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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. High-Performance Bolting Technology for Offshore Oil and Natural Gas Operations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25032.
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High-Performance Bolting Technology for Offshore Oil and Natural Gas Operations Committee on Connector Reliability for Offshore Oil and Natural Gas Operations National Materials and Manufacturing Board Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences National Academy of Engineering A Consensus Study Report of

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS  500 Fifth Street, NW  Washington, DC 20001 This activity was supported by Contract No. 10003191 with the Department of the Interior. Any opin- ions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication and do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-47242-5 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-47242-3 Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/25032 Cover: The cover plainly depicts a bolted pipe flange in full clarity as an analogy of the state reached by the committee since the start of the study and the initial workshop. This should be compared to the artistic expression on the cover of the workshop proceedings where the nature of the same bolted pipe flange is obscured by shadows, moving light and flickering, also as an analogy. Graphic artist: Erik Svedberg. This publication is available in limited quantities from National Materials and Manufacturing Board 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 nmmb@nas.edu http://www.nationalacademies.edu/nmmb Additional copies of this report are available for sale from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap. edu. Copyright 2018 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. High-Perfor- mance Bolting Technology for Offshore Oil and Natural Gas Operations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/25032.

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for out- standing contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the na- tion. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contribu- tions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www. nationalacademies.org.

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task. Proceedings  published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies. For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo.

COMMITTEE ON CONNECTOR RELIABILITY FOR OFFSHORE OIL AND NATURAL GAS OPERATIONS ROBERT SCHAFRIK, NAE,1 University of Texas, Arlington, Chair ROBERT POHANKA, National Nanotechnology Coordination Office (retired), Vice Chair CLYDE BRIANT, NAE, Brown University WILLARD CAPEDEVIELLE, Oil Patch Engineering, PLLC HOMERO CASTANEDA-LOPEZ, Texas A&M University NANCY COOKE, Arizona State University THOMAS EAGAR, NAE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology L. BRUN HILBERT, JR., Exponent DEREK HORTON, U.S. Naval Research Laboratory DAVID JOHNSON, NAE, Stevens Institute of Technology DAVID MATLOCK, NAE, Colorado School of Mines JYOTIRMOY MAZUMDER, NAE, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor ROGER MCCARTHY, NAE, McCarthy Engineering JOHN SCULLY, University of Virginia POL SPANOS, NAE, Rice University NEIL THOMPSON, Det Norske Vertas (DNV GL) Staff ERIK SVEDBERG, Senior Program Officer, Study Director JAMES LANCASTER, Director, National Materials and Manufacturing Board NEERAJ P. GORKHALY, Associate Program Officer HEATHER LOZOWSKI, Financial Associate JOSEPH PALMER, Senior Project Assistant HENRY KO, Research Associate ALTON D. ROMIG, JR., NAE, Executive Officer, National Academy of Engineering PROCTOR REID, Director, National Academy of Engineering Program Office NOTE: See Appendix M, Disclosure of Conflict of Interest. 1    ember, National Academy of Engineering. M v

NATIONAL MATERIALS AND MANUFACTURING BOARD BEN WANG, Georgia Institute of Technology, Chair RODNEY C. ADKINS, NAE,1 IBM Corporate Strategy (retired) JIM C. I. CHANG, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan LEO CHRISTODOULOU, Boeing, Inc. THOMAS M. DONNELLAN, Applied Research Laboratory STEPHEN FORREST, NAS2/NAE, University of Michigan ERICA FUCHS, Carnegie Mellon University JACK HU, NAE, University of Michigan THERESA KOTANCHECK, Evolved Analytics LLC DAVID LARBALESTIER, Florida State University ROBERT MILLER, IBM Almaden Research Center EDWARD MORRIS, NCDMM, NAMII NICHOLAS A. PEPPAS, NAE/NAM,3 University of Texas, Austin TRESA M. POLLOCK, NAE, University of California, Santa Barbara F. STAN SETTLES, University of Southern California HAYDN WADLEY, University of Virginia STEVE ZINKLE, NAE, University of Tennessee, Knoxville Staff JAMES LANCASTER, Director ERIK B. SVEDBERG, Senior Program Officer HEATHER LOZOWSKI, Financial Associate NEERAJ P. GORKHALY, Associate Program Officer JOSEPH PALMER, Senior Project Assistant HENRY KO, Research Assistant 1    Member, National Academy of Engineering. 2    Member, National Academy of Sciences. 3    Member, National Academy of Medicine. vi

