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A I R P O R T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 180 2017 Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Subscriber Categories Aviationâ â¢â Environment Guidebook for Quantifying Airport Ground Access Vehicle Activity for Emissions Modeling Michael Kenney L. Carrol Fowler KB EnvironmEntal SciEncES, inc. Saint Petersburg, FL Laura Castelli vanaSSE HangEn BruStlin, inc. Watertown, MA and Alexandra Marcucci SiErra rESEarcH Sacramento, CA
AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in trans- portation of people and goods and in regional, national, and interna- tional commerce. They are where the nationâs aviation system connects with other modes of transportation and where federal responsibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study spon- sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). ACRP carries out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating agen- cies and not being adequately addressed by existing federal research programs. ACRP is modeled after the successful National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) and Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP). ACRP undertakes research and other technical activi- ties in various airport subject areas, including design, construction, legal, maintenance, operations, safety, policy, planning, human resources, and administration. ACRP provides a forum where airport operators can cooperatively address common operational problems. ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision 100â Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary participants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Transportation with representation from airport operating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations such as the Airports Council International-North America (ACI-NA), the American Associa- tion of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), Airlines for America (A4A), and the Airport Consultants Council (ACC) as vital links to the airport community; (2) TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a contract with the National Academy of Sciences formally initiating the program. ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research organi- zations. Each of these participants has different interests and responsibili- ties, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by identifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel appointed by TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport professionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels prepare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing coop- erative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the intended users of the research: airport operating agencies, service pro- viders, and academic institutions. ACRP produces a series of research reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties; industry associations may arrange for workshops, training aids, field visits, webinars, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by airport industry practitioners. ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 180 Project 02-63 ISSN 2572-3731 (Print) ISSN 2572-374X (Online) ISBN 978-0-309-44664-8 Library of Congress Control Number 2017956351 Â© 2017 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FRA, FTA, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology, PHMSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the Airport Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturersâ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Published research reports of the AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to http://www.national-academies.org and then searching for TRB Printed in the United States of America
The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to increase the benefits that transportation contributes to society by providing leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Boardâs varied committees, task forces, and panels annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.
C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The principal investigators for this research wish to acknowledge other significant contributors includ- ing Justin Godin, Wayne Arner, Dave Wood, Paola Pringle, and Cristina Schoonard of KB Environmental Sciences, Inc.; Mike Regan of VHB; and Jim Lyones and Sung-Hoon Yoon of Sierra Research. CRP STAFF FOR ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 180 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lori L. Sundstrom, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Michael R. Salamone, Manager, Airport Cooperative Research Program Joseph D. Navarrete, Senior Program Officer Hana Vagnerova, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Sharon Lamberton, Editor ACRP PROjECT 02-63 PANEL Field of Environment David Breen, Port of Portland-Portland International Airport, Portland, OR (Chair) Jay Brolin, Rhode Island Airport Corporation, Warwick, RI Nicholas Kozlik, RS&H, San Francisco, CA Scott A. Peterson, Boston Region Metropolitan Planning Organization, Boston, MA Alice J. Price, Atkins, Tampa, FL Mohammed Majeed, FAA Liaison Christine Gerencher, TRB Liaison
F O R E W O R D ACRP Research Report 180 provides guidance with regard to accounting for ground access vehicle (GAV) activity in airport emissions studies. This guidance will be of particular interest to airport environmental and transportation planners, air quality modelers, and regulatory agencies desiring clarity and consistency with regard to determining data needs based on study objectives and for collecting the data in an accurate, cost-effective manner. Airports conduct air quality studies for various reasons, including emissions invento- ries, conformity determinations, NEPA studies, and health studies. GAVs (typically, private vehicles, taxis, shuttles, rental cars, and delivery vehicles) can be significant contributors to airport emissions and often need to be considered in airport air quality studies. Practitioners use various means for collecting activity data, including airport surveillance systems, toll booth records, and traffic counting mechanisms. In addition, when GAV counts and speeds are surveyed, they must be scaled to represent the base year and future years. The limits of the study area also must be established and can affect data requirements. The variety of approaches and assumptions used to collect and analyze these data has resulted in inconsis- tent methods and results. Research was therefore needed to develop guidance for quantifying airport GAV activity for the purposes of emissions modeling. The research, led by KB Environmental Sciences, began with a review of recent literature on the topics of regulatory framework, significance of GAV emissions in an airport setting, GAV fleet and operational characteristics, airport GAV infrastructure (e.g., roadways, parking facilities, and hold areas), data collection techniques, trip generation models, and emissions and dispersion models. The research team then conducted an outreach effort to stakeholders (including airports, regulatory agencies, transportation planners, air quality modelers, and associations) to understand the current state of the practice and to solicit suggestions for desired features of the guidebook. The research team then developed the guidebook and interactive tutorial. The guidebook and tutorial cover such topics as establishing study area boundaries, iden- tifying areas with GAV activity, defining types of GAVs, determining data requirements, evaluating and selecting data collection techniques, modeling future conditions, and obtain- ing off-airport GAV data. The tutorial can be accessed and downloaded from a link on the report webpage, available at www.trb.org by searching âACRP Research Report 180â. ByâJosephâD.âNavarrete StaffâOfficer TransportationâResearchâBoard
1â Summary 2 Chapter 1â IntroductionâandâBackground 2 1.1 Purpose of the Guidebook 3 1.2 Contents of the Guidebook 5 Chapter 2â ComputerâModels 5 2.1 Emissions Rate Models 6 2.2 Dispersion Models 6 2.3 Hot-spot Models 7 Chapter 3â AirportâGAVâFleetâandâOperationalâCharacteristics 10 3.1 Fuel Type 10 3.2 Operating Speed 10 3.3 Idle/dwell Time and Delay Time 11 Chapter 4â AirportâGAVâInfrastructure 13 Chapter 5â EmissionsâModelâDataâRequirements 13 5.1 Emissions Model General GAV Data Requirements 14 5.2 Determining Specific GAV Data Needs (Project-by-Project) 24 Chapter 6â DataâCollectionâandâDevelopment 24 6.1 GAV Data CollectionâExisting Conditions 28 6.2 GAV Data DevelopmentâFuture Conditions 38 References 40 Abbreviations 41 Glossary 42 FrequentlyâAskedâQuestions C O N T E N T S Note: Photographs, figures, and tables in this report may have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.