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Enhancing Airport Wayfinding for Aging Travelers and Persons with Disabilities (2017)

Chapter: Chapter 6 - Arriving Customer Journey

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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 6 - Arriving Customer Journey." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Enhancing Airport Wayfinding for Aging Travelers and Persons with Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24930.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 6 - Arriving Customer Journey." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Enhancing Airport Wayfinding for Aging Travelers and Persons with Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24930.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 6 - Arriving Customer Journey." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Enhancing Airport Wayfinding for Aging Travelers and Persons with Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24930.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 6 - Arriving Customer Journey." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Enhancing Airport Wayfinding for Aging Travelers and Persons with Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24930.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 6 - Arriving Customer Journey." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Enhancing Airport Wayfinding for Aging Travelers and Persons with Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24930.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 6 - Arriving Customer Journey." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Enhancing Airport Wayfinding for Aging Travelers and Persons with Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24930.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 6 - Arriving Customer Journey." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Enhancing Airport Wayfinding for Aging Travelers and Persons with Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24930.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 6 - Arriving Customer Journey." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Enhancing Airport Wayfinding for Aging Travelers and Persons with Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24930.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 6 - Arriving Customer Journey." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Enhancing Airport Wayfinding for Aging Travelers and Persons with Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24930.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 6 - Arriving Customer Journey." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Enhancing Airport Wayfinding for Aging Travelers and Persons with Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24930.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 6 - Arriving Customer Journey." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Enhancing Airport Wayfinding for Aging Travelers and Persons with Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24930.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 6 - Arriving Customer Journey." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Enhancing Airport Wayfinding for Aging Travelers and Persons with Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24930.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 6 - Arriving Customer Journey." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Enhancing Airport Wayfinding for Aging Travelers and Persons with Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24930.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 6 - Arriving Customer Journey." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Enhancing Airport Wayfinding for Aging Travelers and Persons with Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24930.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 6 - Arriving Customer Journey." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Enhancing Airport Wayfinding for Aging Travelers and Persons with Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24930.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 6 - Arriving Customer Journey." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Enhancing Airport Wayfinding for Aging Travelers and Persons with Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24930.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 6 - Arriving Customer Journey." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Enhancing Airport Wayfinding for Aging Travelers and Persons with Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24930.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 6 - Arriving Customer Journey." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Enhancing Airport Wayfinding for Aging Travelers and Persons with Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24930.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 6 - Arriving Customer Journey." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Enhancing Airport Wayfinding for Aging Travelers and Persons with Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24930.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 6 - Arriving Customer Journey." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Enhancing Airport Wayfinding for Aging Travelers and Persons with Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24930.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 6 - Arriving Customer Journey." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Enhancing Airport Wayfinding for Aging Travelers and Persons with Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24930.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 6 - Arriving Customer Journey." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Enhancing Airport Wayfinding for Aging Travelers and Persons with Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24930.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 6 - Arriving Customer Journey." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Enhancing Airport Wayfinding for Aging Travelers and Persons with Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24930.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 6 - Arriving Customer Journey." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Enhancing Airport Wayfinding for Aging Travelers and Persons with Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24930.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 6 - Arriving Customer Journey." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Enhancing Airport Wayfinding for Aging Travelers and Persons with Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24930.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 6 - Arriving Customer Journey." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Enhancing Airport Wayfinding for Aging Travelers and Persons with Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24930.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 6 - Arriving Customer Journey." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Enhancing Airport Wayfinding for Aging Travelers and Persons with Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24930.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 6 - Arriving Customer Journey." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Enhancing Airport Wayfinding for Aging Travelers and Persons with Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24930.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 6 - Arriving Customer Journey." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Enhancing Airport Wayfinding for Aging Travelers and Persons with Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24930.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 6 - Arriving Customer Journey." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Enhancing Airport Wayfinding for Aging Travelers and Persons with Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24930.
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156 This chapter is focused on the arriving customer journey and presents and elaborates on rec- ommendations/requirements listed in the Wayfinding Accessibility Audit Checklist presented in Appendix A of this guidebook (see below for a description of the Wayfinding Accessibility Audit Checklist). Each of the sections in this chapter has a corresponding two-letter section code (see Figure 6-1). This two-letter code is combined with a letter “A” prefix for “Arriving” and a numerical suffix to create a unique label for each recommendation/requirement. These labels are also used in the Wayfinding Accessibility Audit Checklist in Appendix A. These recommendations/requirements are presented and discussed in the appropriate section throughout this chapter. The Wayfinding Accessibility Audit Checklist is a checklist of recommendations/requirements to be considered in an assessment of an airport’s wayfinding accessibility. All of the recommen- dations/requirements in the checklist are numbered and labeled to correspond to a particular chapter and section in this guidebook. Each labeled recommendation or requirement is grouped according to chapter and section and characterized according to form of communication (visual, virtual, and/or verbal), the types of disabilities accommodated (vision, hearing, cognition, and/or mobility), and any known standards or additional guidance available (see Figure 6-2). To help provide a visual reference for the recommendations/requirements in the Wayfinding Accessibility Audit Checklist, the research team developed virtual models of different journey segments at an airport with the recommendation/requirement labels embedded (see Figure 6-3). A model view of the arrival point journey segment is shown in Figure 6-4. All the virtual models of journey segments are compiled in Appendix C. There is redundancy built into the checklist because there are some needs that are required in more than one area of the airport. For example, seating area needs are noted in areas ranging from the arriving gate through the terminal and in the baggage claim and ground transportation areas. So when an airport is using the checklist to review a problem area, or plan a new project, the checklist is complete for each area as well as the entire arriving journey segment. This chapter covers the arriving passenger whose final destination is the city and region served by the airport at which they are landing. Arriving passengers continuing on to their final destina- tion on a connecting flight are covered in Chapter 7. Depending on the disability, challenges for arriving customers with disabilities can begin upon exiting the plane and can have a significant ripple effect later on in the arrival journey segment. Research from the study conducted by the UK’s CAA in 2009 shows that persons with reduced mobility expect they may need to wait to exit the airplane, which in itself is not unrea- sonable. However, the combination of not knowing how long they will have to wait and not having requested assistance can result in a sense of abandonment for the customer. As noted in Arriving Customer Journey C h a p t e r 6

arriving Customer Journey 157 Source: ACRP Project 07-13 Research Team Figure 6-2. Excerpt from Wayfinding Accessibility Audit Checklist, Chapter 6. Figure 6-1. Chapter 6 matrix and example of a recommendation/requirement label. A-AS.01 Source: ACRP Project 07-13 Research Team