Acknowledgments This Consensus Study Report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published re- port as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Dianne Chong, NAE,1 Boeing Research and Technology (retired), Millard S. Firebaugh, NAE, U.S. Navy (retired) and University of Maryland, College Park, Dana A. Powers, NAE, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Jan C. Schilling, NAE, General Electric Aviation (retired), Brian Somerday, Southwest Research Institute, Glen Stevick, Berkeley Engineering and Research, Inc., Alan Turnbull, National Physical Laboratory, and Joseph A. Yura, NAE, University of Texas, Austin. 1    Member, National Academy of Engineering. vii

viii Acknowledgments Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommenda- tions of this report nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Aziz I. Asphahani, NAE, QuesTek Innovations, LLC. He was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies. The committee also thanks the guest speakers at its meetings, who added to the members’ understanding of bolting technology for offshore oil and natural gas operations and the issues surrounding it: Bruce Craig, President, Metcorr, Carl Szczechowski, Technical Lead for Physical Oceanography, Oceanography Department, Naval Oceanographic Office, Chris Johnson, Director of Engineering, NOV, Holly Hopkins, Senior Policy Advisor, American Petroleum Institute, Michael Demkowicz, Associate Professor, Materials Science and Engineering Texas A&M University, Narasi Sridhar, Program Director, Materials Technology Development Section, DNV GL, Ramòn San Pedro, P.E. Stress Engineering Services, Rob Turlak, Manager, Subsea Engineering and Well Control Systems, Transocean, Roger Boyer, NASA Johnson Space Center, S. Camille Peres, Assistant Professor, Environmental and Occupational Health, Texas A&M University Health Science Center, Steve Eckman, Drilling Operations Manager, Anadarko Petroleum Corporation, Terry Lechinger, Stress Engineering Services, and Vinod Veedu, PhD Director of Strategic Initiatives, Oceanit Laboratories, Inc. The committee gratefully acknowledges information provided by experts from the oil and gas industry: Brian Healy, PhD, DNV GL, Jim Raney, Anadarko Petroleum Corporation, Ken Bhalla, PhD, Stress Engineering Services, Les Smiles, Anadarko Petroleum Corporation, Lester Burgess, U.S. Bolt Manufacturing, Partha Sharma, DNV GL,

Acknowledgments ix Pascal Berthaud, Cameron, a Schlumberger company, and Pat Boster, Stress Engineering Services, Tim Haeberle, Chief Consulting Engineer, Baker Hughes (formerly GE Oil and Gas), Tina Panontin, Chief Engineer, NASA Ames Research Center (retired). Tom Goin, President, U.S. Bolt Manufacturing, and Trent Fleece, BOP Team Lead, BP. In addition, the committee thanks the experts who attended the preceding workshop. Their discussions were instrumental in allowing the committee to achie1ve a balanced understanding of the field. The committee also wants to thank the companies that provided valuable information to the committee such as Stress Engineering, BP, NOV, Cameron, and DNV GL. The excellent support of the National Academies staff is especially appreciated. Special thanks go to Erik Svedberg, Neeraj Gorkhaly, Henry Ko, and Joe Palmer, who were indispensable to our accomplishing this study. We also thank NAE’s Al Romig and Proctor Reid for their help getting the study launched and for their continued support throughout the study process. Robert Schafrik, Chair, and Robert Pohanka, Vice Chair Committee on Connector Reliability for Offshore Oil and Natural Gas Operations

