the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) have the promise to empower Americans to make informed decisions about what and how much they eat to improve health and reduce the risk of chronic disease. The adoption and widespread translation of the DGA requires that they be universally viewed as valid, evidence-based, and free of bias and conflicts of interest to the extent possible. However, this has not routinely been the case.

A first short report meant to inform the 2020 review cycle explored how the advisory committee selection process can be improved to provide more transparency, eliminate bias, and include committee members with a range of viewpoints. This second and final report recommends changes to the DGA process to reduce and manage sources of bias and conflicts of interest, improve timely opportunities for engagement by all interested parties, enhance transparency, and strengthen the science base of the process.

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