158 enhancing airport Wayfinding for aging travelers and persons with Disabilities Source: ACRP Project 07-13 Research Team Figure 6-3. Example of recommendation/requirement labels embedded in a virtual airport model and recommendation/requirement text. Source: ACRP Project 07-13 Research Team Figure 6-4. Model view of the arrival point journey segment.

arriving Customer Journey 159 the research, the wait time was so long in several cases that the customers’ luggage was removed from the baggage claim carousel and stored in lost luggage. Passengers typically fly with certain expectations, and there are consequences when these expectations are violated. In the case cited above, the consequence can be substantial. Anxiety becomes compounded; it begins with the customer wondering where their luggage is and ends with concern about how to find the lost luggage office. While the source of these types of issues is not specific to wayfinding, the consequences end up having an impact on the wayfinding expe- rience and underscore the importance of communication throughout the customer journey. Some information that needs to be communicated is airline-related while other informa- tion is airport-related. Regardless of responsibility, there are expectations that require effective communication: • Explain to the customer requiring assistance that they may need to wait to exit the aircraft until other passengers have deplaned and let them know the estimated wait time while offer- ing reassurance that every effort will be made to minimize the delay. • Communicate to the customer that the airline and the airport have coordinated their efforts and that requested equipment will be waiting. • Communicate to the customer that they will have access to their own mobility equipment at the earliest possible point in the journey, typically at the door of the aircraft unless requested otherwise. • Reassure the customer that they will be able to get help with their luggage, if needed, extending to the next destination in their journey. 6.1 Airline Support (AS) As part of the initial landing, information is communicated primarily verbally by the flight attendant over the PA system and also on a person-to-person level to aging travelers and persons with disabilities who have requested it. Advances in technology can also help provide informa- tion virtually via mobile applications that post information on which baggage carousel luggage can be claimed from. A-AS.01 Baggage claim information is provided on board the aircraft by a flight atten- dant or by an agent in the gate area after arrival, verbally or visually as needed. The baggage claim carousel on which the luggage will be arriving can also be displayed on the GIDS at the gate (see Figure 6-5). Whether verbally or virtually, advance communication equips aging travelers and persons with disabilities with information that sets forth expectations and helps reduce the anxiety that comes with wondering at which carousel to claim their luggage. A-AS.02 Baggage claim information is sent by text message, or the passenger can check carousel location via mobile phone after arrival. A-AS.03 Agent gives directions to baggage claim. A-AS.04 Passenger uses mobile application for directions/route to baggage claim. A-AS.05 Airline service provider meets plane and provides wheelchair assistance or escort from seat or door of plane, as needed, to baggage claim. Service by elec- tric cart replaces wheelchair service for ambulatory passengers in some airports.

160 enhancing airport Wayfinding for aging travelers and persons with Disabilities A-AS.06 In case of ad hoc request(s), airline or service agent calls for additional personnel to provide assistance. A-AS.07 Passenger’s wheelchair, if any, is returned at door of plane. For those stowed as cargo, elevator or lift near jet bridge allows prompt delivery from tarmac. A-AS.08 A CRO is available in person or remotely (e.g., by phone, TTY, text) to resolve issues involving damage or loss of an assistive device, assistance in the terminal, etc. 6.2 Gate Area (GA) A-GA.01 Signs indicating direction to baggage claim/terminal exit are in easy view on exit from each gate area. Messaging for arrivals is not as simple as it might seem. It may seem logical to assume that one can exit the terminal somewhere near baggage claim, but passengers who do not check luggage are not looking for baggage claim. Therefore, posting directions to the terminal exit becomes important, especially for customers who have cognitive issues. Other customers may be focused on finding various modes of ground transportation. As a result, airports need to consider where it is appropriate to post three types of messaging to meet the wayfinding information needs of arriving customers: • Exit • Baggage Claim • Ground Transportation A-GA.02 Signs indicating direction to baggage claim/terminal exit are located at fre- quent intervals and outside restrooms. Source: ACRP Project 07-13 Research Team Figure 6-5. GIDS in Munich Airport with baggage claim information posted where passengers can see it immediately after deplaning.

arriving Customer Journey 161 Examples of signage from the Munich Airport shown in Figure 6-6 include clear directions to the terminal exit and baggage claim, large pictograms for the restrooms, and directions to the airline services center for customers needing assistance. A-GA.03 At major decision points, multisensory destination/directional information is provided via map, directory, kiosk, or information desk. For example, Figure 6-7 shows a directory map from Schiphol Airport that includes the hear- ing loop symbol denoting where a loop has been installed. A-GA.04 Directional and identification signs have fonts that are easily read, have good contrast, are non-glare, and allow close approach wherever possible. A-GA.05 Directional and identification signs include pictograms to aid comprehension by persons with intellectual disabilities and international travelers. Source: ACRP Project 07-13 Research Team Figure 6-6. Wayfinding for arriving passengers at Munich Airport. Source: Amsterdam Airport Schiphol Figure 6-7. Hearing loop zones indicated on directory map at Amsterdam Airport Schiphol.