Preface Tremendous oil and gas resources exist in the continental shelf and are becom- ing accessible with advances in drilling technology. This has sharply increased the number of drilling rigs at work in deep water environments, primarily within the Gulf of Mexico. The large oil spill due to the Deepwater Horizon accident has focused more attention on preventing oil releases into the ocean. In addition to the Deepwater Horizon environmental release, there have been several near misses due to bolt failures over the past 15 years. Even though in-service fastener failures (bolts and connectors) are rare and have not led to a major release of oil, eliminat- ing or further reducing the possibility of a failure has become a priority for both industry and government. A summary of selected subsea bolt failures is compiled in Appendix E. The emphasis is on those fasteners that hold together critical pieces of safety equipment, particularly blow out preventers (BOP), and those that secure the pressure boundary in risers. This report of the Committee on Connector Reliability for Offshore Oil and Natural Gas Operations is the second of two major deliverables requested by the sponsor, the Department of the Interior’s Bureau of Safety and Environment En- forcement (BSEE). The first deliverable was a proceedings of a workshop that was held in Washington, D.C., on April 10-11, 2017.1 The goal of the Workshop on Bolting Reliability for Offshore Oil and Natural Gas Operations was to develop an 1    ational Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, Bolting Reliability for Offshore Oil N and Natural Gas Operations: Proceedings of a Workshop, The National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 2017. xi

xii P re fac e understanding of the outstanding issues (materials, design loads, coatings, corro- sion protection, failure prediction and prevention, and quality management), as- sociated with these previous bolt failures and to discuss possible paths for reducing risks associated with bolts used in subsea oil and gas operations. This current report comprises the second deliverable. The committee’s work built upon and extended the information developed during the workshop. The detailed statement of task for this study is contained in its entirety in Appendix A. There were eight tasks requested of the committee: • Task 1: Assessment of the critical drill-through equipment fastener systems and the appropriateness of materials and coatings selected for incorporation into fasteners, for optimal performance for subsea environment operating conditions. • Task 2: Analyze the role that design issues and human-systems interaction play in the entire lifecycle of the bolts. • Task 3: Suggest options for improving safety of offshore drilling and pipeline operations as related to the use of fasteners for critical drill through equipment components like the lower marine riser package (LMRP) and pipeline fasteners. • Task 4: Evaluate the performance of fastener systems currently in use, including the process of manufacturing, corrosion protection, installation, maintenance and inspection processes associated with fastener systems. • Task 5: Assess the subsea environmental effects on the mechanical properties of bolts and corrosion resistance. • Task 6: Evaluate the impact of cathodic protection systems on fastener performance in a subsea environment. • Task 7: Identify the similarities and differences in industry standards related to the design, material specification for strength, hardness, coatings, corrosion resistance performance in atmospheric as well as subsea application conditions, cathodic protection, performance and maintenance requirements as related to fastener systems worldwide. • Task 8: Identify ideas and concepts taken from industries outside of oil and gas which can be integrated into the offshore oil and natural gas community to effect improvements on safety and environmental protection. The mapping of these tasks to the chapter/section in the report where the task is addressed is presented in Appendix B. All the above tasks were performed, ex- cept for Task 7 which requested “Identification of the similarities and differences in industry standards. “ Appendix H contains a summary and brief explanation of the most commonly used bolting regulations and standards, including the per- tinent federal regulations; industry standards, specifications, and recommended

