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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Measuring the 21st Century Science and Engineering Workforce Population: Evolving Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24968.
×

MEASURING
THE 21ST CENTURY
SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING
WORKFORCE POPULATION

EVOLVING NEEDS

Panel to Evaluate the National Center for
Science and Engineering Statistics Approach to
Measuring the Science and Engineering Workforce

Committee on National Statistics

Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education

A Consensus Study Report of

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Washington, DC
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Measuring the 21st Century Science and Engineering Workforce Population: Evolving Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24968.
×

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This activity was supported by contracts between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Science Foundation (#SES-1024012). Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-46913-5
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Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (2018). Measuring the 21st Century Science and Engineering Workforce Population: Evolving Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: https://doi.org/10.17226/24968.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Measuring the 21st Century Science and Engineering Workforce Population: Evolving Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24968.
×

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The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president.

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Measuring the 21st Century Science and Engineering Workforce Population: Evolving Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24968.
×

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Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task.

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Measuring the 21st Century Science and Engineering Workforce Population: Evolving Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24968.
×

PANEL TO EVALUATE THE NATIONAL CENTER FOR SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING STATISTICS APPROACH TO MEASURING THE SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING WORKFORCE

RITA COLWELL (Cochair), Department of Cell Biology and Molecular Genetics, University of Maryland and Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University

JAMES S. HOUSE (Cochair), Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan

JENNIFER SUE BOND, Council on Competitiveness

GEOFF DAVIS, Google, Inc.

DONALD DILLMAN, Department of Sociology, Washington State University

RICHARD FREEMAN, Department of Economics, Harvard University

JACK GAMBINO, Statistics Canada

MARESI NERAD, College of Education, University of Washington

RANDALL OLSEN, Department of Economics, Ohio State University

WILLIE PEARSON, JR., School of History, Technology, and Society, Georgia Institute of Technology

KEITH RUST, Westat

NORA CATE SCHAEFFER, Department of Sociology, University of Wisconsin–Madison

JAMES WAGNER, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan

YU XIE, Department of Sociology, Princeton University

KRISZTINA MARTON, Study Director

ANTHONY MANN, Program Coordinator

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Measuring the 21st Century Science and Engineering Workforce Population: Evolving Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24968.
×

COMMITTEE ON NATIONAL STATISTICS

ROBERT M. GROVES (Chair), Office of the Provost, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, and Department of Sociology, Georgetown University

FRANCINE BLAU, School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University

MARY ELLEN BOCK, Department of Statistics, Purdue University (emerita)

ANNE C. CASE, Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Princeton University

MICHAEL CHERNEW, Department of Health Care Policy, Harvard Medical School

JANET CURRIE, Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Princeton University

DONALD DILLMAN, Social and Economic Sciences Research Center, Washington State University

CONSTANTINE GATSONIS, Center for Statistical Sciences, Brown University

JAMES S. HOUSE, Survey Research Center, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan

THOMAS MESENBOURG, U.S. Census Bureau (retired)

SARAH NUSSER, Office of the Vice President for Research and Department of Statistics, Iowa State University

COLM O’MUIRCHEARTAIGH, Harris School of Public Policy Studies, University of Chicago

JEROME P. REITER, Department of Statistical Science, Duke University

ROBERTO RIGOBON, Sloan School of Management, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

JUDITH A. SELTZER, Department of Sociology, University of California, Los Angeles

EDWARD SHORTLIFFE, Department of Biomedical Informatics, Columbia University/Arizona State University

BRIAN HARRIS-KOJETIN, Director

CONSTANCE F. CITRO, Senior Scholar

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Measuring the 21st Century Science and Engineering Workforce Population: Evolving Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24968.
×

Acknowledgments

Personally, and on behalf of the Panel to Evaluate the National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics Approach to Measuring the Science and Engineering Workforce, we wish to thank all those who contributed their time and expertise to inform the panel’s work. The study was initiated by the National Science Foundation’s (NSF) National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics (NCSES) under the guidance of director John Gawalt and deputy director Emilda Rivers. The panel would like to thank the NSF staff who assisted the panel with presentations and background materials, including Mark Fiegener, Beethika Khan, and Kelly Phou from NCSES and Matthew Wilson from the National Science Board Office. Throughout the course of the study, the panel especially benefited from the able and very generous assistance provided by John Finamore, program director of the NSF Human Resources Statistics Program.

The panel’s understanding of the needs of data users was greatly expanded by the presentations at a public workshop of William Bonvillian, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Lisa Frehill, Energetics Technology Center; Fernando Galindo-Rueda, OECD, France; Donna Ginther, University of Kansas; William Harris, Science Foundation Arizona; Kaye Husbands Fealing, Georgia Institute of Technology; Janet Metcalfe, Vitae, United Kingdom; Leigh Ann Pennington, Oak Ridge Institute for Science Education; Michael Roach, Cornell University; Neil Ruiz, George Washington University; Beate Scholz, independent consultant, Germany; John Skrentny, University of California, San Diego; Tobin Smith, Association of American Universities; Andrea Stith, BioFrontiers, University of Colorado Boulder; Prasanna Tambe, New York University; Yu Tao, Stevens Institute

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Measuring the 21st Century Science and Engineering Workforce Population: Evolving Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24968.
×

of Technology; Michael Teitelbaum, Harvard University; and Brian Yoder, American Society for Engineering Education.

The panel’s work was supported by the capable staff of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Brian Harris-Kojetin, director, and Connie Citro, former director, Committee on National Statistics, provided institutional leadership. Krisztina Marton superbly directed the study. Kirsten Sampson-Snyder, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, oversaw the report review process. The report also greatly benefited from the meticulous editing provided by Rona Briere of Briere Associates, Inc. We also thank program associate Anthony Mann for very friendly and efficient logistical support for the panel’s meetings.