162 enhancing airport Wayfinding for aging travelers and persons with Disabilities A-GA.06 Identification signs are visual and tactile, i.e., have raised characters and Braille and are correctly positioned. A-GA.07 FIDSs are located at frequent intervals along concourses (for passengers who need to check on other arriving flights). Most airport’s FIDSs on the airside only display departing flight information, but there are scenarios where passengers need to locate and meet friends or family arriving on a different flight. In Figure 6-8, one terminal map on display at each FIDS array is the same in all locations, but a second map shows details specific to the area in which the array is located. A-GA.08 FIDSs are hung at eye level for close approach, with larger fonts, good con- trast, and slower refresh rate. (See Chapter 8, Section 8.7.) A-GA.09 FIDSs information is available via mobile application or verbally via dedicated telephone number. A-GA.10 Visual paging is available at frequent intervals along concourses, e.g., built into FIDS. Pages may also be provided on the airport website or via a mobile application. Including additional screens that can display paging and map information as part of the FIDS creates an information hub that mitigates walking and searching for the same information in another part of the airport. Consolidation of these types of information helps all customers including aging travelers and persons with disabilities (see Figure 6-9). A-GA.11 Paging system allows passengers to request audible or visual page by phone, text or email. The FIDS installation at the Portland International Airport includes digital paging screens for gate agents so that they can easily request and view pages (see Figure 6-9). Source: Portland International Airport Figure 6-8. FIDS array at the Portland International Airport.

arriving Customer Journey 163 A-GA.12 Courtesy phones are located at regular intervals along concourse including major decision points and identified by visual and tactile signage. A-GA.13 Differences in floor texture and color help provide an “edge” for wayfinding and distinguish the concourse walkway from holding areas. A-GA.14 Detectable floor surface changes (color, texture) are in place at approaches to escalators, moving walkways, and stairs. A-GA.15 An audible signal alerts passengers to the end of moving walkways. A-GA.16 Accessible means of egress (e.g., evacuation elevators, areas of safe refuge, exit stairways, horizontal exits, etc.) have appropriate identification and directional signage in view from concourse walkways and/or holding rooms. A-GA.17 Accessible routes coincide with or are located in the same area as general circulation paths. Elevators and lifts must be in the same area as stairs and escalators. While architecture is the most likely means of creating an intuitive wayfinding experience, air- port architecture can also be the source of non-intuitive spaces. Changing levels can be confus- ing and disorienting, and, when twists and turns are added to the equation, changing levels can become even more challenging. At Denver International Airport, art is used to clarify a complex wayfinding scenario. Paper airplane sculptures lead passengers finding their way from the train to the Great Hall, as shown in Figure 6-10. Source: Portland International Airport Figure 6-9. Digital paging screen for gate agents at the Portland International Airport.

164 enhancing airport Wayfinding for aging travelers and persons with Disabilities A-GA.18 Where elevators are not near or in sight of stairs and escalators, directional signage is provided. A-GA.19 Elevators meet ADA Standards for signage, controls, visible and audible indi- cators, two-way communication systems, etc. Announcement of floor is prefer- able to beeping sound. A-GA.20 Audible indicators outside elevators are loud enough to be heard over ambient noise. A-GA.21 Signs at exit doors and areas of safe rescue are tactile as well as visual, and instructions for summoning assistance in areas of safe rescue are also tactile with accessible two-way communication system in place. A-GA.22 Airport, airline, and concessions staff have training on the AEP and how to assist passengers with disabilities in case of emergency. A-GA.23 Visual and audible signaling systems are under central control to help direct people along best route. Push notification sends emergency information and directions to mobile phones. 6.2.1 Gate Area—People Mover A-GA.24 Where people movers to or along the concourse are optional, dynamic signage indicates flights or gates for which the tram or monorail ride is recommended. Walking times/distances are provided. A-GA.25 Station and other announcements on the automated people mover are both visual and virtual. A-GA.26 A designated seating area and wheelchair area with grab bar are provided in the cars. Source: ACRP Project 07-13 Research Team Figure 6-10. Art providing intuitive wayfinding for navigation of level changes.

arriving Customer Journey 165 A-GA.27 Effective directional signage is in place, especially where a level change is involved. 6.2.2 Gate Area—Points of Interest A-GA.28 On long concourses, maps with points-of-interest directories are placed at regular intervals. (See Chapter 5, D-GA.34.) 6.2.3 Gate Area—SARAs A-GA.29 SARAs available airside are centrally located to minimize walking times, have appropriate directional and identification signage, and appear on maps/ directories. (See Chapter 5, D-GA.35.) 14 CFR Part 382 (ACAA) requires that the SARA be on an accessible route. A-GA.30 Restrooms, companion restrooms, and drinking fountains are grouped at frequent intervals along concourses with men’s and women’s facilities in a standard relation to each other, e.g., men’s to left of women’s. A-GA.31 ATMs and currency exchange counters meet ADA accessibility standards. 6.2.4 Gate Area—Secure Area Exit A-GA.32 Large, easy-to-read signs with pictograms identify each exit from concourse/ secure area and warn that there is no return after exit. A-GA.33 TSA agent is positioned to ensure that exiting passengers do not attempt to reenter concourse/secure zone. 6.3 Baggage Claim (BC) The baggage claim area can be quite congested, with passengers arriving in large groups. This congestion can create both circulation and navigational challenges for passengers with disabili- ties and older adults. The three Vs of communication can be applied to convey information in ways that reassure customers who cannot easily access certain forms of communication. 6.3.1 Visual To help overcome the challenges presented to older adults and persons with disabilities by baggage claim areas, airport planners should design these areas to be open spaces that allow a direct line of sight to as many destinations as possible, e.g., exits, baggage carousels, luggage carts, and restrooms. Directional signage to each baggage carousel, listed by number and/or airline, should be prominently displayed on each BIDS. Because the arrival time of baggage at the claim device can vary greatly, the availability of designated accessible seating is very important for older travelers and travelers with disabilities. Availability, guidance to, and clear identification of restrooms is also essential. For airports with multiple terminals, it is important to provide confirmation to passengers of where they are upon arrival. Confirmation of the customer’s location can be communicated in