P re fac e xiii practices from API and ASTM; NACE Materials Requirements; NORSOK materi- als standard; and API flange bolt design specifications. Analyzing the similarities and differences in these standards was beyond the capability of the committee to perform in the timeframe of the study. BSEE has commissioned Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to perform this task.2 In line with its statement of task, the committee did not make recommenda- tions for actions that BSEE should take, but did provide a number of options that, if taken, would likely improve the reliability of subsea bolting. The committee further provided recommendations to the oil and gas industry that do not require regula- tory action that would likely improve the reliability of subsea bolting. The committee found this study to be quite challenging, not only from a technical perspective that involved many disparate disciplines, but also due to difficulty in obtaining requisite data and information on prior failure investiga- tions and specifications/standards that are deemed “proprietary.” The committee needed this information as background material and to more completely assess the reasonableness of the conclusions and recommendations. Because this report is a public document, no proprietary information is included. In a number of cases, the committee was not able to obtain the historical data and information, and thus the conclusions and recommendations in some areas are necessarily generalized. Nonetheless, in areas not deemed proprietary, the committee received extensive cooperation from a number of companies and engineering organizations. In this report, the terms “fastener,” “bolt,” and “connector” are used to describe threaded components that are used to facilitate assembly and disassembly of off- shore equipment. This report does not deal directly with the design of a connection itself. The role of hydrogen in embrittling fastener materials is the subject of some discussion and analysis in the report. This phenomenon has multiple terms associ- ated with it. The committee choose to standardize on “hydrogen assisted cracking” (HAC). However, this term is not meant to imply that existing cracking must be present to be enhanced by the uptake of hydrogen. Other terms used by differ- ent authors to describe the phenomenon include hydrogen embrittlement (HE), hydrogen environment-assisted cracking (HEAC), hydrogen (enhanced ) crack- ing (HEC), hydrogen induced cracking (HIC), hydrogen-enhanced decohesion (HEDE), and hydrogen-enhanced local plasticity (HELP). The committee was composed of 16 experts with the following expertise areas: analysis of structural systems, ceramic materials and coatings, corrosion science 2  Dr. Candi Hudson, Ph.D., Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement, “BSEE Bolts Techni- cal Evaluation Approach,” BSEE-API Meeting, June 22, 2016, https://www.bsee.gov/sites/bsee_prod. opengov.ibmcloud.com/files/tap-technical-assessment-program/api-bsee-june-22-2016-presenta- tion-api-bolting-workgroup.pdf.

xiv P re fac e and engineering, failure analysis and forensic investigation, human factors, laser processing of materials, marine drilling rig operation, materials for marine envi- ronments, metallurgical engineering, nanotechnology, pipeline technology, risk assessment, structural materials, and welding engineering. The committee met the following six times between February and September 2017: • The initial meeting was in Washington, D.C., on February 15-16 during which the committee laid out the plan for the study and starting to develop the agenda for the workshop. • The committee conducted a site visit to Houston, Texas, on March 22-23 to become acquainted with the equipment and fasteners that are the focus of this study. The companies visited are summarized in the Acknowledgements section of the report. • The workshop was held at the Keck Center of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in Washington, D.C., on April 10-11. It was well attended by representatives of the oil and gas industry, as well as BSEE personnel. A proceedings of that workshop was published in 2018. Afterwards, the committee met on April 12 in Washington, D.C., to review the key issues raised during the workshop, develop preliminary conclusions and recommendations, and plan the next meeting. • The fourth committee meeting occurred June 7-8 in Washington, D.C. The committee reviewed the various chapter drafts that had been prepared and had several invited speakers who provided information of interest to the committee. The speakers are listed in the Acknowledgements section of the report. • The fifth meeting was held at the Arnold and Mabel Beckman Center of the National Academies of Sciences and Engineering in Irvine, California, on August 28-29. The committee reviewed the draft chapters, broke out into working groups by chapter to add to the material in each chapter, then met together to refine the conclusion and recommendations. Several speakers were invited to inform the committee on key topics of interest. The speakers are listed in the Acknowledgements section of the report. • The sixth and final meeting occurred at the J. Erik Jonsson Conference Center of the National Academy of Sciences in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, on September 27-28. This meeting was totally dedicated to completing the report and gaining committee concurrence on the conclusions and recommendations. This report has six chapters plus several appendices. Chapter 1 is an introduc- tory chapter that sets the stage for the remainder of the report. Chapter 2 reviews