Finally, and most important, we greatly appreciated the work of our fellow panel members, whose dedication, patience, and commitment made this report possible: Jennifer Bond, Council on Competitiveness; Geoff Davis, Google, Inc.; Don Dillman, Washington State University; Richard Freeman, Harvard University; Jack Gambino, Statistics Canada; Maresi Nerad, University of Washington; Randy Olsen, Ohio State University; Willie Pearson, Georgia Institute of Technology; Keith Rust, Westat; Nora Cate Schaeffer, University of Wisconsin–Madison; James Wagner, University of Michigan; and Yu Xie, Princeton University. Panel members were chosen for their expertise, subject matter knowledge, and varied perspectives, serving on the panel as individuals, not as representatives of their employers or organizations. They were a pleasure to work with, increasingly becoming a very intellectually and scientifically engaged and opinionated group, and a quite cohesive one as well.

This Consensus Study Report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process.

We thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Norman M. Bradburn, senior fellow at NORC at the University of Chicago; Patrick J. Cantwell, Decennial Statistical Studies Division, U.S. Census Bureau; Bonnie J. Dunbar, Aerospace Engineering, TEES Institute for Engineering Education and Innovation, Texas A&M; John L. Eltinge, Research and Methodology, U.S. Census Bureau; Donna K. Ginther, Department of Economics, University of Kansas; Richard C. Larson, Institute for Data, Systems, and Society, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Shirley M. Malcom, Directorate for Education and Human Resources Programs, American Association for the Advancement of Science; Kristen Olson,

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Measuring the 21st Century Science and Engineering Workforce Population: Evolving Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24968.
×

Department of Sociology, University of Nebraska–Lincoln; and Brady T. West, Survey Methodology Program, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan.

Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations of this report, nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this report was overseen by report review coordinator V. Joseph Hotz, Department of Economics, Duke University, and report review monitor Kenneth Wachter, Departments of Demography and Statistics (emeritus), University of California, Berkeley. They were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. The quality of the report has been enhanced by the entire review process. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies.

Rita Colwell (Cochair), University of Maryland and Johns Hopkins University

James S. House (Cochair), University of Michigan Panel to Evaluate the National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics Approach to Measuring the Science and Engineering Workforce

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Measuring the 21st Century Science and Engineering Workforce Population: Evolving Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24968.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Measuring the 21st Century Science and Engineering Workforce Population: Evolving Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24968.
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Acronyms and Abbreviations

ACS American Community Survey
CARRA Census Bureau’s Center for Administrative Records Research and Applications
ECDS Early Career Doctorates Survey
ED U.S. Department of Education
EIN employer identification number
FFRDC Federally Funded Research and Development Center
FSRDC Federal Statistical Research Data Center
GSS Survey of Graduate Students and Postdoctorates in Science and Engineering
IRS Internal Revenue Service
LEHD Longitudinal Employer-Household Dynamics Program
NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration
NCES National Center for Education Statistics
NCSES National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics
NIH National Institutes of Health
NIH IRP National Institutes of Health Intramural Research Program
NSCG National Survey of College Graduates
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Measuring the 21st Century Science and Engineering Workforce Population: Evolving Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24968.
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NSF National Science Foundation
NSRCG National Survey of Recent College Graduates
SDR Survey of Doctorate Recipients
SED Survey of Earned Doctorates
SEI Science and Engineering Indicators report
S&E science and engineering
SSA Social Security Administration
UI earnings unemployment insurance earnings
USDA U.S. Department of Agriculture
WMPD Women, Minorities, and Persons with Disabilities in Science and Engineering report
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Measuring the 21st Century Science and Engineering Workforce Population: Evolving Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24968.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Measuring the 21st Century Science and Engineering Workforce Population: Evolving Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24968.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Measuring the 21st Century Science and Engineering Workforce Population: Evolving Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24968.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Measuring the 21st Century Science and Engineering Workforce Population: Evolving Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24968.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Measuring the 21st Century Science and Engineering Workforce Population: Evolving Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24968.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Measuring the 21st Century Science and Engineering Workforce Population: Evolving Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24968.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Measuring the 21st Century Science and Engineering Workforce Population: Evolving Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24968.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Measuring the 21st Century Science and Engineering Workforce Population: Evolving Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24968.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Measuring the 21st Century Science and Engineering Workforce Population: Evolving Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24968.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Measuring the 21st Century Science and Engineering Workforce Population: Evolving Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24968.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Measuring the 21st Century Science and Engineering Workforce Population: Evolving Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24968.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Measuring the 21st Century Science and Engineering Workforce Population: Evolving Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24968.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Measuring the 21st Century Science and Engineering Workforce Population: Evolving Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24968.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Measuring the 21st Century Science and Engineering Workforce Population: Evolving Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24968.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Measuring the 21st Century Science and Engineering Workforce Population: Evolving Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24968.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Measuring the 21st Century Science and Engineering Workforce Population: Evolving Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24968.
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The National Science Foundation’s National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics (NCSES), one of the nation’s principal statistical agencies, is charged to collect, acquire, analyze, report, and disseminate statistical data related to the science and engineering enterprise in the United States and other nations that is relevant and useful to practitioners, researchers, policymakers, and to the public. NCSES data, based primarily on several flagship surveys, have become the major evidence base for American science and technology policy, and the agency is well respected globally for these data.

This report assesses and provides guidance on NCSES’s approach to measuring the science and engineering workforce population in the United States. It also proposes a framework for measuring the science and engineering workforce in the next decade and beyond, with flexibility to examine emerging issues related to this unique population while at the same time allowing for stability in the estimation of key trends

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