166 enhancing airport Wayfinding for aging travelers and persons with Disabilities multiple ways, e.g., at transitions into the baggage claim area, on the headers of directories and BIDSs, at key touch points like the baggage claim device and information desks, and at egress points. This allows customers to let others know their location as well as plan where they are going next. Directional signage should lead from baggage claim to an accessible information desk where passengers can get assistance with ground transportation, hotels, etc. Directional signage should also provide guidance to the ground transportation counters and other points of interest as well as to ground transportation pick-up areas and SARAs. 6.3.2 Verbal Baggage carousel information can be communicated verbally by the flight attendant while the passenger is still on the plane. For passengers with hearing or cognitive disabilities, this informa- tion can be written down. Having personnel readily available in the baggage claim area to answer questions and give directions is also important. To avoid having aging travelers and persons with disabilities wandering in search of help, airline staff should be available to assist with missing baggage, along with luggage porters to help customers needing assistance. Adjacency of luggage carts to the baggage carousels is also important. If access to an information desk is not available, an alternative is to provide accessible help points where older adults or those with disabilities can request information or someone to pro- vide assistance. 6.3.3 Virtual Virtual communication with BIDSs at the entrance points to the baggage claim area will help passengers know which baggage claim device they are looking for. With what in essence is a cap- tive audience, the baggage carousel is an important touch point. Dynamic signage located at each carousel confirms the flight(s) assigned to it. If signage is placed in the middle of the carousel and therefore viewable only from a distance, the fonts used should be large and have good contrast. Each BIDS should have the capability of communicating information about when the first bag will be delivered and/or the status of baggage. Dynamic signage at the baggage carousels and directories can also be used to display alternate content that helps educate passengers on what to expect next, e.g., ground transportation services, connecting to another terminal (international to domestic), etc. This signage can also provide information on how to report lost or damaged luggage/assistive devices, etc. A-BC.01 Directional signage for baggage carousels, e.g., by number, is prominently displayed at each entrance to baggage claim from concourse/secure zone. A-BC.02 Correctly oriented “You Are Here” illuminated map with large font designed for close approach shows facilities and services on terminal arrivals level includ- ing baggage claim. (See Chapter 3, Section 3.4.1.3.) A-BC.03 An accessible directory (large font, high contrast, and hung at eye level for close approach) lists arriving flights and carousel assignments. A-BC.04 Airport or airline staff are available to give information/directions.

arriving Customer Journey 167 A-BC.05 Baggage claim information is sent by text message, or passenger can check carousel location via mobile application after arrival. A-BC.06 Number of each carousel is prominently displayed and clear lines of sight allow easy viewing on entry to baggage claim. (See Figure 6-11.) A-BC.07 Dynamic signage at each carousel lists the flight(s) assigned to it. If carousel signage does not allow close approach by passenger, e.g., is placed in the center of carousels, font size and contrast allow easy viewing from a distance. Additional information such as bag status can help provide the reassurance aging travelers and persons with disabilities want (see Figure 6-12). Source: ACRP Project 07-13 Research Team Figure 6-11. Clear signage and BIDS for baggage carousels at Amsterdam Airport Schiphol. Source: ACRP Project 07-13 Research Team Figure 6-12. Baggage claim displays with bag status at Changi Airport, Singapore.

168 enhancing airport Wayfinding for aging travelers and persons with Disabilities Source: ACRP Project 07-13 Research Team Figure 6-13. Flat carousel at Tampa International Airport. A-BC.08 Flat carousels without a raised edge to keep bags on the belt require less physical effort and are more universally accessible. (See Figure 6-13.) A-BC.09 Carousels have a designated area for persons with disabilities or others who need assistance in retrieving their bags. A-BC.10 Baggage handlers are available to provide assistance in retrieving and transporting checked luggage. A-BC.11 Airline service company staff are available to help retrieve and provide assistance with checked baggage to a curbside/ground service connection (or other terminal for connecting flight). A-BC.12 Luggage carts, free or fee-based, are avail able at central locations in the bag- gage claim area. A-BC.13 Seating areas are available near carousels for those waiting for checked luggage. (See Figure 6-14.) A-BC.14 Accessible men’s, women’s, and companion restrooms are available in the bag- gage claim area and have appropriate directional and identification signage. A-BC.15 Accessible facilities for reporting lost or damaged luggage or assistive devices are available in the baggage claim area and have appropriate directional and identification signage.

arriving Customer Journey 169 As noted previously in this chapter, it can take longer for a person with disabilities to deplane and arrive in the baggage claim area, and sometimes this results in their luggage being pulled and stored in lost luggage. (See Figure 6-15.) A-BC.16 Lost or damaged luggage or assistive devices can be reported via mobile application, website, or phone, as well as in person. A-BC.17 A CRO is available in person or remotely (e.g., by phone, TTY, text) to resolve issues involving damage or loss of an assistive device. A-BC.18 BIDSs are located at baggage claim entrance. Source: ACRP Project 07-13 Research Team Figure 6-14. Seating in the baggage claim area at Heathrow Airport. Source: ACRP Project 07-13 Research Team Figure 6-15. Signage for lost luggage at Heathrow Airport.