P re fac e xv the critical design factors and requirements for subsea fasteners and summarizes failure modes. Chapter 3 discusses existing fastener standards and specifications and quality assurance options and presents options for improving government oversight of the fastener life cycle. Chapter 4 describes the important role of hu- man factors in preventing fastener failures. Chapter 5 describes research and de- velopment opportunities that could advance fastener performance and reliability. Chapter 6 reiterates the key conclusions and recommendations contained in the report; it also contains Summary Recommendations 6.1 and 6.2, which are seen as the options that BSEE and industry can take, respectively, and consists of relevant recommendations from the previous chapters. Appendices that supplement the material in the main body of the report include the following: Appendix D, a synopsis of the more than 70 years of U.S. subsea oil exploration effort; Appendix E, a synopsis of selected subsea bolt fail- ures; Appendix F, a summary of current activities by the oil and gas industry and BSEE to improve bolting reliability; Appendix G, additional details for the subsea environmental factors discussion of the subsea environmental factors that impact fastener design; Appendix H, a summary of U.S. bolting regulations and standards; Appendix I, details on drilling riser design; Appendix J, a discussion of the differ- ent factors that affect bolting preload and safety factor analysis; and Appendix K, a presentation of the different failure modes experienced by threaded fasteners. Reducing the risks inherent in extracting natural resources from deep-water environments is a challenge equal to exploration in other extreme environments. It requires continuing study, diligence, attention to detail, and incorporation of suitable new technology, the need for which becomes ever greater as industry goes into deeper water environments. As Albert Einstein noted, “we cannot solve our problems with the same level of thinking that created them.”

Contents SUMMARY 1 1 THE CHALLENGES OF SUBSEA FASTENER RELIABILITY IMPROVEMENT 15 Importance of Fasteners, 16 Risk Assessment and Management, 19 Report Chapters and Appendixes, 21 2 ASSESSMENT OF CRITICAL SUBSEA BOLTING SYSTEM DESIGN ELEMENTS 23 Fastener Design, 25 Variability of Bolting Loads, 30 Fastener Life Cycle, 31 Bolt Failure Modes, 38 Cathodic Protection and Hydrogen Uptake, 38 Cluster Failures, 41 Options for Improving the Selection of Bolting Material Properties, 52 Recommendations and Summary, 54 3 OPTIONS FOR IMPROVING BOLTING RELIABILITY 61 Specifications and Standards, 62 Quality Assurance Options, 64 xvii

xviii Contents Regulatory Examples from Other Industries, 66 Summary and Recommendations, 73 4 SAFETY CULTURE AND HUMAN SYSTEMS INTEGRATION 76 Human Systems Integration and Safety Culture, 76 Human Systems Integration and Fasteners, 77 Human Systems Integration in Other Industries and Countries, 78 Gaps in U.S. Human Systems Integration in the Oil and Gas Industry, 79 Human Interactions with Subsea Fasteners, 80 The Human’s Role in Fastener Failures, 84 Team Issues, 86 Organization Issues, 87 Summary and Recommendation, 88 5 INNOVATION OPPORTUNITIES 90 Testing Protocol, 91 In situ Measurements, 100 Improving the Hydrogen-Assisted Cracking Resistance of Bolt Alloys, 107 Coating Technologies, 112 New Fastener Designs, 120 Summary and Recommendation, 124 6 SUMMARY OF RECOMMENDATIONS 125 APPENDIXES A Statement of Task 135 B Mapping of Statement of Task to Report Chapters 138 C Acronyms 142 D Brief History of Subsea Oil Exploration 146 E Selected Subsea Bolt Failures 156 F Recent Industry and Regulator Response to Critical Subsea Bolt Failures 160 G Subsea Environmental Factors for Fastener Design 169 H Bolting Regulations and Standards 186 I Drilling Riser Design 195 J Bolting Preload 217 K Threaded Fastener Failure Modes 226 L Committee Biographies 243 M Disclosure of Conflict of Interest 251

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Commercially significant amounts of crude oil and natural gas lie under the continental shelf of the United States. Advances in locating deposits, and improvements in drilling and recovery technology, have made it technically and economically feasible to extract these resources under harsh conditions. But extracting these offshore petroleum resources involves the possibility, however remote, of oil spills, with resulting damage to the ocean and the coastline ecosystems and risks to life and limb of those performing the extraction. The environmental consequences of an oil spill can be more severe underwater than on land because sea currents can quickly disperse the oil over a large area and, thus, cleanup can be problematic.

Bolted connections are an integral feature of deep-water well operations. High-Performance Bolting Technology for Offshore Oil and Natural Gas Operations summarizes strategies for improving the reliability of fasteners used in offshore oil exploration equipment, as well as best practices from other industrial sectors. It focuses on critical bolting—bolts, studs, nuts, and fasteners used on critical connections.

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