170 enhancing airport Wayfinding for aging travelers and persons with Disabilities Virtual information can go beyond just communicating where to claim luggage and educate customers waiting for their bags on what to expect next, such as options for ground transporta- tion, information on the next bus, location of SARAs (see Figure 6-16), or what to do if there are problems getting luggage (see Figure 6-17). 6.4 Lobby Area (LA) While the lobby area for domestic arrivals in U.S. airports is typically an extension of the baggage claim area, it is also a transition zone as customers move from a waiting posture into a mobile mode. As customers refocus their attention, there is important information that needs to be communicated to them so that they can make good decisions. The mindset of aging travelers and persons with disabilities in the lobby area is similar to their mindset in the baggage claim area: they want to feel equal and they want to be reassured. To help them feel this way, airport planners should design arrival lobby areas to be open spaces that allow a direct line of sight to as many destinations as possible (e.g., exits, elevators, information and ground transportation desks) and that therefore don’t have to have as much signage. Source: ACRP Project 07-13 Research Team Figure 6-16. Dynamic signage at the baggage claim device with real-time information that also educates passengers on what to do next (Boston Logan International Airport). Source: ACRP Project 07-13 Research Team Figure 6-17. BIDS with additional information for customers who have problems with their luggage at Amsterdam Airport Schiphol.

arriving Customer Journey 171 Source: ACRP Project 07-13 Research Team Figure 6-18. Directional signage leading from baggage claim area to points of interest. Source: ACRP Project 07-13 Research Team Figure 6-19. Accessible information desk identified with pictogram. Customers who need assistance should understand how they can request help in moving forward in their journey to ground transportation services or parking areas. A-LA.01 Directional signage leads from baggage claim to information desk, ground transportation coun- ters, and other points of interest and to ground transportation pick-up areas and SARAs out- side terminal or on departures level. (See Figure 6-18.) A-LA.02 An accessible information desk is available to assist passengers with ground transportation, hotels, etc. A-LA.03 The information desk has prominent identification signage with a pictogram. (See Figure 6-19.)

172 enhancing airport Wayfinding for aging travelers and persons with Disabilities A-LA.04 Staff have disability awareness training and computer access to airport access database. A-LA.05 Staff is fluent in English and other local languages and has access to interpreters for many languages through means such as the AT&T language line. A-LA.06 The information desk has video remote interpreting service. A-LA.07 A counter induction loop is in place for per- sons who have hearing aids or cochlear implants with T-coils. A hearing loop graphic sign is displayed on the counter. A-LA.08 Correctly oriented “You Are Here” illumi- nated maps and directories for arrival-level facilities, ground transportation pick-up locations, and SARAs are located near the information desk and inside each terminal entrance. (See Chapter 3, Sec- tion 3.4.1.3.) A-LA.09 Seating areas, with some seats designated as disability priority, are located near the information desk and terminal entrances. A-LA.10 The shuttle kiosk (for hotels, rental car companies, etc.) has a TTY as well as phone. Phone numbers for all free shuttles serving the airport are provided in the airport mobile application, if there is one. A-LA.11 Where public pay phones are provided, ADA requirements for wheelchair- accessible phones, volume control, and TTYs are also met. A-LA.12 ATMs meet ADA accessibility standards. A-LA.13 Ground transportation counters (e.g., rental cars, paid bus and van shuttle services) meet ADA accessibility standards. A-LA.14 Directional signage indicates the specific terminal exit to use for each mode of ground transportation and for SARAs. After long flights, animals as well as people need access to areas of relief (see Figure 6-20). A-LA.15 Directional signage is also in place for any modes of transportation that pick up from/connect to a different level of the terminal. A-LA.16 Accessible routes coincide with or are located in the same area as general circulation paths. Elevators and lifts must be in the same area as stairs and escalators.

arriving Customer Journey 173 A-LA.17 Where elevators are not near or in sight of stairs and escalators, directional signage is provided. A-LA.18 Primary exit doors have clear identification of terminal and level and have a unique door number. Each exit door has a unique identification number at Dallas/Fort Worth Airport, as shown in Figure 6-21. While the primary function is for safety responses, the unique door number can also be used for communicating location between parties looking to find each other. In this example, elevators are located close by, in the direct line of sight and identified with clear signage. 6.5 Ground Transportation (GT) 6.5.1 Curbside The majority of ground transportation services occur at the airport curbside as shown in the model view shown in Figure 6-22. As noted in Chapter 5 (Section 5.1), safety is a primary con- cern for any curbside area, where vehicular and pedestrian traffic share the same space. Aging Source: ACRP Project 07-13 Research Team Figure 6-20. Signage directing customers to SARAs and ground transportation options at John F. Kennedy International Airport. Source: ACRP Project 07-13 Research Team Figure 6-21. Signage at primary exit from arrivals lobby at Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport.

174 enhancing airport Wayfinding for aging travelers and persons with Disabilities Source: ACRP Project 07-13 Research Team Figure 6-22. Model view of the arrival journey segment for ground transportation. travelers and persons with disabilities need to be able to find their way from the terminal when they need to cross the street (see A-GT.04 through A-GT.10). Also, passengers with disabilities need to be safely picked up at the terminal curbside. The 2010 ADAAS 209 and 503 address these requirements (see Section 5.1, Figure 5-5). In the absence of traffic signals, a raised crosswalk slows traffic while also providing level access to pedestrians. The mindset of persons with disabilities is that they want to feel as if they have an equal status to other customers, and they want to feel reassured that the communication and provisions that should be in place are in place. These provisions allow older adults and persons with disabilities to travel more independently and with confidence. Examples of basic provisions include the following: • Assistance in getting to curbside pick-up areas is available (see A-GT.11). • Seating is available near transportation stops (see A-GT.16). • Transportation vehicles meet ADA Standards (see A-GT.18). Verbal communication can happen inside the arrivals lobby, at the information/ground trans- portation desks, with porters and airline representatives, or even outside along the curb. Visual information needs to communicate safety first, followed by wayfinding information that identi- fies ground transportation zones as well as pathways to other destinations such as parking and rental cars. Virtual information can be provided inside the airport through interactive directo- ries and outside on the curb by providing real-time information on the status of the next bus. As

arriving Customer Journey 175 noted previously, it is important to communicate anticipated wait times to aging travelers and persons with disabilities. Lighting is also an important feature for safety and wayfinding. Many ground transportation areas are on the lower level where it is not only dark at night, but there is little or no natural light during the day. Overall, adequate lighting levels help aging eyes see curbs and other obstacles. Higher lighting levels at areas like crosswalks can help all pedestrians intuitively know where to cross and allow drivers to clearly see the pedestrians on the crosswalk. A-GT.01 Accessible pick-up points for people with disabilities have been designated by the airport; are included in the access database and on web, mobile, and terminal maps; and are signed for easy viewing from roadways and by pas- sengers waiting for pick-up. A-GT.02 There is a designated pick-up point for motor coaches to meet tour groups and deploy a lift as needed. A-GT.03 SARAs are located as close as possible to terminal exit doors and have appro- priate directional and identification signage. Figure 6-23 shows a pet relief area directly across the curbside drive from the arrivals lobby at Austin-Bergstrom International Airport. Location of the landside SARA at Detroit Metro- politan Airport is communicated virtually through interactive directories that show route, level change, and a photo of the destination to help with recognition and confirmation (see Figure 6-24). A-GT.04 Walking surfaces are stable, firm, and slip-resistant and have no openings more than ½ inch. A-GT.05 Visual and auditory signals are in place at pedestrian crossings with traffic lights, with adequate crossing time for those who move more slowly. Source: ACRP Project 07-13 Research Team Figure 6-23. Wayfinding to the pet relief area at Austin-Bergstrom International Airport.

176 enhancing airport Wayfinding for aging travelers and persons with Disabilities Source: ACRP Project 07-13 Research Team Figure 6-24. Interactive directory with wayfinding to SARAs at Detroit Metropolitan Airport. A-GT.06 Where there are no signals, pedestrian crossing signs are prominently displayed for drivers and pedestrians. Raised pedes- trian crossings help to slow traffic while pro- viding level access. Speed bump signage and road markings should be in place. A-GT.07 Pedestrian crossings have higher illumi- nation levels and/or different colors. A-GT.08 Detectable warnings are in place at curb ramps and marked crosswalks. A-GT.09 If sidewalk is flush with roadway, detect- able warnings are in place along the edge. A-GT.10 At least one accessible route is provided from the terminal to accessible parking spaces and accessible passenger load- ing zones, sidewalks, and public trans- portation stops. A-GT.11 Air carriers or their contracted service companies provide assistance to all curbside pick-up points. A-GT.12 Directional and identification signs have fonts that are easily read, have good contrast, are non-glare, and allow close approach wherever possible. A-GT.13 Identification signs for each mode of transportation are prominently displayed for both drivers and pedestrians. (See Figure 6-25.) Color-coded zones help with recognition. Buses and coaches are also clearly marked on the outer curbside.

arriving Customer Journey 177 A-GT.14 Where specific hotels, parking lots, or rental car companies are assigned a particular pick-up point (rather than all hotels at one point, all rental cars at another, etc.), a directory is provided inside the terminal and at each location (e.g., Marriott, Hilton—Stop A; Embassy Suites, Sheraton—Stop B). (See Figure 6-26.) A-GT.15 Airport staff, as shown in Figure 6-26, are available curbside to provide information and directions. A-GT.16 Seating areas, with some seats designated as disability priority, are provided near transpor- tation stops. A-GT.17 Where bus shelters are provided, they meet ADA accessibility standards. A-GT.18 Transportation systems/vehicles provided by or contracted by the airport meet ADA Standards. A-GT.19 Fee-based private shuttles (bus and van) serving the airport meet the ADA Standards. Where there is more than one route per stop, the destination of each vehicle is clearly announced. A-GT.20 At taxi stands, people with disabilities can go to the head of the line, and a priority access sign with wheelchair symbol is in place at head of queue/dispatch stand. A-GT.21 Where accessible taxis are available, a system is in place and dispatchers are trained to give priority to those vehicles to persons who use wheelchairs or have large service animals. Source: ACRP Project 07-13 Research Team Figure 6-25. Modes of ground transportation displayed prominently for both pedestrians and motorists at Dallas Fort Worth International Airport.

178 enhancing airport Wayfinding for aging travelers and persons with Disabilities 6.5.2 Ground Transportation—Other A-GT.22 Remote ground transport pick-up locations are identified on airport maps and on website and mobile application. A-GT.23 Wheelchair and escort assistance (including help with luggage) is available from airline or service company to remote pick-up points. A-GT.24 Staff member is on hand to direct passengers, e.g., at AirTrain or light rail stations. A-GT.25 There is at least one accessible route from airport terminals to remote pick-up points with each element (walking surfaces, ramps, lifts, elevators, doors, etc.) meeting either 1991 or 2010 ADA Standards. A-GT.26 There are no objects protruding more than 4 inches into the path of travel that are not cane detectable (lower edge 27 inches or less above finished floor), e.g., fire extinguishers, pay phones, drinking fountains. A-GT.27 Overhead clearance is 80 inches minimum, and unenclosed stairs or escala- tors have a rail or barrier underneath. A-GT.28 Seating areas for resting, with some seats signed for disability priority, are provided at frequent intervals and located out of the circulation path. A-GT.29 Directional signs to guide travelers to different modes of transportation/ pick-up points are located at frequent intervals and at any decision points en route. A-GT.30 Directional signs have large, unadorned, illuminated fonts. (See Chapter 3, Sections 3.2.1.5 and 3.2.1.6.) A-GT.31 Directional and identification signs include pictograms to aid comprehension by persons with intellectual disabilities and international travelers. Figure 6-26. Ground transportation directory at Dallas Fort Worth International Airport. Source: ACRP Project 07-13 Research Team

arriving Customer Journey 179 A-GT.32 Identification signs are visual and tactile, i.e., have raised characters and Braille, and are correctly positioned. A-GT.33 Corridors and hallways are evenly illuminated with gradual transitions from dark to bright spaces, especially those that have high levels of natural light. A-GT.34 Accessible routes coincide with or are located in the same area as general circulation paths. Elevators and lifts must be in the same area as stairs and escalators. A-GT.35 Where elevators are not near or in sight of stairs and escalators, directional signage is provided. A-GT.36 Elevators meet ADA Standards for signage, controls, visible and audible indi- cators, two-way communication systems, etc. Announcement of floor is prefer- able to beeping sound. A-GT.37 Audible indicators outside elevators are loud enough to be heard over ambient noise. A-GT.38 Accessible means of egress (e.g., evacuation elevators, areas of safe refuge, exit stairways, horizontal exits, etc.) are available and have appropriate iden- tification and directional signage. A-GT.39 Detectable warnings are in place at curb ramps, marked crosswalks, and wher- ever the accessible route crosses vehicular roadways in parking structures. A-GT.40 Detectable floor surface changes (color, texture) are in place at approaches to escalators, moving walkways, and stairs. A-GT.41 An audible signal alerts passengers to the end of moving walkways. A-GT.42 Emergency communications equipment is provided at strategic locations wherever potential security or safety threats may exist and is identified by visual and tactile signage. Locations are noted in the access database and mobile application, if any. A-GT.43 Seating areas, with some seats designated as disability priority, are provided at transportation stops. A-GT.44 Accessible men’s, women’s, and companion restrooms and drinking fountains are available near the remote pick-up location or en route and have appropri- ate directional and identification signs. A-GT.45 Where bus shelters are provided, they meet ADA accessibility standards. A-GT.46 Airport or ground transportation staff are on hand at stations/stops to provide information or directions, or a courtesy phone/kiosk is available.

180 enhancing airport Wayfinding for aging travelers and persons with Disabilities A-GT.47 Fare machines meet ADA accessibility standards, or cash fares can be paid to the driver. 6.6 Rental Car (RC)—On-Site and Remote A-RC.01 There is at least one accessible route from the rental car facility to airport terminal. A-RC.02 Directional signs are in place from the rental car drop-off area to the closest terminal entrance. A-RC.03 Facility entrances, paths of travel, counters, and other features meet ADA Standards. A-RC.04 An accessible means of transport links the rental car facility with airport termi- nals, e.g., shuttle bus or automated people mover. 6.7 Parking (PK) As noted in Chapter 5 (Section 5.2), parking involves two wayfinding systems. For arriving customers, the scenario is reversed. The first system is pedestrian wayfinding to find the elevator, accessible path, and ultimately the vehicle. Static signage, smart garage technology, and smart- phone applications can all help customers find their vehicle. The second system is vehicular. For arrivals, this is safety-related, and the wayfinding should promote safe pathways to navigate the parking garage or lot (see Figure 6-27). Source: ACRP Project 07-13 Research Team Figure 6-27. Pedestrian pathways and wayfinding in a parking garage at Dallas Fort Worth International Airport, Terminal D.

arriving Customer Journey 181 6.7.1 All Parking Advances in technology have greatly improved virtual communication in terms of helping aging travelers and persons with disabilities find accessible parking spaces as well as their car upon return. Early smart garage systems used a bi-color red/green light over each space to indicate full or open spaces. Multicolor indicating sensors now have the ability to display other colors to provide an even finer granularity of designated parking (see Figure 5-15). Brightly lit blue LEDs on the smart sensors are used to signal the space is reserved for persons with disabilities. A-PK.01 Accessible parking spaces in parking lots and parking garages adjacent to the terminal are connected by an accessible path of travel to terminal entrances with each element (e.g., walking surfaces, ramps, lifts, elevators, doors, etc.), meeting either 1991 or 2010 ADA Standards. A-PK.02 Accessible parking spaces are located on the shortest possible route(s) to accessible terminal entrance(s) and dispersed if there is more than one acces- sible entrance. A-PK.03 All accessible van spaces may be grouped on one level in a multi-car parking facility. A-PK.04 All accessible parking locations are identified in the airport access database, on maps, and in the mobile application, if applicable. A-PK.05 The number of accessible van and car spaces meets minimum local, state, or federal scoping (whichever is highest) and standards for size and identifica- tion signage. A-PK.06 Directional signs are in place from the terminal entrance to adjacent parking garage and parking lots. A-PK.07 Parking fare machines meet ADA accessibility standards. A-PK.08 The signage system in parking garages and lots allows drivers to easily locate their vehicle or a car finder application is available. There are multiple reasons why customers struggle to find their car. Persons with cognitive and intellectual disabilities can benefit from the smart park technology mentioned in Chapter 5, by using virtual communication to help them find their car. Persons with mobility issues can also benefit by finding the shortest route to their car. Customers can either insert their ticket or enter their license plate number at a touch-screen kiosk, as shown in Figure 6-28, or on a smartphone application. The smart park system searches the database of currently parked vehicles, which were identified through integrated license plate recognition (LPR) when they entered a space. Within seconds, the kiosk or application displays step-by-step walking directions for the customer to locate their vehicle. A-PK.09 Directional signs to parking exits are in easy view for drivers.

182 enhancing airport Wayfinding for aging travelers and persons with Disabilities A-PK.10 Drive-through fare machines are accessible to persons with limited use of arms/hands or a staffed booth is available. 6.7.2 Parking—Remote A-PK.11 Accessible parking spaces are on the shortest possible accessible route to shuttle bus stops, automated people mover station, or other accessible means of transportation linking parking lots to airport terminals. A-PK.12 The number of accessible van and car spaces in remote lots meets minimum local, state, or federal scoping (whichever is highest) and ADA Standards for size and identification signage. A-PK.13 Accessible parking spaces do not have to be provided in each parking facility on the site but must have equivalence in terms of distance, parking fees, and user convenience. A-PK.14 Transportation systems/vehicles provided by or contracted by the airport meet ADA Standards. A-PK.15 Shuttle stops and shelters meet ADA accessibility standards. A-PK.16 Directional signs to parking exits are in easy view for drivers. A-PK.17 Drive-through fare machines are accessible to persons with limited use of arms/hands, or a staffed booth is available. Figure 6-28. Smart park technology to help customers find their cars. Source: ACRP Project 07-13 Research Team

arriving Customer Journey 183 6.8 International Flights (IN) 6.8.1 Immigration A-IN.01 Single route leads from arrival gate to immigration. A-IN.02 Airline service provider meets plane and provides wheelchair assistance or escort from seat or door of plane, as needed, to immigration. A-IN.03 In case of ad hoc request(s), airline or service agent calls for additional per- sonnel to provide assistance. A-IN.04 Passenger’s wheelchair, if any, is returned at door of plane. For mobility equip- ment stowed as cargo, elevator or lift near jet bridge allows prompt delivery from tarmac. A-IN.05 A CRO is available in person or remotely (e.g., by phone, TTY, text) to resolve issues involving damage or loss of an assistive device, assistance in the terminal, etc. A-IN.06 Seating areas for resting, with some seats signed for disability priority, are provided at frequent intervals and located out of the circulation path, unless not permitted by the TSA. A-IN.07 Corridors and hallways are evenly illuminated with gradual transitions from dark to bright spaces, especially those that have high levels of natural light. A-IN.08 Accessible routes coincide with or are located in the same area as general circulation paths. Elevators and lifts must be in the same area as stairs and escalators. A-IN.09 Where elevators are not near or in sight of stairs and escalators, directional signage is provided. A-IN.10 Elevators meet ADA Standards for signage, controls, visible and audible indi- cators, two-way communication systems, etc. Announcement of floor is prefer- able to beeping sound. A-IN.11 Audible indicators outside elevators are loud enough to be heard over ambient noise. A-IN.12 There are no objects protruding more than 4 inches into the path of travel that are not cane detectable (lower edge 27 inches or less above finished floor), e.g., fire extinguishers, pay phones, drinking fountains. A-IN.13 No overhead clearance is less than 80 inches, and there are no unenclosed stairs or escalators without a rail or barrier underneath. A-IN.14 Accessible men’s and women’s restrooms and companion restroom, appropri- ately signed, and drinking fountains are available in or before immigration area.

184 enhancing airport Wayfinding for aging travelers and persons with Disabilities A-IN.15 There are dedicated lanes for employees and people with disabilities, or staff direct people with disabilities and those who self-identify as such to front of line. A-IN.16 Where available, signs indicate lanes for employees and people with disabili- ties. This benefits those not being escorted, especially those with hidden dis- abilities (see Figure 6-29). Color-coded wayfinding in the Customs and Border Patrol area at Boston Logan Inter national Airport helps visually guide persons with disabilities by providing advance education prior to the queue with confirmation at queue entry point. A-IN.17 Accessible passport kiosks enable U.S. passengers to scan passport and customs forms and print a receipt to show officers (see Figure 6-30). Source: ACRP Project 07-13 Research Team Figure 6-29. Dedicated lanes for persons with disabilities at Boston Logan International Airport. Figure 6-30. Accessible passport kiosk at Tampa International Airport. Source: Tampa International Airport

arriving Customer Journey 185 A-IN.18 Staff are on hand to assist people with disabilities and others unfamiliar with the passport kiosks. A-IN.19 Mobile Passport Application enables U.S. passengers to submit passport information and customs declaration forms electronically and receive an elec- tronic receipt to show officers. 6.8.2 Baggage Claim A-IN.20 The route leads directly from immigration to baggage claim. A-IN.21 An accessible directory (large font, high contrast, and hung at eye level for close approach) lists arriving flights and carousel assignments. A-IN.22 Baggage claim information is sent by text message or passenger can check carousel location via mobile application after arrival. A-IN.23 Airport or airline staff are available to give information/directions. A-IN.24 Dynamic signage at each carousel lists the flight(s) assigned to it. A-IN.25 If carousel signage does not allow for close approach by passenger, e.g., is placed in the center of carousels, font size and contrast allow easy viewing from a distance. A-IN.26 Flat carousels without a raised edge to keep bags on the belt require less physical effort and are more universally accessible. A-IN.27 Carousels have a designated area for persons with disabilities or others who need assistance in retrieving their bags. A-IN.28 Baggage handlers are available to provide assistance in retrieving and trans- porting checked luggage. A-IN.29 Airline service company staff help retrieve and provide assistance with checked baggage to a curbside/ground service connection (or other terminal for a connecting flight). A-IN.30 Luggage carts, free or fee-based, are available at central locations in the bag- gage claim area. A-IN.31 Seating areas are available near carousels for those waiting for checked luggage. A-IN.32 Accessible men’s, women’s and companion restrooms are available in the baggage claim area and have appropriate directional and identification signage.

186 enhancing airport Wayfinding for aging travelers and persons with Disabilities A-IN.33 Accessible facilities for reporting lost or damaged luggage or assistive devices are available in the baggage claim area or after exiting customs and have appropriate directional and identification signage. A-IN.34 Lost or damaged luggage or assistive device can be reported via mobile application, website, or phone, as well as in person. A-IN.35 A CRO is available in person or remotely (by phone, TTY, text, etc.) to resolve issues involving damage or loss of an assistive device. A-IN.36 Directional signage to the customs and baggage claim exit is prominently displayed (in view from all carousels).

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TRB's Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Research Report 177: Enhancing Airport Wayfinding for Aging Travelers and Persons with Disabilities provides guidance to assist aging travelers and persons with disabilities to travel independently within airports using pedestrian wayfinding systems. The guidebook addresses travel by people with cognitive, sensory, and other mobility challenges.

The Wayfinding Accessibility Audit Checklist documents issues that should be considered in a baseline airport wayfinding accessibility audit; it is provided in Word format so that users can check items off the list. The research team collected ratings of airport wayfinding applications from users of those applications on the Application Review Criteria testing and comment form. A PowerPoint presentation provides an overview of the ACRP research produced as a part of this report.

Disclaimer - This software is offered as is, without warranty or promise of support of any kind either expressed or implied. Under no circumstance will the National Academy of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine or the Transportation Research Board (collectively "TRB") be liable for any loss or damage caused by the installation or operation of this product. TRB makes no representation or warranty of any kind, expressed or implied, in fact or in law, including without limitation, the warranty of merchantability or the warranty of fitness for a particular purpose, and shall not in any case be liable for any consequential or special damages.

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